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XI. Pages 


Some practical hints (706 709). Notes on the casting of the Sforza 
monument (710 715). Models for the horse of the Sforza monument (716 
718). Occasional references to the Sforza monument (719 724). The project 
of the Trivulzio monument (725). The mint of Rome (726). On the coining 
of medals (727. 728). On plaster (729. 730). On bronze casting generally 
(73 J 74o). 




I. Plans for towns (741 744). II. Plans for canals and streets in a 
town (745 747). III. Castles and villas. A. Castles. B. Projects for palaces. 
C. Plans for small castles or villas (748 752). IV. Ecclesiastical Architec- 
ture. A. General observations (753 755). B. The theory of constructing 
Domes. i. Churches formed on the plan of a Greek cross. Group I. Domes 
rising from a circular base. Group II. Domes rising from a square base. 
Group III. Domes rising from a square base and four pillars. Group IV. Domes 
rising above an octagonal base. Group V. Suggested by S. Lorenzo at Milan 
(756). 2. Churches formed on the plan of a Latin cross. A. Studies after 
existing monuments. B. Designs or Studies (757). C. Studies for a form of 
church most proper for preaching D. Design for a mausoleum. E. Studies for 
the Central tower or Tiburio of Milan Cathedral (758). F. The Project for 
lifting up the Battistero of Florence and setting it on a basement. G. Descrip- 
tion of an unknown temple (759). V. Palace architecture (760 763). 
VI. Studies of architectural details (764 769). 


I. On Fissures in walls (770 776). II. On Fissures in niches (777 
778). III. On the nature of the arch (779 788). IV. On Foundations, the 
nature of the ground and supports (789 792). V. On the resistance of beams 




I \NATOMY :-A general introduction ( 79 6).-Plans and suggestions for 
the arU"mof "trials < 797 -8o,).-Pl.n. for the repn^trton o f , u- 

!,> ,ir,wings (8o 3 -8o 9 ).-0n corpulency and leanness (809-8 ).- 
Th" divisions of the head (812. 8 13). -Physiological problems (814 -.815 ).- 
ir/.-Miv AN,, COMPAUmi. AMATOMY:-The divisions of the anima kingdom 
(816. 8 17). -Miscellaneous notes on the study of Zoology (818-821). Com- 
parative study of the structure of bones and of the action of muscles (822- 
8t6) -III PHYSIOLOGY: Comparative study of the organs of sense m men and 
animals (827). Advantages in the structure of the eye in certain animals (828 
to 8 3 i).-Remarks on the organs of speech (832. 8 33 ).-On the conditions of 
sight (834. 835). The seat of the common sense (836). On the origin of the 
soul (837) -On the relations of the soul to the organs of sense (838). On 
involuntary muscular action (839). Miscellaneous physiological observations 
(840 841). The laws of nutrition and the support of life (843 848). On 
the circulation of the blood (848 850). Some notes on medicine (851855). 

ASTRONOMY 13 5~ 1 7 2 

I. THE EARTH AS A PLANET: The earth's place in the universe (857. 858). 
The fundamental laws of the solar system (859 864). How to prove that the 
earth is a planet (865867). The principles of astronomical perspective (868 
to 873). On the luminosity of the earth in the universal space (874 878). 
II. THE SUN: The question of the true and of the apparent size of the sun 
(879884). Of the nature of sunlight (885). Considerations as to the size 
of the sun (886 891). III. THE MOON: On the luminosity of the moon (892 
to 901). Explanation of the lumen cinereum of the moon (902). On the spots 
in the moon (903 907). On the moon's halo (908). On instruments for 
observing the moon (909. 910). IV. THE STARS: On the light of the stars 
(911 913). Observations on the stars (914). On the history of astronomy 
(915). Of time and its divisions (916 918). 


INTRODUCTION. Schemes for the arrangement of the materials (919 928). 
General introduction (929). I. OF THE NATURE OF WATER: The arrangement of 
Book I (930). Definitions (931. 932). Of the surface of the water in relation to 
the globe (933 936). Of the proportion of the mass of water to that of the earth 
(937- 93 8 ) -The theory of Plato (939). That the flow of rivers proves the 
slope of the land (940). Theory of the elevation of water within the moun- 
tains (941). The relative height of the surface of the sea to that of the land 
(942 945). II. ON THE OCEAN: Refutation of Pliny's theory as to the salt- 
sea (946. 947). The characteristics of sea water (948. 949). On 
the formation of gulfs (950. 951). On the encroachments of the sea on the 
land and vice versa (952 954). The ebb and flow of the tide (955960).- 
INEAN WATER COURSES: Theory of the circulation of the waters (961. 
ervations in support of the hypothesis (963 969). IV. OF RIVERS: 
m which the sources of rivers are fed (970). The tide in 
On the alterations caused in the courses of rivers by their 
~~?74). Whirlpools (975). On the alterations in the channels 
Fhe origin of sand in rivers (977. 978). V. ON MOUN- 
f mountains (979 983). The authorities for the study 



of the structured the earth (984). VI. GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: Programme (985). 
Doubts about the Deluge (986). That marine shells could not go up the 
mountains (987). The marine shells were not produced away from the sea 
(988). Further researches (989 991). Other problems (992 994). VII. On 
the atmosphere: Constituents of the atmosphere (995). On the motion of 
air (996 999). The globe an organism (1000). 


I. ITALY: Canals in connection with the Arno (1001 1008). Canals in 
the Milanese (1009 1013). Estimates and preparatory studies for canals (1014. 
1015). Notes on buildings at Milan (1016 1019). Remarks on natural phe- 
nomena in and near Milan (1021. 1022). Note on Pavia (1023). Notes on 
the Sforzesca near Vigevano (1024 1028). Notes on the North Italian lakes 
(1029 1033). Notes on places in Central Italy, visited in 1502 (1034 1054). 
Alessandria in Piedmont (1055. 1056). The Alps (1057 1062). The 
Appenines (1063 1068). II. FRANCE (1069 1079). On the Germans (1080. 
MEDITERRANEAN: The straits of Gibraltar (1083 1085). Tunis (1086). Libya 
(1087). Majorca (1088). The Tyrrhene Sea (1089). IV. THE LEVANT. The 
Levantine Sea (1090). The Red Sea (1091. 1092). The Nile (1093 1098). 
Customs of Asiatic Nations (1099. noo). Rhodes (noi. 1102). Cyprus 
(1103. 1104). The Caspian Sea (1105. 1106). The sea of Azov (1107). The 
Dardanelles (uc8). Constantinople (1109). The Euphrates (i no). Central 
Asia (mi). On the natives of hot countries (1112). 


The ship's log of Vitruvius, of Alberti and of Leonardo (1113). 
Methods of staying and moving in waters (1114). On naval warfare (1115. 
1116). The use of swimming belts (1117). On the gravity of water (1118). 
Diving apparatus and skating (11191121). On fly ing -machines (1122 
1126). On mining (1127). On Greek fire (1128). On music (1129. 1130). 


. I. PHILOSOPHICAL MAXIMS: Prayers to God (1132. 1133). The powers of 
Nature (1134 1139). Psychology (11401147). Science, its principles and 
rules (11481161). II. MORALS: What is life? (1162. 1163). Death (1164). 
How to spend life (1165 1179). On foolishness and ignorance (1180 
1182). On riches (1183 1187). Rules of Iife(n88 1202). Politics (1203. 
1204). III. POLEMICS. SPECULATION: Against speculators (1205. 1206). 
Against alchimists (1207. 1208). Against friars (1209). Against writers of 
epitomes (1210). On spirits (1211 1215). Nonentity (1216). Reflections 
on Nature (1217 1219). 



II. FABLES : Fables on animals (1265 1270). Fables on lifeless objects 
(1271 1274). Fables on plants (1275 1279). III. JESTS AND TALES 
(1280 1292). IV. PROPHECIES (1293 1313). -V. DRAUGHTS AND SCHEMES 
FOR THE HUMOROUS WRITINGS: Schemes for Fables &c. (1314 1323); Schemes 
for Prophecies (13241329); Irony (1331. 1332). Tricks (13331335)- 



XXI. Pages 


Draughts of letters and reports referring to Armenia (1336. 1337). 
Notes about adventures abroad (1338. 1339). Draughts of letters to Lodovico 
il Moro (1340 1345). Draught of letter to a Commission at Piacenza (1346 
to '347)- Letter to the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este (1348). Draught of letter to 
the French Governor of Milan (1349). Draughts of letters to the Superinten- 
dent of canals and to Melzi (1350). Draughts of letter to Giuliano de' Me- 
ili<i (1351. 1352). Draught of a letter written at Rome (1353). A fanciful 
letter (1354). Miscellaneous draughts of letters and personal records (1355 to 
1368). Notes bearing dates (1369 1378). 


Memoranda before the year 1500 (1379 1413). Memoranda after the 

year 1500 (1414 1434). Memoranda of unknown dates (14351457). 

Notes on pupils and artisans (1458 1468). Quotations and notes on books 
and authors (1469 1508). Inventories and Accounts (1509- 1545). Notes 
in unknown handwriting among the Manuscripts (1546 1565). Leonardo's 
will (1566). 


APPENDIX 479-499 

History of the Manuscripts. Bibliography. 




PI. LXV. Two preparatory Studies for the Sforza Monument; from the Royal 
Library, Windsor Castle: No. i drawn with the pen, No. .2 drawn with 
the silverpoint on bluish tinted paper To face i 

PI. LXVI. Study for the Sforza Monument; from the Royal Library, Windsor 

Castle To face 3 

Fragment of Drawing, representing a walking Horse; from the Ambrosian Library, 

Milan 4 

PI. LXVII. Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn with the silverpoint on bluish 

tinted paper; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle .... To face 4 

PL LXVIII. Study for the Sforza Monument; charcoal drawing on brown paper; 

from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To face 6 

PI. LXIX. Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn in charcoal and with the pen and 

Indian ink; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle .... To face 8 

PI. LXX. Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn with charcoal; from the Royal 

Library, Windsor Castle To face 10 

PI. LXXI. Study for the Sforza Monument, at first drawn with charcoal and 
afterwards with the pen; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle 

To face 12 

PI. LXXII. Drawing of a walking Horse, and two studies for the Sforza Monument; 

from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle To face 14 

PI. LXXIII. Study for the Sforza Monument, drawn with charcoal; from the Royal 

Library, Windsor Castle To face 16 

PI. LXXIV. Study for the Sforza Monument, at first drawn with red chalk and 
afterwards with the pen; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle 

To face 18 

PI. LXXV. Study for the Sforza Monument; from the Royal Library, Windsor 

Castle see text No. 711 To face 20 



PI LXXVI. Two Drawings: No. i Study for the Sforza Monument; drawn in red 

chalk, se e text No. 712 (from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan); No. 2 

Drawing of instruments for the mint of Rome, see text No. 726 ; 
from Manuscript G, Institut de France, Paris To face 22 

Sketch of a walking Horse, and two studies for casting the figure of a horse, from 

the Royal Library, Windsor Castle on page 24 

PI. LXXVII. Two Drawings of Plans for Towns; from Manuscript B, Institut de 

France, Paris see text Nos. 741, 742 and 743 To face 27 

PL LXXV1IJ. Two Architectural Drawings, from Manuscript B, Institut de France, 
Paris: No. i representing a stable see text No. 761 ; No. 2 drawing 
of Plans for Towns To face 29 

PI. I.XXIX. Two Plans for Canals in a Town; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, 

Paris see text Nos. 745 and 746 To face 30 

PI. LXXX. Four Drawings of Architecture for Castles: No. i from the Vallardi Vo- 
lume, in the Louvre, Paris; Nos. 2 and 3 from Manuscript B, Institut 
de France, Paris; No. 4 from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; 
and one Drawing of Ecclesiastical Architecture: No. 5, from Manu- 
script B, Institut de France, Paris between pp. 32 and 33 

PI. I. XXXI. Two Architectural Drawings: No. i a sketch for Decorations, from the 
Trivulzi Manuscript, Milan; No. 2 Plan for a Royal residence; from 
the Codex Atlanticus, Milan see text No. 748 To face 33 

PI. I. XXXI I. Four Drawings of projects for Castles and Villas; Nos. i and 4 from 
the Codex Atlanticus, Milan; No. 2 from Manuscript KJ see text 
No. 749 , and No. 3 see text No. 750 from Manuscript B, Institut 
de France, Paris ; between pp. 32 and 33 

PI. LXXXIII. Drawing of Plans for a Castle, and of a Nude Figure, washed with 
Indian ink; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text 
No - 1I( >3 To face 34 

PI. LXXXIV. Drawing of Ecclesiastical Architecture, from the Codex Atlanticus, 

Milan To face 37 

PI. LXXXV. Five Architectural Drawings: Nos. 112 from the Ashburnham Manu- 
script II; No. 13 from Manuscript I 2 , and No. 16 from Manuscript H3, 
Institut de France, Paris see text No. 768; Nos. 1416 (Nos. 14 
and 1 6 in red chalk) from the Manuscripts III and IP, South Ken- 
sington Museum, London see text No. 768 To face 38 

PL LXXXVI. Drawing of Ecclesiastical Architecture; from the Codex Atlanticus 

Milan rp c 

lo face 41 

PL LXXXVII. Four Drawings of Ecclesiastical Architecture: No. i from the Codex 
cus Milan; No. 2 -see text No. 755-, 3 and 4 from Manu- 
-npt B, Institut de France, Paris To face 43 

Three Plans of Churches: Fig. , from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; Nos. 2 

a -om Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris .... on page 44 

PL LXXXVIII. Two Drawings from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris: Nos. i- 
Han. of Churches; Nos. 6, 7 Plan of Pavilion at Milan-see text 

To face 44 

' CS f fr m rf T Cri f B ' InStitUt de France > P * (% i, >) and 

Church, from the Ashburnham Manuscript II (fig. 3) 

on page 45 


PL LXXXIX. Drawing of Churches, from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris 

To face 46 

Plans of Churches: Fig. i and 2 from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris; Fig. 3 

from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle on page 47 

PI. XC. Drawing of Churches; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris . To face 48 

PL XCI. Two Drawings of Churches;^ from the Ashburnham Manuscript II see text 

No. 754 To face 48 

PL XCII. Two Drawings of Churches ; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris 

see text No. 753 To face 48 

PL XCIII. Two Architectural Drawings; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris: 

No. i Pillars and Beams; No. 2 View and Plan of a Church . To face 50 

Sketch of the Plan of a Church; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris . . 51 

PL XCIV. Three Drawings of Churches: No. i from Manuscript L, and Nos. 2 
and 3 from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris; No. 34 from the 
Ambrosian Library, Milan To face 52 

Sketch of a church in the background of Leonardo's unfinished picture of St. Jerome, 

in the Pinacoteca of the Vatican, Rome 54 

PL XCV. Two Plans of Churches; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris 

To face 54 

Two Plans of a Theatre for Preaching: Fig. i from Manuscript B, Institut de France, 

Paris; Fig. 2 from the Ashburnham Manuscript II on page 56 

PL XCVI. Two Drawings of Churches: No. 7 from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan; 
No. 2 from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris see text No. 757 

To face 56 

PL XCVII. Drawing of Churches; from Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris 

To face 56 

Drawing of a Theatre for Preaching; from the Ashburnham Manuscript II .... 57 

PL XCVIII. Design for a Mausoleum; from the Vallardi Volume, Louvre, Paris 

between pp. 58 and 59 

PL XCIX. Three Drawings of Milan Cathedral: No. i from the Trivulzio Manu- 
script, Milan see text No. 758 ; No. 2 in red chalk, from Manu- 
script III, South Kensington Museum, London; No. 3 from the Codex 
Atlanticus, Milan To face 60 

Two Drawings of Milan Cathedral, from the Trivulzio Manuscript, Milan . . on page 61 
Sketch of architectural detail, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan on page 62 

PI- C. Five Drawings of Milan Cathedral: No. i from the Codex Atlanticus, 
Milan; Nos. 2 4 from the Trivulzio Manuscript, Milan; No. 5 from 
Manuscript B, Institut de France, Paris between pp. 64 and 65 

Sketch of a Palace; from the Manzoni Manuscript, Rome on page 67 

Three Sketches of Houses: Fig. i and 2 from Manuscript I, Institut de France, 

Paris; Fig. 3 from the Arundel Manuscript, British Museum . on page 68 



PL CL Two Architectural Drawings: No. i-see text No. 760 from the Royal 
Library, Windsor Castle; No. 2 from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan; 
No. 3 Designs of Fountains, drawn with the pen on bluish paper, 
from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle .......... To face 68 

I'l. Oil. Three Architectural Drawings: No. i in red chalk, from the Royal Library, 
Windsor Castle; Nos. 2 (reversed) and 3 see text No. 762 from 
Manuscript B, Institut de France, Pance .......... To face 70 

Two Drawings of the Base of a Column; from Manuscript III, South Kensington 

Museum, London .................... on page 72 

PL CHI. Three Architectural Drawings: Nos. i and 2 from Manuscript B, Institut 
de France, Paris; No. 3 see text No. 769 (reversed) from the Codex 
Atlanticus, Milan .................... To face 74 

PI. CIV. Architectural Drawing; from the Arundel Manuscript, British Museum, 

London see text No. 770 ................ To face 77 

PI. CV. Two Architectural Drawings; from the Arundel Manuscript, British Museum, 

London see text Nos. 771, 775, 778 ...... '. ..... To face 84 

Architectural Drawing; from the Arundel Manuscript, British Museum, 
London see text Nos. 772, 789 ............. To face 94 

Architectural Drawing; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan ........ on page 104 

Anatomical Drawing, drawn with the pen and washed with Indian ink; 
from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle .......... To face no 

PL CVIIL Four Anatomical Drawings; No. i see text No. 809 and No. 4 see 

No. 814 from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; No. 2 

-see text No. 824 from Manuscript KJ, Institut de France, Paris- 

>. 3 -see text No. 813 from Manuscript III, South Kensington Mu- 

seum; and an Astronomical Drawing see text No. 902 from the 

Leicester Manuscript, Holkam Hall ............ To face 120 

PL CO. Sketch Map of Milan; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan-see text 

NO. IOIO ...... T- r 

- ......... To face 233 

Four Topographical Drawings from Manuscripts in the Institut de France 
: No. i (Constantinopel)-see text No. izo 9 -from Manuscript L- 
V, g evano)_see text No. 1 02 4 -in red chalk, from Manuscript H 
nena Urbmo)-see text Nos. 765 and io 3 8-andNo. 4 (Cesenaj 
text No. 1040 from Manuscript L ........ .. To face 

o / 

LlhL?"5i ?' A r ?P resentin g the Town of Imola from the Royal 

Awry, Windsor Castle,-see text No. 105:-; No. 2 representing the 

Mediterranean Sea; from the Codex Atlanticus-see text' No T ^2- 

between pp. 240 and 241 
ed Ma of art 

Coloured Map of part of Tuscany, from the Royal Library, Windsor 

Cdoured Map of par. of Central Italy; from the Royal Library, Windsor 

between pp. 240 and 241 

yal Library, Windsor 
between pp. 248 and 249 




PL CXV. Sketch Map of the Loire at Amboise; from the Arundel Manuscript, 

British Museum see text No. 1074 To face 251 

PI. CXVI. Sketch of Armenian Mountains; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan see 

text No. 1336 To face 385 

PI. CXVII. Sketch of Armenian Mountains; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan, see 

text No. 1336 To face 388 

PI. CXVIII. Sketch of a Peak in Armenia, and Sketch Map of Armenia; from the 

Codex Atlanticus, Milan see text No. 1336 , . . To face 391 

PI. CXIX. Sketch Map of Armenia; from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan see text 

No. 1336 To face 392 

PL CXX. Drawing of Oriental Heads, in red chalk; from the Royal Library, Turin 

To face 394 

PL CXXI. Drawing of Musical Instruments &c. ; from the Arundel Manuscript, 

British Museum, London see text Nos. 1128 and 860 . . . To face 411 

PL CXXII. Drawing of Caricatures; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle 

To face 411 

The size of the original drawings has been reduced on Plates LXVI, CVII, CIX, CXI No. I, CXII, 
CXIII, CXIV, CXVI, CXVII, CXVIII and CXXII. On Plate CXIX it has been enlarged. The colour and 
tone of the paper have in every case been faithfully imitated, in order to give to the facsimiles a perfect 
and complete resemblance to the originals, whether drawn in charcoal, red chalk or pen and ink. It is 
to be understood that all Drawings here reproduced are in pen-and-ink, unless otherwise stated. 



Mt; foe* 19 t. il /or rope rtad rompe./. 20 /. 4/nw* tf* end for sciuma read schiuma. p. 132 /. id for 

cone ni^ icocr. /. 164 A 31 /or Irova; mu/ trova,./. 170 /. & for pu vicini r<W piii vicini./. 260 /. 9./&T vsarano mi</ 
VMTWM. /. *QJ /. u /or oro rW loro. /. 309 L 9 /or arimetici r<-<?rf aritmctici; /. n for sie stende read si estende. /. 328 
/. M/OT Modi r*W odo.-/. 3*9 /. 31 /or regoli nrarf regole. /. 358 /. $/rom the end for bellonti read bollenti. p. 365 /. 3 
frrm At /W/or abbraccieraoi rtad abbraccicran . 

: ffft 46 1. ii /or No. 14 rw*/ No. 4--/. 49 /. 19 for PI. CXXXIV rnirf PI. LXXXIV.- p. ^ first Note, 
ftr PL IX mul PI. XIJII. /. 60 /. 8/*r PI. CXIX r*-^ PI. XCIX. /. 102 /. 4 /n> ike end for XCVI arf XCIV.- p. 103 /. 8 
/w PI. XL nrWPI. XC; t, ^ftr PI. XL read PL XC. /. 155 /. n /or weight read weighty./. 190 /. 25 for it there read 
ill**. /. J i 4>w* *** tndfor to much rr<u/ so much./. 368 /. 24 for Flammc read Flame; /. 29 for to blows read blows. 



The notes on Sculpture. 

Compared with the mass of manuscript treating of Painting, a very small number 
of passages bearing on the practice and methods of Sculpture are to be found scattered 
through the note books; these are here given at the beginning of this section 
(Nos. 706 709,). There is less cause for surprise at finding that the equestrian statue 
of Francesco Sforza is only incidentally spoken of; for, although Leonardo must have 
worked at it for a long succession of years , it is not in the nature of the case that it 
could have given rise to much writing. We may therefore regard it as particularly 
fortunate that no fewer than thirteen notes in the master's handwriting can be brought 
together, which seem to throw light on the mysterious history of this famous work. 
Until now writers on Leonardo were acquainted only with the passages numbered 712, 
719, 720, 722 and 723. 

In arranging these notes on sculpture I have given the precedence to those which 
treat of the casting of the monument, not merely because they are the fullest, but more 
especially with a view to reconstructing the monument, an achievement which really 
almost lies zvithin our reach by combining and comparing the whole of the materials 
now brought to light, alike in notes and in sketches. 

A good deal of the first two passages, Nos. 710 and 711, which refer to this 
subject seems obscure and incomprehensible; still, they supplement each other and one con- 
tributes in no small degree to the comprehension of the other. A very interesting and 
instructive commentary on these passages may be found in the fourth chapttr of Vasari's 



oter designs * * *~* P^ing ***/ ** <***' f "^ 
W * copious notes as to the method of cos**, <*< 4<* ^ 
/<- 71 ^.finally selected, *~ to be MM *y ******* 
"II cavallo dello Sforza''-^ Boito remarks very appositely in the Saggio on 
26 "doveva sembrare fratello al cavallo del Colleoni. E si direbbe che questo fosse 
jio del cavallo del Gattamelata, il quale pare figlio di uno dei quattro cavalli che sta- 
vano forse sull'Arco di Nerone in Roma" (now at Venice). The publication of the 
Saggio also contains the reproduction of a drawing in red chalk, re P resent in g a horse 
walking to the left and supported by a scaffolding, given here on PL LXXVI, No. I. 
// must remain uncertain whether this represents the model as it stood during the pre- 
parations for casting it, or whether-as seems to me highly improbable-this sketch shows 
the model as it was exhibited in I 4 93 on the Piazza del Castello in Milan under a 
triumphal arch, on the occasion of the marriage of the Emperor Maximilian to Bianca 
Maria Sforza. The only important point here is to prove that strong evidence seems to 
show that, of the numerous studies for the equestrian statue, only those which represent 
the horse pacing agree with the schemes of the final plans. 

The second group of preparatory sketches, representing the horse as galloping, 
must therefore be considered separately, a distinction which, in recapitulating the history 
of the origin of the monument seems justified by the note given under No. 720. 

Galeaszo Maria Sforza H as assassinated in 1476 before his scheme for erecting a 
monument to his father Francesco Sforza could be carried into effect. In the following 
year Lodovico il Moro the young aspirant to the throne was exiled to Pisa, and only 
returned to Milan in 1479 when he was Lord (Governatore) of the State of Milan, in 1480 
after the minister Cecco Simonetta had been murdered. It may have been soon after 
this that Lodovico il Moro announced a competition for an equestrian statue, and it is 
tolerably certain that Antonio del Pollajuolo took part in it, from this passage in Vasari's 
Life of this artist: "E si trovo, dopo la morte sua, il disegno e modello che a Lodo- 
vico Sforza egli aveva fatto per la statua a cavallo di Francesco Sforza, duca di Milano; 
il quale disegno e nel nostro Libro, in due modi: in uno egli ha sotto Verona; nell'altro, 
egli tutto armato, e sopra un basamento pieno di battaglie, fa saltare il cavallo addosso 
a un armato; ma la cagione perche non mettesse questi disegni in opera, non ho gia 
potuto sapere." One of Pollajuolo 's drawings, as here described, has lately been discovered 
by Senatore Giovanni Morelli in the Munich Pinacothek. Here the profile of the horseman 
is a portrait of Francesco Duke of Milan, and under the horse, who is galloping to the 
left, we see a warrior thrown and lying on the ground; precisely the same idea as we find 

V ;.>''.'; ;X^^P.* : S 
* ''.-'."'' '. 

Imp Eudes 


in some of Leonardo's designs for the monument, as on PI, LXVI , LX VII , LXVIH, 
LXIX and LXXII No. i ; and, as it is impossible to explain this remarkable coincidence 
by supposing that either artist borrowed it from the other, we can only conclude that 
in the terms of the competition the subject proposed was the Duke on a horse in full 
gallop , with a fallen foe under its hoofs. 

Leonardo may have been in the competition there and then, but the means for exe- 
cuting the monument do not seem to have been at once forthcoming. It was not perhaps 
until some years later that Leonardo in a letter to the Duke (No. 719,) reminded him of 
the project for the monument. Then, after he had obeyed a summons to Milan, the plan 
seems to have been so far modified, perJiaps in consequence of a remonstrance on the 
part of the artist, that a pacing horse zvas substituted for one galloping, and it may 
have been at the same time that the colossal dimensions of the statue were first decided 
on. The designs given on PL LXX, LXX I, LXXII, 2 and 3, LXXIH and LIV and 
on pp. 4 and 24, as well as three sketches on PL LXIX may be studied with 
reference to the project in its new form, though it is hardly possible to believe that in 
either of these we see the design as it was actually carried out. It is probable that in 
Milan Leonardo worked less on draivings, than in making small models of wax and clay 
as preparatory to his larger model. Among the drawings enumerated above , one in 
black chalk, PI. LXXIH the upper sketch on the right hand side, reminds us strongly 
of the antique statue of Marcus Aurelius. If, as it would seem, Leonardo had not until 
then visited Rome, he might easily have known this statue from drawings by his former 
master and friend Verrocchio, for Verrocchio had been in Rome for a long time between 
1470 and 1480. In 1473 Pope Sixtus IV had this antique equestrian statue restored 
and placed on a new pedestal in front of the church of San Giovanni in Laterano. 
Leonardo, although he was painting' independently as early as in 1472 is still spoken of 
as working in Verrocchio 's studio in 1477. Two years later the Venetian senate decided 
on erecting an equestrian statue to Colleoni; and as Verrocchio, to whom the work was 
entrusted, did not at once move from Florence to Venice where lie died in 1488 before 
the casting was completed but on the contrary remained in Florence for some years, 
perhaps even till 1485, Leonardo probably had the opportunity of seeing all his designs 
for the equestrian statue at Venice and the red chalk drawing on PL LXX IV may be 
a reminiscence of it. 

The pen and ink drawing on PL LXXII, No. 3, reminds us of Donatella's statue 
of Gattamelata at Padua. However it does not appear that Leonardo was ever at Padua 
before 1499, but we may conclude that he took a special interest in this early bronze 
statue and the reports he could procure of it, form an incidental remark which is to be 
found in C. A. 145 ; 432, and which will be given in Vol. II under Ricordi or 


Among the studifsin the widest sense of the word made in preparation for this 
statue we may include the Anatomy of the Horse which Lomazzo and Vasari both 
mention, the most important parts of this work still exist in the Queen's Library at 




,o that tr*s<, a koru in full gallop ^rs hu 



oc f 



If we may trust the account given by Paulus Jovius about 1527 Leonardo's horse 
was represented as "vehementer incitatus et anhelatus". Jovius had probably seen the 
model exhibited at Milan; but, need we, in fact, infer from this description that the 
Jiorse was galloping '? Compare Vasari" 1 s description of tJie Gattamelata monument at 
Padna: "Egli [Donatello] vi ando ben volentieri, e fece il cavallo di bronzo, che e in 
sulla piazza di Sant Antonio, nel quale si dimostra lo sbuffamento ed il fremito del 
cavallo, ed il grande animo e la fierezza vivacissimamente espressa dall'arte nella figura 
che lo cavalca". 

These descriptions, it seems to me, would only serve to mark the difference between 
the work of the middle-ages and that of the renaissance. 

We learn from a statement of Sabba da Castiglione that, when Milan was taken 
by the FrencJi in 1499, the model sustained some injury ; and tJiis informant, who, however 
is not invariably trustworthy, adds tJiat Leonardo had devoted fully sixteen years to 
this work (la forma del cavallo, intorno a cui Leonardo avea sedici anni continui 
consumati). This often-quoted passage has given ground for an assumption, which has 
no other evidence to support it, that Leonardo had lived in Milan ever since 1483. But 
I believe it is nearer the truth to suppose that this author's statement alludes to the fact 
that about sixteen years must have past since the competition in which Leonardo had 
taken part. 

I must in these remarks confine myself strictly to the task 'in hand and give no 
more of the history of the Sforza monument than is needed to explain the texts and 
drawings I have been able to reproduce. In the first place, with regard to the drawings, 
I may observe that they are all, with the following two exceptions, in the Queeris Library 
at Windsor Castle; the red chalk drawing on PI. LXXVI No. i is in the MS. C. A. 
(see No. 712) and the fragmentary pen and ink drawing on page 4 is in the Am- 
brosian Library. The drawings from Windsor on PL LXVI have undergone a trifling 
reduction from the size of the originals. 

There can no longer be the slightest doubt that the well-known engraving of several 
horsemen (Pas savant, Le Peintre-Graveur, Vol. V, p. 181, No. $) is only a copy after 
original drawings by Leonardo, executed by some unknown engraver; we have only to 
compare the engraving with the facsimiles of drawings on PL LXV, No. 2, PL LXVII, 
LXVIII and LXIX which, it is quite evident, have served as models for the engraver. 

On PL LXV No. \, in the larger sketch to the right hand, only the base is distinctly 
visible, the figure of the horseman is effaced. Leonardo evidently found it unsatisfactory 
and therefore rubbed it out. 

The base of the monument the pedestal for the equestrian statue is repeatedly 
sketched on a magnificent plan. In the sketch just mentioned it has the character of 
a shrine or aedicula to contain a sarcophagus. Captives in chains are here represented 
on the entablature with their backs turned to that portion of the monument which more 


strictly constitutes the pedestal of the horse. The lower portion of the aedicula is 
surrounded by colutnns. In the pen and ink drawing PL LXVIthe lower drawing 
on the right hand side the sarcophagus is shown between the columns, and above the 
entablature is a plinth on which the horse stands. But this arrangement perhaps seemed to 
Leonardo to tack solidity, and in the little sketch on the left hand, below, the sarcophagus 
is shown as lying under an arched canopy. In this the trophies and the captive warriors 
are detached from the angles. In the first of these two sketches the place for the trophies 
is merely indicated by a few strokes; in the third sketch on the left the base is altogether 
broader ; buttresses and pinnacles having been added so as to form three niches. The 
black chalk drawing on PL LXVIII shows a base in which the angles are formed by 
niches with pilasters. In the little sketch to the extreme left on PL LXV, No. \, the 
equestrian statue serves to crown a circular temple somewhat resembling Bramante's 
tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio at Rome, while the sketch above to the right dis- 
plays an arrangement faintly reminding us of the tomb of the Scaligers in Verona. The 
base is thus constructed of tii'o platforms or slabs, the upper one considerably smaller 
than the lower one which is supported on flying buttresses with pinnacles. 

On looking over the numerous studies in which the horse is not galloping but merely 
walking forward, we find only one drawing for the pedestal, and this, to accord with 
the altered character of the statue, is quieter and simpler in style (PI. LXXIV). It rises 
almost vertically from the ground and is exactly as long as the pacing horse. The 
whole base is here arranged either as an independent baldaquin or else as a projecting 
canopy over a recess in which the figure of the deceased Duke is seen lying on his sar- 

cophagus; in the latter case it was probably intended as a tomb inside a church. Here 


'oo, it was intended to fill the angles with trophies or captive warriors. Probably only 
No. 724 in the text refers to the work for the base of the monument. 

If we compare the last mentioned sketch with the description of a plan for an 

equestrian monument to Gian Giacomo Trivulzio (No. 72$) it seems by no means im- 

possible that this drawing is a preparatory study for the very monument concerning: 

vhich the manuscript gives us detailed infonnation. We have no historical record 

egarding this sketch nor do the archives in the Trivulzio Palace give us any informa- 

The simple monument to the great general in San Nazaro Maggiore in Milan 

*ts merely of a sarcophagus placed in recess high on the ivall of an octagonal 

The figure of the warrior is lying on the sarcophagus, on which his name 

cribed; a piece of sculpture which is certainly not Leonardo's work Gian 

mo Trivulzio died at Chartres in 1518, only five months before Leonardo, and 

t to me highly improbable that this should have been the date of this sketch- 

under these circumstance, it wouldhave been dong ^ ^ ^.^ tf ^_ J 

r Italian gwral was certainly not in favour with the French monarch at the time 
: G t acomo Trivulzio was a sworn foe to Ludovico il Moro, whom he strove for years 
September , 499 he marched victorious into Milan at the head 

to overthrow. On the 


i iS--taa>&..>xlmi*fnmAt3iL., 

Helio9j-. Dujardin 


of a French army. In a short time, however, he was forced to quit Milan again when 
Lndovico il Moro bore down upon the city with a force of Swiss troops. On the 
1 5** of April folloiving, after defeating Lodovico at Novara, Trivulzio once more entered 
Milan as a Conqueror, but his hopes of becoming Governatore of the place were soon 
wrecked by intrigue. This victory and triumph, historians tell us, were signalised by 
acts, of vengeance against the dethroned Sforza, and it might have been particularly 
flattering to him that the casting and construction of the Sforza monument were suspended 
for the time. 

It must have been at this moment as it seems to me that he commissioned 
the artist to prepare designs for his own monument, which he probably intended should 
find a place in the Cathedral or in some other church. He, the husbatid of Marghe- 
rita di Nicolino Colleoni, would have thought that he had a claim to the same distinc- 
tion and public homage as his less illustrious connection had received at the hands of 
the Venetian republic. It was at this very time that Trivulzio had a medal struck 
with a bust portrait of himself and the following remarkable inscription on the reverse : 
(ducem) ML1 (Mediolani) . NOIE (nomine) . REGIS FRANCORVM EODEM ANN - (anno) RED'T 
(redit) . LVS (Ludovicus). SVPERATVS ET CAPTVS EST AB EO. In the Library of 
the Palazzo Trivulzio there is a MS. of Callimachus Siculus written at the end of the 
XV th or beginning of the XVI th century. At the beginning of this MS. there is an 
exquisite illuminated miniature of an equestrian statue with the name of the general on 
the base; it is however very doubtful whether this has any connection with Leonardo's 

Nos.j$i 740, which treat of casting bronze, have probably a very indirect bearing 
on the arrangements made for casting the equestrian statue of Francesco Sforza. Some 
portions evidently relate to the casting of cannon. Still, in our researches about 
Leonardo's work on the monument, we may refer to them as giving us some clue to 
the process of bronze casting at that period. 

-/-^r^v- . -f : 


11 :::* f v - ; s 

* \ .- Wv 

IV. *r: . TS& 

t,S^,^,' P;.,;^ yC; k 

*i^^$ff ^t 
- .fc" :. 

rts*" 1 3P ; -'' '' -'j*t*Js *^-' **^ * - - - ' 

- '- ! ^>. M .1L 'J. - - 

Imp. Eudes, 

A. 43 a\ 




2 Se vuoi fare vna figura di marmo 
fa ne prima vna ^di terra , la quale, finita 
che 1' ai, secca e mettila in vna cassa che 
sia ancora capace , dopo la figura tratta 
sd'esso loco , a ricieuere il marmo- che 
vuoi scoprir 6 vi dentro la figura alia si- 
militudine di quella di terra ; di poi ^rnessa 
la figura di terra in detta cassa 

abbi bacchette ch' etrino 8 ap- 
puto per i sua busi , e spingile 

dentro tato per ciascuno 
9 buso che ciascuna bacchetta 
biaca tocca la figura in I0 di- 
uersi lochi, e la parte d'esse 
bacchette, che resta fori della 
"cassa, tigni di nero, e fa il co- 
trassegno alia bacchetta e al 
12 suo buso in modo che a tua 

posta- si scotri; T 3e trai d'essa 

cassa la figura di terra e met- 
tivi il tuo I4 pezzo di marmo, e 

tato leua del marmo , che tutte le j stue bac- 
chette si nascondino sino al loro segnio in 
detti busi, I6 e per potere questo meglio fare 

fa che tutta-la cassa si po I7 ssa- leuare in 
alto, e' 1 fondo d'essa cassa resti sepre sotto 
I8 il marmo ed a questo modo ne potrai- 
leuare coi ferri J 9con gra facilita. 

If you wish to make a figure in marble, Some prac- 
first make one of clay, and when you have (706^-709)? 
finished it, let it dry and place it in a case 
which should be large enough, after the 
figure is taken out of it, to receive also the 
marble, from which you intend to reveal the 
figure in imitation of the one in clay. After 
you have put the clay figure into 
this said case, have little rods 
which will exactly slip in to 
the holes in it, and thrust them 
so far in at each hole that 
each white rod may touch the 
figure in different parts of it. 
And colour the portion of the 
rod that remains outside black, 
and mark each rod and each 
hole with a countersign so that 
each may fit into its place. 
'Then take the clay figure out 
of this case and put in your 
piece of marble, taking off so much of the marble 
that all your .rods may be hidden in the holes 
as far as their marks; and to be the better 
able to do this, make the case so that it can 
be lifted up ; but the bottom of it will always 
remain under the marble and in this way it 
can be lifted with tools with great ease. 

706. i. desstatua. 2. sevolli. 3. tera . . chellai essecha mettila nvna. 4. chassa chessia anchora [dop atta] "capace". 5. loco 
. . [che] schoprir. 7. tera . . chassa . abi bachette. 8. aputo . . esspignile . . tato [che] per ciasschuno. 9. ciassuna ba- 
chetta biacha tocha. 10. bachette . . ressta. n. chassa . . effa . . chotrassegnio . . bachetta. 12. sio buso imodo . . atta 
. . sisschotri [ettare lasi]. 13. ettrai . . chassa . . tera. 14. pezo . . ettato . . chettutte. r$. bachette . . naschodino 
. . aloro. 16. chettutta . . chassa. 17. chasa ressti. 18. acquesto . . cho. 19. chon. 
VOL. 11. B 



W. P. $-1 


Alcvni aho errato a insegniare alii scul- 
tori '*^ c ' m " 

Some have erred in teaching sculptors to 
measure the limbs of their figures with 
threads as if they thought that these limbs 

parte da essi fili s c i 

threads were 



A. -) 


'Diuidi la testa in 12 gradi, e ciascuno Divide the head into 12 degrees and 

^rado diuidi in 12 puti e ciascuno 3puto- each degree divide into 12 points, and each 

12 minvti- e i minvti in minimi, e i mi- point into 12 minutes, and the minutes into 

"imi I semiminimi. ims and the mmims mto semi mimms - 

4Grado -- punto minvto minimo. Degree-point minute minim. 

Ah. I. 19*1 


1 Le figure di rilievo che pajono I Sculptured figures which appear in motion, 

moto-, posandole in pie, per ragione deo will, in their standing position, actually look 
cadere jnazi. as if they were falling forward. 

w. x.) 


Three braces which bind the mould. 
[If you want to make simple casts quick- 

cassa di sabbione di fiume invmidito con ly, make them in a box of river sand wet- 

3 Ferri che cinga la forma. 2 [Se uolli 
presti gietti e 3 S enplici, fagli con vna 


ted with vinegar.] 

707. i. alchuni . . erato ansegniare. 2. chirchundare. 3. menbr. 4. retondita. 5. circhundati. 
70!. i. chopartitionc. a. 12 (parti e] gradi. 3. minvti iminimi e e. 4. grado [minvto] punto. 

709. i. pajano . . chadere. 

710. Tktit fattoftt art written in ink mid tuisequently crossed through ivith red chalk. 3. chon. 4. sabio . . cho. 6. arai 

709. figure di rilitvo. Leonardo applies this term 
exclusively to wholly detached figures, especially 
to thote standing free. This note apparently refers 
to some particular case, though we have no know- 
ledge of what that may have been. If we suppose 
it to refer to the first model of the equestrian statue 
of Francesco Sforza (see the introduction to the 
notes on Sculpture) this observation may be regarded 

as one of his arguments for abandoning the first 
scheme of the Sforza Monument, in which the horse 
was to be galloping (see page 2 ). It is also 
in favour of this theory that the note is written 
in a manuscript volume already completed in I49 2 - 
Leonardo's opinions as to the shortcomings of 
plastic works when compared with paintings are 
given under No. 655 and 656. 


.". ,' VV/^*^"***''** 



6 [Quando tu . avrai fatto la 7 forma 
sopra il cauallo e tu 8 farai la grossezza 
del metallo 9di terra.] 

IO Nota nello allegare quante ore va 
per cetinajo TI [nel gittare ognuno tenga 
stoppato il fornello col I2 suo infocato]; 
'3[nel dentro di tutta la forma sia inbeue- 
rato olio I4 di lin seme o di tremetina; e poi 
sia dato vna mano I5 di poluere di borace 
e di pece greca con acqua vite, l6 e la forma 
di fori inpeciata, accioche stado sotto J 7 terra 
1' umido non la ... 

2 4 [Per maneggiare la forma grade, fa ne 
modello della pi 2 5ccola forma; fa una pic- 
cola statia a proportione ; ] 

26 [fa le bocche alia forma, metre ch'e 
in sul cavallo;] 

2 7lJTieni le corna-in molle , e fondile 
con colla di pescel z8 pesa le parti 29 della 
forma, da che quatita 3di metallo ella a a 
essere occupata, ^e tato ne da al fornello, 
che 32 a quella parte a a porgere il ^suo 
metallo, e questo cognio^scerai a pesare 
la terra di quella 35 parte della forma, dove 
il forne! 36 lo colla sua quatita a a rispode- 
37re, e questo si fa acioche '1 38f orn ello 
delle gabe le epia, e che 39dalle gabe non 
abbia a socorrere 4 alia testa che sarebbe 
inpossibile] ^[gitta nel medesimo 42 gietto 
del cavallo 1 sportello della] 

[When you shall have made the mould 
upon the horse you must make the thickness 
of the metal in clay.] 

Observe in alloying how many hours are 
wanted for each hundredweight. [In cas- 
ting each one keep the furnace and its fire 
well stopped up.] [Let the inside of all the 
moulds be wetted with linseed oil or oil of 
turpentine, and then take a handful of pow- 
dered borax and Greek pitch with aqua vitae, 
and pitch the mould over outside so that 
being under ground the damp may not [dam- 
age it?] 

[To manage the large mould make a model 
of the small mould, make a small room in 

[Make the vents in the mould while it 
is on the horse.] 

Hold the hoofs in the tongs, and cast them 
with fish glue. Weigh the parts of the mould 
and the quantity of metal it will take to fill 
them, and give so much to the furnace that 
it may afford to each part its amount of metal ; 
and this you may know by weighing the clay of 
each part of the mould to which the quantity 
in the furnace must correspond. And this is 
done in order that the furnace for the legs 
when filled may not have to furnish metal 
from the legs to help out the head, which 
would be impossible. [Cast at the same casting 
as the horse the little door] 

w. xi.] 



2 Fa il cavallo sopra gambe di ferro 
ferme e stabili in bo^no fondameto, poi lo 
inseva e fa gli la cappa di sopra, ilasciado 
ben seccare a suolo a suolo, e questa in- 
gras s serai tre dita -, di poi arma e ferra 
secondo il biso 6 gno; oltre a di questo cava 


Make the horse on legs of iron, strong 
and well set on a good foundation; then 
grease it and cover it with a coating, leaving 
each coat to dry thoroughly layer by layer; 
and this will thicken it by the breadth of 
three fingers. Now fix and bind it with 

facto. 7. chauallo ettu. S.grosseza. 10. hore va . . cietinaro. n. hognivno . . stopato . . chol. 12. infochato madiriano 
ea Q tenpo di stoppi. 13. holio. 14. poi dato. 15. grecha chonacq"a". 16. ella . . chesstado. 17. lomido nolla \\U\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 
chose. 18. fatte subito chella \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\. 19- il sabione di for \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ azzo cioe di. 2<f. quello^da fforme\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 
chon acieto. 21. e ben \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\. 22. miscia nella forma \\\\\\\\\\ uno quadrello. 23. pesto . e cienere co ciara douo e a ceto. 
2tf, manegiare. 25. cholla . . falle una pichola. 26. falle boche. 27. chorna imole effondile cholla di pesscie. 28. pensa 
[la forma] le. 30. ella essere ochupata. 31. ettato. 32. acquella parte a porgiere. 33. ecquesto chognio. 34. sscierai . . 
tera. 35. forne. 36. cholla . . risspode. 37, ecquesto. 38. gabe Spinteche doubtful. 39. ale . . abiasschorrer. 40. chessa rebe 
inpossib. 42. chavallo. 43. sportello della. Here the text breaks off. 
711. 2. ghanbe . . esstabile. 3. sondometo . . effagli la chappa. 4. scechare assuolo assuclo . . ecquesta. 5. efferra sechondo. 6. chava 

710. The importance of the notes included haps they were crossed out when Leonardo found 

under this number is not diminished by the fact himself obliged to give up the idea of casting 

that they have been lightly crossed out with red the equestrian statue. In the original the 

chalk. Possibly they were the first scheme for some . first two sketches are above 1. I, and the third 

fuller observations which no longer exist; or per- below 1. 9. 




la forma, c poi fa la 'grossezza, e poi riepi 
la forma a mezza a mezza, 8 e quella in- 
tegra, poi con sua ferri cierchiala e 9 cigni 
c Ta ricuoci di dctro dove a a toccare il 


"Segnia sopra il cavallo finite tutti li 
pezzi della for'^ma, di che tu voi vestire 
tal cavallo, e nello interrare '<li taglia in 
ogni interratura, accioche quado si e fini'sta 
la forma che tu la possi cavare e poi ri- 
comettere l6 al primo loco colli sua scotri 
delli cotrasegni. 

l ia b quadretto stara infra la cappa 
e'l maschio, cioe l8 ncl uacuo dove a a 
stare il brozo liquefatto e questi '^tali qua- 
dretti di brozo manterrano li spati della for- 
*"ma alia cappa con equal distatia, e per 
questo tali "quadretti so di grade inpor- 

J2 HLa terra sia ruista 2J co rena; 

' 4 tollicera, a rcde 25 re, e pagare la co- 

2 ?Secca la 28 a suoli. 2 9Fa la forma 
di fori 'di giesso per fugire p il tepo 
del seccare, ^ 2 e la spesa di legnie, e co 
utal giesso ferma li ferri di fori e di 
?5 dentro co due dita di > 6 grossezza, fa 
terra "cotta. 

38 E questa tal forma ^farai j n un dl; 
vna mez*za navata di giesso *'ti serue. 

JRitasa co ^collae terra over- chiara 
d'ovo *e mattone e ro^sume. 

iron as may be necessary. Moreover take off 
the mould and then make the thickness. Then 
fill the mould by degrees and make it good 
throughout; encircle and bind it with its irons 
and bake it inside where it has to touch the bronze. 


Draw upon the horse, when finished, all 
the pieces of the mould with which you wish 
to cover the horse, and in laying on the 
clay cut it in every piece, so that when the 
mould is finished you can take it off, and 
then recompose it in its former position with 
its joins, by the countersigns. 

The square blocks a b will be between 
the cover and the core, that is in the hollow 
where the melted bronze is to be; and these 
square blocks of bronze will support the 
intervals between the mould and the cover at 
an equal distance, and for this reason these 
squares are of great importance. 

The clay should be mixed with sand. 

Take wax, to return [what is not used] 
and to pay for what is used. 

[2 7] Dry it in layers [2 8]. 

Make the outside mould of plaster, to 
save time in drying and the expense in 
wood; and with this plaster enclose the 
irons [props] both outside and inside to a 
thickness of two fingers; make terra cotta. 

And this mould can be made in one day ; 
half a boat load of plaster will .serve you. 

[4 2] Good. 

Dam it up again with glue and clay, or 
white of egg, and bricks and rubbish. 

C. A. 

Tutti i capi deMle chiavarde. 


All the heads of the large nails. 

. . (alia. 7. grosseza. 8. ecquella . cosua . . ec. 9. ella richuoci . . dove attochare. n. pczi. 12. pezi. 13. cheUu . . 
vewtire . . chavallo. 14. quado se fini. 15. chcttu . . chavare ricomettere. 16. al p"o" locho cholli . . cotrassegni. 
17. infralla chappa elmasscio cioc |dij. 18. uachuo dove asstare . . liquefacto ecquesti. 19. Hsspati. 20. dallalla chappa 
chon . . diutatia . . queuto. 22. lera sie. 27. sechalla soli. 28. assu oli. 31. sechare. 32 cspesa. 36. rosseza fatterra. 
38. ecquesu. 39. farai nudi voa me. 43. ritasa. 44. etterra 47. ssume. 
71*. 12 R. i. lucti i chapi.* 

7H. See PI. LXXV. The figure "40," close 
to the sketch in the middle of the page between 
lines 1 6 and 17 has been added by a collector's 

In the original, below line 21, a square piece 
of the page has been cut out about 9 centimetres 
by 7 and a blank piece has been gummed into the 

Lines 22 24 arc written on the margin. 1. 27 and 
28 are close to the second marginal sketch. I. 42 is a 
note written above the third marginal sketch and on 

the back of this sheet is the text given as No. 642. 
Compare also No. 802. 

712- See PI. LXXVI, No. i. This drawing ha, 
already been published in the "Saggio delle Optre di 
L. da Vinci." Milano 1872, PI. XXIV, No. i. But, 
for various reasons I cannot regard the editor's 
suggestions as satisfactory.. He says: "Veggonsi le 
armature di legname colle quali forse venne sagtcnuto il 
modello, quando per le noate di Bianca Maria Sfona con 
Afassimiliano imperatore, esso fu collocato soUo un area 
trionfale davanti al Caste//o." 


i- -. w ' . . ' A .v . . 

-.."'.. . . v ' - N - ^ 

f ' ' ", '" -'x '''. ' \ i! .< ? - (^ 

",' ./ " ^ : * ~ ?," ^scrt^/v^ 

^' TP ' -"'t^T'^ ' 'V*' 

.>.-.; '.^ 

' . ;-s.'--; 

': ^ . ' 

' ';" 

::. . >J. J 
. -. . , 'i- "'* 

- ' 


y. -ft. 

Heliogp Dxyardin. 

713- 7H-] 


W. XII.] 


Queste le 
gature 2 vano 
di dentro. 

I These bin- 
dings go in- 

w. xin 


Sale fatto di stereo vmano 
bruciato 2 e ralcinato e fatto- 
ne liscia e que^lla distesa 
al leto foco, e tutti li ster 4 chi 
in simile modo fanno sale, e 
quelli 5 sali destillati sono molto 

Salt may be made from human 
excrements, burnt and calcined, 
made into lees and dried slowly 
at a fire, and all the excrements 
produce salt in a similar way 
and these salts when distilled, are 
very strong. 

714. i. stercho. 2. chalcinato effatto neliscia ecque. 3. disecha alleto focho ettutti lisster. 4. quali. 5. desslilati. 

714. VASARI repeatedly states, in the fourth this, it remains doubtful whether I am justified in 

chapter of his Introduzione della Scullura, that in having introduced here this text of but little interest, 

preparing to cast bronze statues horse -dung was no such doubt can be attached to the sketch which 

frequently used by sculptors. If, notwithstanding accompanies it. 





'Questo si potrebbe fare fatto 



nello *ferma e pillata. 

w. H. 


Model* for Ginnetto grosso di messer Galeazzo. 

the hone of 
the Sforia 
(716718). w H j V . 717. 

Siciliano di messer Galeazzo. 

This may be done when the furnace is 

made [4] strong and bruised. 

Messer Galeazzo's big genet. 

Messer Galeazzo's Sicilian horse. 

C. A. 286 bj 8700] 


Misura del siciliano, la ganba dirieto, Measurement of the Sicilian horse the leg 

2 in faccia, alzata e distesa. from behind, seen in front, lifted and extended. 

C. A. 382*1; 11820) 


Ancora si potra dare opera al cauallo di 
occasional bronzo che sara gloria Tmortale e eterno 
lothe'sTona onore della 2 felice memoria del signore 
monument vostro padre e della Iclyta casa Sfor- 

Again, the bronze horse may be taken in 
hand, which is to be to the immortal glory and 
eternal honour of the happy memory of the 
prince your father, and of the illustrious 
house of Sforza. 

C 15* (i)| 


A 'di 23 d'aprile 1-4-90 comlciai 
questo libro e ricomlciai il cavallo. 

On the 23 rd of April 1490 I began this 
book, and recommenced the horse. 

715. i. richuocere. i. potre. 4. pilau. 716. i. gianecto . . galeaz. 

717. i. ciciliaoo . . meser galeazo. 718. i. ciciliano. 2. alza. 

719. i t written from It/t to ri^kt, i. Anchora si potera . . honore dela. 2. S"gre" vost . . dela. 

7*0. chomiciai . . richomiciai. 

715. This note in 1. 4 is written below the sketches. 

716. 717. These notes are by the side of a 
drawing of a horse with figured measurements. 

San Severino, the famous captain who married Bianca 
the daughter of Ludovico il Moro. 

719. The letter from which this passage is here 

718. There is no sketch. belonging to this pas- extracted will be found complete in section XXI. 
sage. Galeazro here probably means Galeazzo di (see the explanation of it, on page 2). 

72i 725-J 


Leic. 9 <}] 7 21 - 

Vedesi in nelle montagnie di Parma e 
Piacetia la moltitudine di nichi e coralli 
2 intarlati ancora appiccati alli'sassi, de' quali, 
quand'io facevo il gra ^cavallo di Milano, 
me ne fu portato vn gra sacco ne^lla mia 
fabrica da cierti villani che in tal loco 

There is to be seen, in the mountains of 
Parma and Piacenza, a multitude of shells 
and corals full of holes, still sticking to the 
rocks, and when I was at work on the great 
horse for Milan, a large sackful of them, 
which were found thereabout, was brought 
to me into my workshop, by certain 

C. A. 316^; 9580] 


Credetelo a me, Leonardo fioretino che 
fa il cauallo del duca Francesco di brozo 
che non ne bisognia fare stima, 2 perche a 
che fare il tenpo di sua vita , e dubito che 
per P essene si grade opera, che non la fini- 
ra mai. 

Believe me, Leonardo the Florentine, who 
has to do the equestrian bronze statue of 
the Duke Francesco that he does not need 
to care about it, because he has work for 
all his life time, and, being so great a work, 
I doubt whether he can ever finish it. 

C. A. 328 b; 983 a] 7 2 3 

Del cauallo no diro niete perche cogni- 

osco i tepi. 

Of the horse I will say nothing because 
I know the times. 

C. A. 272^; 833 a] 


Del marmo operasi dieci arii; 2 io no vo' During ten years the works on the marbles 

aspettare che '1 mio pa^gameto passi il have been going on I will not wait for my payment 
termine del 4 fine della opera mia. beyond the time, when my works are finished. 

C. A. i76<5; 533*] 




2 Spesa della 3 manifattu^ra e materisa [2] Cost of the making and materials for The project 

del cauallo. the horse [5]. "VilJ" 


731. i. in nelle . . mvltitudine. 2. apichati . . sacho. 3. fabricha. 

722. i. me saluo [quel] | "lonar fioretino" cheffa il chauallo . . franc"o" "di brozo" chenone. 2. lesere . . nella. 

724. i. marmoperassi. 2. inovo. 3. ghameto. 4. dela. 

725. i. giovani iacomo da trevlsa. 3. manifatu. 7. inel . . ellegrame ella. n. soma. 15. pezo. 16. lungha br 4 ellargho br. 

722. This passage is quoted from a letter to a 
committee at Piacenza for whom Leonardo seems 
to have undertaken to execute some work. The 
letter is given entire in section XXI. ; in it Leo- 
nardo remonstrates as to some unreasonable demands. 

723. This passage occurs in a rough copy of 
a letter to Ludovico il Moro, without date (see below 
among the letters). 

724. This possibly refers to the works for 
the pedestal of the equestrian statue concerning 
which we have no farther information in the MSS. 
See p. 6. 

725. In the original, lines 25, 12 14, 33 35, 
are written on the margin. This passage has been 

recently published by G. Govi in Vol. V, Ser. 3 a, 
of Transunti , Reale Accademia dei Lined, sed. del 
5 Giugno, 1881, with the following introductory note: 
"Desidero intanto che stampati questi pocki fram- 
menti perche so che sono stati trascritti ultimamente, e 
verranno messi in luce tra poco fuori d' Italia. Li ri- 
pubblichi pure chi vuole, ma si sappia almeno che anche tra 
noi si conoscevano, e s'eran raccolti da anni per comporne, 
quando che fosse, una edizione ordinata degli scritti di 

The learned editor has left out line 22 and 
has written 3 pie for 8 piedi in line 25. There 
are other deviations of less importance from the 
original. ' 



6 Vno corsiero grade al naturale 
coll'omo sopra vuole per la spesa 
del metallo ......... due. 500. 

7 E per la spesa del ferrameto che ua 
in nel modello e carboni e legname e la 
fossa per gittarlo 8 e per serrare la forma, 
e col fornello doue si de' gittare due. 200. 

9 Per fare il modello di terra e 
poi di cera ......... due. 

10 E per li lauorati che lo netterano 


quado fia gittato ....... due. 450. 

"In somma sono ..... due. 1582. 

12 Spesa de' m^armi della ^sepul- 

'5 Spesa del marmo secodo il 
disegnio; jl pezzo del marmo che ua 
sotto il cauallo l6 ch'e lungo braccia 
4 e largo braccia 2 e oncie 2 e grosso 
oncie 9, cetinara 58, a L. 4 e S. 10 
per cetinaro ........ due. 58. 

17 E per 13 braccia di cornice e 
6 6, larga 6 7, e grossa 6 4, cet. 24, 

due. 24. 

18 E per lo fregio e architrave ch'e 
lungo br. 4 e 6 6 , largo br. 2 e 
grosso 6 6, cet 20 ...... due; 20. 

X 9E per li capitelli fatti di metallo, 
che sono 8, vano I tavola 6 5, e 
grossi 6 2, a prezzo di 20 ducati 15 
per ciascuno montano .... due. 120. 

21 E per 8 colonne di br. 2 e 6 7, 
grosse 6 4 e x /2 cetinara 20 . . due. 20. 

22 E per 8 base che sono in tauola 

6 5 e J /2 e alte o 2 cent. 5 . . due. 5. 

2 ^E per la pietra dou' e su la 
sepultura, luga br. 4 e o 10, larga br. 2 
e 6 4 e 1 J 2 2 *centinara 36 ... due. 36. 

2 s E per 8 piedi di piedistalli che ua 
lunghi br. 8 e larghi o 6 e I J 2 grossi 6 
6'/2 26 centinara 20, motano . . due. 20. 

2 ?E per la cornice ch'e di sotto, 
ch'e luga br. 4 e 6 10, larga br. 2 e 
6 5, e grossa 6 4, cet. 32 ... due. 32. 

28 E per la pietra di che si fa il 
morto ch'e lunga br. 3 e 6 8, larga 
br. uno e 6 6, grossa 6 9, cent 30, 

due. 30. 

2 9 E per la pietra che ua sotto il 
morto- ch'e luga br. 3 664, larga 

br. uno e 6 2, grossa 6 4 x / 2 . due. 16. 

3E per le tauole del marmo 
Iterposte infra li piedistalli, che sono 
8 e son lughe br. 9, 3'larghe 6 9, 
grosse 6 3 cent 8 ...... due. 8. 

3 2 In somma sono ..... due. 389. 

A courser, as large as life, with the rider 
requires for the cost of the metal, due. 500. 

And for cost of the iron work which 
is inside the model, and charcoal, and 
wood, and the pit to cast it in, and for 
binding the mould, and including the fur- 
nace where it is to be cast . . due. 200. 

To make the model in clay and 
then in wax due. 432. 

To the labourers for polishing it 

when it is cast . due. 450. 

in all . . due. 1582. 

[12] Cost 'of the marble of the 
monument [14]. 

Cost of the marble according to the 
drawing. The piece of marble under 
the horse which is 4 braccia long, 2 
braccia and 2 inches wide and 9 inches 
thick 58 hundredweight, at 4 Lire and 
10 Soldi per hundredweight . . due. 58. 

And for 13 braccia and 6 inches 
of cornice, 7 in. wide and 4 in. thick, 
24 hundredweight due. 24. 

And for the frieze and architrave, 
which is 4 br. and 6 in. long, 2 br. wide 
and 6 in. thick, 29 hundredweight., due. 20. 

And for the capitals made of metal, 
which are 8, 5 inches in. square and 
2 in. thick, at the price of 15 ducats 
each, will come to due. 122. 

And for 8 columns of 2 br. 7 in., 
4 T /2 in. thick, 20 hundredweight due. 20. 

And for 8 bases which are 5 T / 2 in. 
square and 2 in. high 5 hund'. . due. 5. 

And for the slab of the tombstone 
4 br. 10 in. long, 2 br. 4'/ 2 in. wide 
36 hundredweight due. 36. 

And for 8 pedestal feet each 8 br. long 
and 6 I / 2 in. wide and 6 J /2 in. thick, 
20 hundredweight come to ... due. 20. 

And for the cornice below which is 4 
br. and 10 in. long, and 2 br. and 5 in. 
wide, and 4 in. thick, 32 hund 1 . . due. 32. 

And for the stone of which the figure 
of the deceased is to be made which is 3 
br. and 8 in. long, and i br. and 6 in. 
wide, and 9 in. thick, 30 hund 1 . . due. 30. 

And for the stone on which the figure 
lies which is 3 br. and 4 in. long and i 
br. and 2 in., wide and 4 T / 2 in. thick due. 16. 

And for the squares of marble placed 
between the pedestals which are 8 and 
are 9 br. long and 9 in. wide, and 3 
in. thick, 8 hundredweight . . . due. 8. 
in all . . due. 389. 

2 e Co egrosso Co 9. 17. 13 br. 18. frego . . lungho . . largho. 19. prezo. 20. ciasscuno. 22. chessono. 25. lungh br. 
8 . ellarghi. 28. di ce si . . . br i e o 6, grosa. 29. larga br i e o 2 grosa. 30. infra li piedi di stallo che . . lugh. 



' \. t / 


- - ]. 

B^^fepi'^;$;'/^ : ";. : ' 




33Spesa della 34 manifattu35ra ne'marmi. 

3 6 Attorno allo inbasameto del ca- 
uallo va figure 8 di 25 ducati Puna, 

due. 2OO. 

37 E nel medesimo inbasameto ci 
va festoni 8 co certi altri ornameti e 
di questi 3 V e n'e 4 a prezzo^di du- 
cati 15 per ciascuno, e 4 a^prezzo 
di 8 ducati Puno due. 92. 

39 E per isquadrare dette pietre, 

due. 6. 

4 Ancora pel cornicione che ua 
sotto lo inbasameto del cauallo, ch'e 
br. 13 e 6 6 a due. 2 per br. . due. 27. 

41 E per 12 br. di fregio, a ducati 
5 per br due. 60. 

42 E per 12 br. d' architrave, a du- 
cati i e J / 2 per br due. 18. 

43 E per 3 fioroni che fa soffitta 
alia sepultura, a 20 ducati per fiorone, 

due. 60. 

44 E per 8 colonne accanalate, a 

8 ducati Puna due. 64. 

4 *E per 8 base, a un ducato Puna, 

due. 8. 

46 E per 8 piedistalli, de' quali n' e 
4 a 10 due. Puno, che ua sopra li 
catoni, e 4 a 6 due. Puno . . due. 64. 

47 E per isquadrare e incorniciare li 
piedistalli, a due due. Puno, che sono 8, 

due. 1 6. 

48 E per 6tavole con figure e trofei, 

a 25 ducati Puno ...... due. 150. 

49 E per la scorniciatura della 
pietra che ua sotto il morto . . . 

due. 40. 
s Per la figura del morto a farla 

bene due. 100. 

s 'Per 6 arpie colli candelieri, a 25 

ducati Puna due. 150. 

52 Per isquadrare la pietra dove si 
posa il morto e sua incorniciatura 

due. 20. 

S3 In somma due. 1075. 
54 In somma ogni cosa insieme 
giuta so due. 3046. 

[33] Cost of the work in marble [35]. 

Round the base on which the horse 
stands there are 8 figures at 25 ducats 
each due. 

And on the same base there are 8 
festoons with some other ornaments, 
and of these there are 4 at the price 
of 15 ducats each, .and 4 at the price 
of 8 ducats each due. 

And for squaring the stones due. 

Again, for the large cornice which 
goes below the base on which the 
horse stands, which is 13 br. and 6 in., 
at 2 due. per br due. 

And for 12 br. of frieze at 5 due. 
per br due. 

And for 12 br. of architrave at 
I'/a due. per br due. 

And for 3 rosettes which will be 
the soffit of the monument, at 20 du- 
cats each due. 

And for 8 fluted columns at 8 
ducats each due. 

And for 8 bases at i ducat each, 


And for 8 pedestals, of which 4 are 
at 10 due. each, which go above the 
angles; and 4 at 6 due. each . . due. 

And for squaring and carving the 
moulding of the pedestals at 2 due. 
each, and there are 8 .... due. 

And for 6 square blocks with figures 
and trophies, at 25 due. each . . due. 

And for carving the moulding of 
the stone under the figure of the 
deceased due. 

For the statue of the deceased, to 
do it well due. 

For 6 harpies with candelabra, at 25 
ducats each due. 

For squaring the stone on which 
the statue lies, and carving the moul- 
ding due. 20. 

in all . . due. 1075. 

The sum total of every thing added 
together amount to due. 3046. 














G. 43 a] 




2 Puosi ancora fare sanza molla ; 3 Ma It can also be made without a spring. The mint of 

sempre il maschio di sopra debbe 4 stare But the screw above must always be joined 
congiunto alia parte della guSaina mobile; to the part of the movable sheath: 

31. larghi. 36. va. 37. li va fessto 8 co . . queste. 38. ciasscuna . . luna. 39. issguadare. 40. cornicone. 41. frego. 
46. piedistalle. 47. issguadrare esscornicare lipiedisstallo . . chessono . . luma. 48. trufei. 50. a ff aria. 52. essa scornica- 
tura. 54. soma onicossa . . guta so due. 

726. See PI. LXXVI. This passage is taken from a note book which can be proved to have been 
used in Rome. 
VOL. 11. 


[727. 728. 

6 Tutte le monete che ^ non ano jl cier- 
chio 8 intero, non sieno accisettate per 
buone, e a 10 fare la perfectione del lor 
"cierchio e neciessario I2 che in prima le ' 
mone^te sie tutte di perfetto cir^colo, e 
a fare questo I5 e' si debbe in prima fare 
vna l6 moneta perfetta in peso I7 e in larghez- 
za e grossez l8 za, e di questa tal lar^ghezza 
e grossezza sie fat 20 te molte lamine, tira- 
2I te per una medesima tra 22 fila, le quali re- 
stera 2 no a modo di righe, e 24 di queste 
tali righe si 2 5stanpl fuori le monete 26 tode, 
a modo che si fa 2 7no i criuelli da casta- 
2 *gnie, e queste mone 29 te poi si stanpino 
nel -J u modo sopra detto ecc. 

3 J I1 vacuo della stanpa ^ 2 sia piu largo 
da alto 33 che da basso vni^formemente, 
35 e insesibile. 

3 6 Questo taglia le monete. di perfetta 
ro37tondita e grossezza e peso e ris 38 parmia 
1'omo che taglia e pesa, e 39rispiarmia Porno 
che fa le monete *tonde; aduque sol pas- 
sa per li mani 4'del trafilatore e dello 
stanpato' 2 re e fa monete bellissime. 

All coins which do not have the rim com- 
plete, are not to be accepted as good; and 
to secure the perfection of their rim it is 
requisite that, in the first place, all the 
coins should be a perfect circle; and to do 
this a coin must before all be made perfect 
in weight, and size, and thickness. There- 
fore have several plates of metal made of 
the same size and thickness, all drawn through 
the same gauge so as to come out in strips. 
And out of [24] these strips you will stamp 
the coins, quite round, as sieves are made 
for sorting chestnuts [2 7]; and these coins 
can then be stamped in the way indicated 
above; &c. 

[31] The hollow of the die must be uni- 
formly wider than the lower, but impercep- 
tibly [3 5]. 

This cuts the coins perfectly round and 
of the exact thickness, and weight; and saves 
the man who cuts and weighs, and the man 
who makes the coins round. Hence it passes 
only through the hands of the gauger and of 
the stamper, and the coins are very superior. 




2 Stoppini incombustibili di fungo ridot- 
to in poluere, 3 stagnio bruciato e tutti i 
metalli, ^allume scagliuolo, sfumo di fucina 
On the da ottone, 6 e ciascuna cosa inumidisci con. 
c medfis acquauite o maluagla TO acieto forte di 
(727. 7*8). g r a ? u j no bianco , o di quella prima acqua 
8 di trementina destillata, o olio, pure che 
poco sia 9invmidita , e gitta in telaroli. 


The incombustible growth of soot on wicks 
reduced to powder, burnt tin and all the 
metals, alum, isinglass, smoke from a brass 
forge, each ingredient to be moistened, 
with aqua vitae or malmsey or strong 
malt vinegar, white wine or distilled extract 
of turpentine, or oil; but there should be 
little moisture, and cast in moulds. 

Mz. o'J 



Polta di smeriglio mista con acqua vite 2 o 
scaglia di ferro con aceto , o cenere di foglie 
di noce -, o cenere 3 di paglia sottilmete trita. 


A paste of emery mixed with aqua vitae, or 
iron filings with vinegar, or ashes of walnut 
leaves, or ashes of straw very finely powdered. 

736. i. zeccha di roma. 2. Puossi anchora. 3. masscio. 4. chom giunto . . ghu. 9. ectate . . eaf. 10. perfectione. 12. prima 
ne mone. 13. perfecto. 14. cholo e afiare. 15. e si . . in p"a". 16. perfecta. 18. quessta. 19. sie fac. 24. queste . . sis. 
26. chessi. 28. ecqueste. 29. sisstan pino. 30. decto ele. 31. vachuo. 32. larcho. 33. chedda. 36. Quessto. 37. grosseza 
eppeso eriss. 38. spiarma . . chettaglia eppesa. 39. rispiarma . . falle. 40. istanpito. 42 effa. 

727. i. stopini inchonbusstibili. 3. brusato ettutti. 4. alume schagliolo. 6. essciasschuna . . inumidissci con acq"a". 7. biancho 
o di ella prima acq"a". 8. desstillata o holio. 

7a8. i. polta di smeriglo . . acq"a". 2. ho cenere. 4. inolto [inp] in . . battutto. 5. radopiato [ere] essitiene. 6. accochettal 

726. See PI. LXXVI No. 2. The text of lines 
31 35 stands parallel 1. 24 27. 

Farther evidence of Leonardo's occupations and 
engagements at Rome under Pope Leo X. may be 
gathered from some rough copies of letters which 

will be found in this volume. Hitherto nothing 
has been known of his work in Rome beyond some 
doubtful, and perhaps mythical, statements in Vasari. 
727. The meaning of scagliuolo in this passage is 


, j' 



' if 



4 II diametro si presta inuolto in nel 
piobo , e battuto con martello s e disteso 
piv volte; tal piobo e raddoppiato e si 
tiene involto ne! 6 la carta, accioche tal 
poluere no si versi, e poi fondi il piobo e 
la pol7vere vi e di sopra al pionbo fonduto, 
la qual poi sia fregata infra due 8 piastre 
d'acciaio tanto si poluerizi bene, di poi 
lauala coll' acqua da partire 9 e risoluerassi la 
negrezza del ferro, e lasciera la poluere 

. IO Lo smeriglo in pezzigrossi si ro pecol 
metterlo sopra vn panno in mol IT ti doppi, 
e si percuote per fianco col martello, e 
cosl se ne va; poi mischia 11 I2 a poco a 
poco, e poi si pesta co facilita, e se tu lo 
tenessi sopra 1'ancu^dine, mai lo roperesti, 
essendo cosl grosso. 

^Chi macina li smalti debbe fare tale 
esercitio sopra le pias is tre d'acciaio, ten- 
perato col macinatojo da conio, e poi met- 
ter l6 lo nell' acqva forte, la qual risolue 
tutto esso acciaio che si e ^cosumato e 
misto con esso smalto e lo fece nero, on- 
de poi I8 rima purificato e netto, e se tu lo 
macini sul porfido, esso '9 porfido si con- 
suma e si mischia collo smalto e lo guasta, 
20 e 1' acqua da partire mai lo lieva da dosso, 
perche no puo 2I risoluere tale porfido. 

22 Se volli fare colore bello azzurro risolui 
lo smalto, fatto 2 ^ col tartaro, e po' li leva il 
sal da dosso. 

2 *L'ottone vetrificato fa bello rosso. 

The diameter is given in the lead 
enclosed; it is beaten with a hammer and 
several times extended; the lead is folded and 
kept wrapped up in parchment so that the 
powder may not be spilt; then melt the lead, and 
the powder will be on 'the top of the melted 
lead, which must then be rubbed between two 
plates of steel is thoroughly pulverised; 
then wash it with aqua fortis, and the black- 
ness of the iron will be dissolved leaving 
the powder clean. 

Emery in large grains may be broken by 
putting it on a cloth many times doubled, 
and hit it sideways with the hammer, when 
it will break up; then mix it little by little 
and it can be founded with ease ; but if you 
hold it on the anvil you will never break 
it, when it is large. 

Any one who grinds smalt should do it 
on plates of tempered steel with a cone 
shaped grinder; then put it in aqua for- 
tis, which melts away the steel that may 
have been worked up and mixed with the 
smalt, and which makes it black; it then 
remains purified and clean; and if you 
grind it on porphyry the porphyry will work 
up and mix with the smalt and spoil it, and 
aqua fortis will never remove it because it 
cannot dissolve the porphyry. 

If you want a fine blue colour dissolve 
the smalt made with tartar, and then remove 
the salt. 

Vitrified brass makes a fine red. 

75 6} 




2 Fa stucco sopra il gobbo del 

di giesso, ^U quale sia coposto di venere 
e * mercuric, e impasta bene sopra esso 
gobbo Scon equal grossezza di costa di col- 
tello fatta colla 6 sagoma, e questa copri co 
coperchio di canpa?na da stillare, e riavrai 
il tuo vmido co 8 che inpastasti, 'el rimanete 
asciugga bene e poi I 9 foca e batti over 

Place stucco over the prominence of Oa stucco 

the which may be composed of (?29 ' 

Venus and Mercury, and lay it well 
over that prominence of the thickness of 
the side of a knife, made with the ruler 
and cover this with 'the bell of a still, and 
you will have again the moisture with which 
you applied the paste. The rest you may dry 

ella poi. 7. here vi e. S.'piasstre dacaio . . lavolo chollacq"a". 9. la negredine del ferro ellascieara. 10. lossmeriglo . . chol 
. . imol. ii. essi perchote per fiancho . . misscagle. 12. a pocho appocho . . essettu. 13. rSperessti . . chosi. 14. lis- 
smalti. 15. chol macintatoio. 16. accaio chesse. 17. missto . . ello. 18. purifichato ennetto essettullo. 19. essimissca col- 
lossmalto ello. 20. ellae qua dosso [s] perche no po. 22. azurro . . lossmalto. 24. vetrifichato. 

719. i. stuccho. 2. fasstucho . . ghobb del . a engui di giesso. 3. copossto di erenev e. 4. oirucrem e inpassta . ghobbo. 
5. grosseza . . cholla. 6. saghoma ecquessta . . choperchio. 7. dasstillare erriarai. 8. inpasstassti . . assciugha. 9. focha 

729. In this passage a few words have been 
written in a sort of cipher that is to say back- 
wards; as in 1. 3 erenev for Venere, 1. 4 oirucrem for 
Mercurio, I. 12 il orreve co ecarob for il everro (?) co 
borace. The meaning of the word before "di giesso" 

in 1. I is unknown; and the sense, in which sagotna 
is used here and in other passages is obscufe. 
Venere and Mercurio may mean 'marble* and 'lime', of 
which stucco is composed. 

12. The meaning of orreve is unknown. 




brunisci co buon brunitoio e fa I0 grosso 
inverse la costa. 


well ; afterwards fire it, and beat it or burnish it 
with a good burnisher, and make it thick towards 
the side. 


"Poluerizza il . . . . co borace e.acqua, Powder . . . with borax and water 

in'^pasta e fa stucco, e poi scalda in mo- to a paste, and make stucco of it, and then 

do si sec' 4 chi, e poi vernica con foco in heat it so that it may dry, and then varnish 

modo che lustri. it, with fire, so that it shines well. 

C. A. 313 a 5 951 a] 




2 Togli-butiro parti 6-, ciera parti 2-, Take of butter 6 parts, of wax 2 parts, 

^e tata farina volatile che, messa sopra *le and as much fine flour as when put with 

cose strutte , le facci sode a modo s di cera these 2 things melted, will make them as 

o di terra da formare. firm as wax or modelling clay. 


?Togli mastice tremetina stillata 8 e 


Take mastic, distilled turpentine and 
white lead. 

s. K. M. in 50 a] 




2 II tartaro bruciato e pol^verizzato col Tartar burnt and powdered with pla- 

on brome giesso e gittaHo fa che esso giesso si ster and cast cause the plaster to hold to- 
s tiene insieme poi, ch' e ricot 6 to, e poi gether when it is mixed up again ; and then 

(731-740). nell' acqua si disfa. 

it will dissolve in water. 

s. K. M. m. 53] 




2 Togli per ogni 2 scodelle di giesso Take to every 2 cups of plaster i of 

una di ^corno di bo bruciato e mischia ox-horns burnt, mix them together and make 
Isieme *e gitta. your cast with it. 

S. K. M. II. i 95 a] 


Quado voi gittare di ciera, abbrucia la When you want to take a cast in wax, burn 

sciuma 2 con una candela, e'l gietto verra the scum with a candle, and the cast will 
sanza busi. come out without bubbles. 

s. K. M. in. 55*) 734- 

2 ocie di giesso da libbra 2 di metallo ; 
3noce che fa simile alia *curva. 

2 ounces of plaster to a pound of metal ; 
walnut, which makes it like the curve. 

. . brunissci co bio brunitoio effa. 10. chossta. ti. stuccho. 12. il orreve co ecarob e acq"a" in. ij. passta effa stucho 
eppoi scal"d"a. 14. eppoi vcrnicha con vocho . . lusstri. 

730. i. stucho. 2. toli bituro parte . . parte. 4. chose. 5. tera. 7. tomastice temetina. 8. biaccha. 

731. 2. tartero. 3. verizato .chol. 4. hvsso.. 5. tiene sieme . . rico. 6. acq"a". 
739. i. giesso i di. 3. bruciata e misscia. 

733. i. abrucia. t. chandela. 734. i. libra. 

734. The second part of this is quite obscure. 


%"'' - 

. . t V irf 

Ulf/lW^ *WY^ 4*r<fy/ *te/>*f] ^f*>' ^ 

-.^?/f '^triJ ^> J^>^'*Y , *r-*/^ r -"* ( 
]^1 ^j^^ v &<f>i ft J?h W Sq "''*' v-> 


: ; 

ij>/*/H^ v *"** " T ' f ' < * lrf r- " r ? - 

!,IS4 .-> *-WU//ih Wt'-w/-W" '-"'* '"Cf 

_ t. ~4L A-X'. ii<tAA- J " 

^ v ^'HT; 

Imp, Eudes. 

735 737-] 



S. K. M. III. 56 a] 


[Terra asciuta 16 2 libbre, 100 libbre di 
metallo 3 la bagniata terra 20, 4 di bagniato 
100, di meta, 5 che cresce 4 libbre d'acqua, 
6 una di cera, una libbra di me7tallo, al- 
quato maco, 8 cimatura co terra, 9misura per 

[Dried earth 16 pounds, 100 pounds of 
metal wet clay 20, of wet 100, half, 
which increases 4 Ibs. of water, i of wax, 
i Ib. of metal, a little less, the scrapings 
of linen with earth, measure for measure.] 

52*] 736. 

Tal fia il gietto 2 qual fia la stapa. 

Such as the mould is, so will the cast be. 

Tr. 52] 


2 Farai uno mazzo di 
fila di ferro, grosso come 
spaghetto, ^e coll' acqua rv___ 
fregherai, tenedo sotto uno *^ 
tinello, accio no facci 4fago 



Make a bunch of iron 
wire as thick as thread, and 
scrub them with [this and] 
water; hold a bowl underneath 
that it may not make a mud 


6 Farai uno palo di ferro che sia a uso 
d'uno largo scarpello, 7 e co quello freghe- 
rai su per quelle creste del brozo, che 
rimarrano 8 sopra i gietti delle bobarde, 
che diriuano dalle schiappature della 9 forma, 
ma fa che '1 palo pesi bene , e' colpi 
sieno lughi e gradi. 


11 Allega prima una parte del metallo 
alia manica, di poi lo metti I fornace, 
12 e questo fara prlcipio col suo bagnio al 
fondere del rame. 


** Quando il rame si fredasse nella 
fornace fa che subito , quado tu te n'avedi, 
j sdi tagliarlo co frugatojo metre ch'eli e- 
I paniccia , overo se fusse I6 iteramete 
raffreddato, taglialo, come si fa il piobo, co 
larghi e grossi scar I7 pelli. 


Make an iron rod, after the manner of 
a large chisel, and with this rub over those 
seams on the bronze which remain on the 
casts of the guns, and which are caused by 
the joins in the mould; but make the tool 
heavy enough, and let the strokes be long and 


First alloy part of the metal in the 
crucible, then put it in the furnace, and this 
being in a molten state will assist in beginn- 
ing to melt the copper. 



When the copper cools in the furnace, be 
ready, as soon as you perceive it, to cut it 
with a long stick while it is still in a paste; 
or if it is quite cold cut it as lead is cut 
with broad and large chisels. 

735. i. assciutta. 2. libre 100 Ibbre. 5. cressie. 4. librdacq"a". 6. i di . . * libra. 

737. i. debe. 2. fara i mazo . . spagetto. 3. echollacq"a" frecherai . . i tinello. 6. 5 palo . . chessia . . largho. 7, cho . . rima. 

8. isciappature. 9. maffa . . chalpi. n. J parte . . manicha. 12. ecquesto . . chol . . derame. 13. chessi fredassi. 

14. chessubito. 15. cho . . imetre . . overo [mete] seffussi. 16. raffredo taglalo chome . . cho chargi . . schar. 18. aflfare 
1 . 19. affare i . libre fallo . . cho 2006 libr. 20. ciasschuno . . libr. 

735. The translation is given literally, but the meaning is quite obscure. 



[738. 739- 


avessi a fare uno gietto di cento 


If you have to make a cast of a hundred 

mila libbre, falo co 2 fornelli con 2000 thousand pounds do it with two furnaces and 
libbre 20 per ciascuno o Isino . in 3000 with 2000 pounds in each, or as much as 

libbre il piv. 

r. 5J| 

3000 pounds at most. 



2 Se volli ropere una gra massa di 
brozo sospedilo prima, ^poi H 
fa da 4 lati uno muro a vso di 
truogo di mattoni, e fa 11 gra 
foco , 4 e quado e be rosso, dali 
uno colpo con vno s gra peso 
levato in alto co gra forza. 


If you want to break up a large mass of 
bronze, first suspend it, and then 
make round it a wall on the four sides, 
like a trough of bricks, and make 
a great fire therein. When it is 
quite red hot give it a blow with a 
heavy weight raised above it, and 
with great force. 

Tr. 54] 




2 Se volessi per masseritia mettere il If you wish for economy in combining 

piobo nel metallo e per sopire . alia soma lead with the meta] in order to lessen the 
' dello stagnio che si richiede nel metallo , 
allega prima il piobo collo 4 stagnio e 
poi metti sopra il rame foduto. 

amount of tin which is necessary in the me- 
tal, first alloy the lead with the tin and then 
add the molten copper. 


6 II fornello de' essere ifra 4. 
pilastri be fodati. 


8 La cappa no debe prevalicare la 
grossezza di 2 dita , e debesi inter- 
rare ^ in quatro volte . sopra la terra 

sottile e poi bene annare, I0 e sia 
sola mete ricotta di detro e dato 

poi sottilmete di cenere e bouina. 


12 La bobarda de' essere da 600 libbre 
di ballotta 1 su, co questa regola; X 3farai la 
misura del diametro della ballotta e quel- 

The furnace should be between 
four well founded pillars. 


The coating should not be more than two 
fingers thick, it should be laid on in four 
thicknesses over fine clay and then well 
fixed, and it should be fired only on 
the inside and then carefully covered 
with ashes and cow's dung. 


The gun being made to carry 600 Ibs. 
of ball and more, by this rule you will take 
the measure of the diameter of the ball and 

738. i. be a . . 1 gra. 2. * gra. 3. j muro . . effa . . focho. 4. ecquado . . dallt i colpi chon. 

739. i. chol. 2. e per soperire. 3, chessi . . cholo. 4. eppoi . . arame. 5. fondere i fornello. 7. grosseza . . chappa. 8. chappa 
. . prevalichare la grosseza debessi. 9. gutro . . soctile. 10. cssia . . richotta. n. grosseza. 12. Hbr. 13. ba"lo"ta . . dia- 


V ' 

K,-~, <L 




*-.- +' * 



la diuidi -16- parti, T *e una d'esse parti- 
fia la grossezza dinazi e la meta sepre 
piv rieto, I5 e se la ballotta fia di libbre 700, 
J / 7 del diametro della ballotta fia la sua 
l6 grossezza dinazi , e se la ballotta- fia 
800-, 1'ottavo del suo diametro ^dinazi, e 
se 900- '/s e J /2 e se IOO T /9- 

divide it into 6 parts and one of these parts 
will be its thickness at the muzzle; but at the 
breech it must always be half. And if the ball 
is to be 700 Ibs., y 7 th of the diameter of 
the ball must be its thickness in front; and 
if the ball is to be 800, the eighth of its 
diameter in front; and if 900, Ygth 
VzP/ie], and if 1000, Y 9 th. 


^Se voi ch'ella gitti una ballotta di 
pietra fa la lughezza della troba 20 in 6-0 
insino I 7 ballotte , e se la ballotta fusse 
di ferro , fa 2I detta troba -Isino in 12 bal- 
lotte , e se la ballotta fusse di 22 piobo- 
farai la insino in diciotto ballotte, dico 
quado la bobarda 2 ^avesse la bocca atta 
a ricieuere in se da 600 libr di ballotta 
di pietra I su. 


2 sLa grossezza dinazi de' passavolanti 
no deve passare dalla meta 26 Isino al 
terzo del diametro della ballotta, E la lu- 
ghezza da 30 Isino I 36 2 7 ballotte. 

If you want it to throw a ball of stone, 
make the length of the gun to be 6, or as 
much as 7 diameters of the ball; and if the 
ball is to be of iron make it as much as 
12 balls, and if the ball is to be of lead, 
make it as much as 18 balls. I mean 
when the gun is to have the mouth fitted 
to receive 600 Ibs. of stone ball , and 


The thickness at the muzzle of small guns 
should be from a half to one third of the dia- 
meter of the ball, and the length from 30 
to 36 balls. 

Tr. 55] 740 


2 II fornello debbe inazi che tu Iforni 

il metallo essere illotato di terra 
Valenza, 3 e sopra quella cienere. 



The furnace must be luted before you 
di put the metal in it, with earth from Valenza, 
and over that with ashes. 


s Quado tu vedi il brozo volersi co- When you see that the bronze is congealing 

gielare tolli legnie di salice, schiappate take some willow -wood cut in small chips 
6 sottilmete, e co quelle fa foco. and make up the fire with it. 


8 Dico la cagione d'essa cogielatione I say that the cause of this congealing 

derivar spesse volte da troppo foco 9 e often proceeds from too much fire, or from 
ancora da legnie mal secche. ill-dried wood. 


."Il foco conoscierai, quado fia bono e You may know when the fire is good 

vtile , alle fiame chiare, e se uedrai I2 le ' and fit for your purpose by a clear flame, 

mitro. 14. e i . . grosseza . . ella. 15. esse . . di br 700 . . balotta . . diamitro. 16. grosseza . . sella . . diamitro. 17. esse 
. . | e ese. 18. lugeza. 19. * ballotta . . lugeza. 20. essella . . fussi. 21. essela . . fussi. 23. avesse . la bocha. 24. gro- 
sseza. 25. grosseza . . debono. 26. diamitro . . lugeza. 

740. i. ilotare. 2.chetti . . tera di ualeza. 4, uolessi fredare. 5. chogielare . . sciapate. 6. cho. 8. dicho la chagione . . dirivar. 
9. anchora . . seche. 10. focho. n. conosscierai . . ale . . esse uederai. 12. effinire co. 13. arai . . acq"a". 14. alegare. 

740. 1. 2. Terra di Valenza, Valenza is north of Alessandria on the Po. 



pute d'esse flame turbe e finire co molto 
fumo , no te ne fidare, e massime '3qua- 
do avrai il bagnio quasi in acqua. 


'5 II metallo si uole fare vniversalmete 
nelle bobarde co 6 o uisino 8 l6 per cieto , 
cioe 6 di stagnio sopra cieto di rame, e 
quato meno ve ne metti, ^piv sicura fia 
la bobarda. 



19 Lo stagnio col rame si debbe met- 
tere quado ai il rame codotto in acqua. 


21 II fondere fia da te avmetato quado 
sara codotto il rame in 2 /3 " m acqua , al- 
lora con v legnio di castagnio ispesso 
rimaneggerai il rima z: nete del rame an- 
cora Itero ifra la parte fonduta. 

and if you see the tips of the flames dull and 
ending in much smoke do not trust it, and 
particularly when the flux metal is almost fluid. 


Metal for guns must invariably be made 
with 6 or even 8 per cent, that is 6 of tin 
to one hundred of copper, for the less you 
put in, the stronger will the gun be. 


The tin should be put in with the copper 
when the copper is reduced to a fluid. 


You can hasten the melting when 2 /jds o f 
the copper is fluid; you can then, with a 
stick of chestnut-wood, repeatedly stir what 
of copper remains entire amidst what is 

15. metalo. 17. sichura. 18. acopagniare . . chol. 19. acq"a". 21. datte. 22. chastagnio . . rimanerai. 


Introductory Observations on the Architectural Designs 
(XII), and' Writings on Architecture (XIII). 

Until now very little has been known regarding Leonardo's labours in the domain 
of Architecture. No building is known to have been planned and executed by him, though 
by some contemporary writers incidental allusion is made to his occupying himself with 
architecture, and his famous letter to Lodovico il Moro, which has long been a 
well-known document, in ivJiich he offers his service as an architect to that prince, 
tends to confirm the belief that lie zvas something more than an amateur of the art. 
This hypothesis has lately been confirmed by the publication of certain documents, pre- 
served at Milan , showing that Leonardo was not only employed in preparing plans but 
that he took an active part, with much credit, as member of a commission on public 
buildings; his name remains linked with tJie history of the building of the Cathedral at 
Pavia and that of the Cathedral at Milan. 

. Leonardo's writings on Architecture are dispersed among a large number of MSS., 
and it would be scarcely possible to master their contents witJiout the opportunity 
of arranging, sorting arid comparing the whole mass of materials, so as to have some 
comprehensive idea of the whole. The sketches, when isolated and considered by- them- 
selves, might appear to be of but little value; it is not till we understand their 
general purport, from comparing them with each other, that we can form any just esti- 
mate of their true worth. 

Leonardo seems to have had a project for writing a complete and separate treatise 
on Architecture, such as his predecessors and contemporaries had composed Leon Battista 
Alberti, Filar ete, Francesco di Giorgio, and perhaps also Bramante. But, on 'the other 
hand, it cannot be denied that possibly no suck scheme was connected with the isolated 
notes and researches, treating on special questions, which are given in this work; that 
he was merely "working at problems in which, for some reason or other he took a 
special interest. 

A great number of important buildings were constructed in Lombardy during the 

period between 1472 and 1499, and among them there are several by unknown arcJntects, 
VOL. n. D 


of so high an artistic merit, that it is certainly not improbable that cither B ram ante or 
Leonardo da Vinci may have been, directly or indirectly, concerned in thdr erection. 

Having been engaged, for noiv nearly twenty years , in a thorough study of Bra- 
mantis life and labours, I have taken a particular interest in detecting the distinguishing 
marks of his style as compared with Leonardo's. In 1869 I made researches about tJ it- 
architectural drawings of the latter in the Codex Atlanticus at Milan, for the purpose of 
finding out, if possible the original plans and sketches of the ciiurcJies of Santa Maria delle 
Grazie at Milan, and of the Cathedral at Pavia, which buildings have been supposed to be 
the work both of Bramante and of Leonardo. Since 1 876 / have repeatedly examined 
Leonardo's architectural studies in the collection of his manuscripts in the Institut de 
France, and some of these I have already given to the public in my work on "Les Pro- 
jets Primitifs pour la Basilique de St. Pierre de Rome", PL 43. In 1879 / had the 
opportunity of examining the manuscript in the Palazzo Trivulzio at Milan, and in \ 880 
ZX Richter showed me in London the manuscripts in the possession of Lord AsJiburnJiam, 
and those in the British Museum. I have thus had opportunities of seeing most of 
Leonardo's architectural drawings in the original, but of the manuscripts themselves I 
have deciphered only the notes which accompany the sketches. It is to D r Richter's 
exertions that we owe the collected texts on Architecture which are now published, and 
while he has undertaken to be responsible for the correct reading of t/ie original texts, 
he has also made it his task to extract the wJiole of the materials from the various MSS. 
It has been my task to arrange and elucidate the texts under Jlie heads which have 
been adopted in this work. MS. B. at Paris and tJie Codex Atlanticus at Milan arc the 
chief sources of our knowledge of Leonardo as an architect, and 1 have recently subjected 
these to a thorough re-investigation expressly with a view to this work. 

A complete reproduction of all Leonardo's architectural sketches has not, indeed, 
been possible, but as far as the necessarily restricted limits of the work have allowed > the 
utmost completeness has been aimed at, and no efforts have been spared to include every 
thing that can contribute to a knowledge of Leonardo's style. It would have been very 
interesting, if it had been possible, to give some general account at least of Leonardo's 
work and studies in engineering, fortification, canal-making and the like, and it is 
only on mature reflection that we have reluctantly abandoned this idea. Leonardo's 
occupations in these departments have by no means so close a relation to literary work, 
in the strict sense of the word as we are fairly justified in attributing to his numerous 
notes on Architecture. 

Leonardo's architectural studies fall naturally under two heads : 

I. Those drawings and sketches, often accompanied by short remarks and expla- 
nations, which may be regarded as designs for buildings or monuments intended to be 
built. With tfiese there are occasionally explanatory texts. 

II. 77ieoretical investigations and treatises. A special interest attaches to these 
because they discuss a variety of questions which are of practical importance to this day. 
Leonardo's theory as to the origin and progress of cracks in buildings is perhaps to 
be considered as unique in its way in the literature of Architecture. 





Architectural Designs. 

I. Plans for towns. 

A. Sketches for laying out a new town with a double system of high- 
level and low-level road-ways. 

PI. LXXVII, No. i (MS. B, 15*). A general view of a town, with the 
roads outside it sloping up to the high-level ways within. 

PL LXXVII, No. 3 (MS. B, 16*, see No. 741; and MS. B. 15*, see 
No. 742^ gives a partial view of the town, with its streets and houses, with 
explanatory references. 

PI. LXXVII, No. 2 (MS. B, 15*; see No. 743). View of a double 
stair caise with two opposite flights of steps. 

PL LXXVIII, Nos. 2 and 3 (MS. B, tf a ). Sketches illustrating 
the connection of the two levels of roads by means of steps. The lower gal- 
leries are lighted by openings in the upper roadway. 

B. Notes on removing houses (MS. Br. M., 270^, see No. 744^. 

B. i6a] 

74 I. 

Le strade m sono piv alte che le strade The roads m are '6 braccia higher than 

/-.y- braccia 6., e ciascuna 2 strada de' es- the roads/ s, and each road must be 20 

sere larga braccia 20, e avere '/ braccio braccia wide and ^ have % braccio slope from 

,. , j .^ the sides towards the middle: and in the 

di calo dalle stremita 3 a l mezzo, e m esso mi(Mle let there be at every braccio an 

mezzo sia a ogm braccio uno braccio di opening, one braccio long and one finger 

4 fessura, largo uno dito , dove 1' acqua che wide, where the rain water may run off into 

741. i. strade . [m] M . . chelle. 2. largbr . . chalo. 3. mezo [eda esse stremita einesso mezo . . br unobr. 4. deba. 6. largeza 



, ue debba scolare nelle ca've fatte al 
Ssimo Piano di/,e da ogm stre- 
fta della ^larghezza di delta sUada-sia- 
"no portico di larghezza di braccia 6 i sul 
"le colonne, e sappi che, chi volesse an- 
dare per tutta la terra per le 8 strade alte 
po ra P a suo acconcio usarle, e chi voles* 
\ndare 'per le basse , ancora il simile; 
per le strade alte non devono andare 
-earn, nc altre simili cose, anzi siano 
solamete per li gieteli omini; per le basse 
SSTo andare i carri e altre some al uso 
e commodita del popolo ; 1' una casa de 
volgierele schiene '3all'altra ; , lasciado la 
strada bassa in mezzo, ed agh usci- *s 
mettano le vettovaglie, come legnie, vino 
e simili cose; per le <5 V ie sotterrane si de 
votare destri, stalle e simili cose fetide 
l6 dall'uno arco all'altro 

hollows made on the same level as / s. 
And on each side at the extremity of the 
width of the said road let there be an arcade, 
6 braccia broad, on columns; and understand 
that he who would go through the whofc 
place by the high level streets can use them 
for this purpose, and he who would go by 
the low level can do the same. By the high 
streets no vehicles and similar objects shoul 
circulate, but they are exclusively for the use 
of gentlemen. The carts and burdens for the 
use and convenience of the inhabitants have 
to go by the low ones. One house must 
turn its back to the other, leaving the lower 
streets between them. Provisions, such as 
wood, wine and such things are carried in 
by the doors , and privies, stables and other 
fetid matter must be emptied, away under- 
ground. From one arch to the next 



de' essere braccia 300, cioe ciascuna 
via che ricieve il lume dalle fessu're delle 
strade di sopra, e a ogni arco de essere 
una scala a Iuma3ca toda, perche ne catoni 
delle quadre si piscia, e larga, c nella 'pnma 
uolta sia vn uscio ch'entri i destri e pisci- 
atoi comuni, e per s scala si discieda dalla- 
strada alta alia bassa, e le strade 6 alte si 
comlcino fori delle porte, e givnte a esse 
porte abbia?no conposto 1'altezza di brac- 
cia 6; Fia fatta detta terra o presso a mare 
o altro fiume grosso, acciocche le brutti 
della 9 C itta, menate dall'acqua sieno por- 
tate via. 

must be 300 braccia, each street receiving 
its light through the openings of the upper 
streets and at each arch must be a winding 
stair on a circular plan because the corners 
of square ones are always fouled; they 
must be wide, and at the first vault there 
must be a door entering into public privies 
and the said .stairs lead from the upper 
to the lower streets and the high level streets 
begin outside the city gates and slope up ti 
atthese gates they have attained the height 
of 6 braccia. Let such a city be built near 
the sea or a large river in order that the dir 
of the city may be carried off by the water. 

B 15*] 743 ' 

A The construction of the stairs: The stairs 

^ rtifii-;:?S3& < '% = >> -* in the same way 


Br. M. 270*) 



2 Le case sieno trasmutate e messe per 
ordine, 3 e questo co facilita si fara, 4 per- 


Let the houses be moved and arranged 
in order; and this will be done with facility 

c ' ocl " : 


Imp Eudes 



che tali case son prima fatte sdi pezzi so- 
pra le piazze, e poi 6 si comettono insieme 
colli lor 7legniami nel sito dove si debbono 
8 stabilire. 

because such houses are at first made in 
pieces on the open places, and can then be 
fitted together with their timbers in the site 
where they are to be permanent. 

9 Li omini, del pae I0 se abitino le nuo- 
"ve case in parte, I2 quando no v'e la 

[9] Let the men of the country [or the 
village] partly inhabit the new houses when 
the court is absent [12]. 

744. On the same page we find notes referring 
to Romolontino and Villafranca with a sketch-map 
of the course of the "Sodro" and the "(Lo)era" (both 
are given in the text farther on). There can hardly 
be a doubt that the last sentence of the passage 

given above, refers to the court of Francis I. King of 
France. L.g 13 are written inside the larger sketch, 
which, in the original, is on the right hand side of 
the page by the side of lines I 8. The three 
smaller sketches are below. J. P. R. 

//. Plans for canals and streets in a town. 

PI LXXIX, .. and 2, (MS. B, 37*, * 745- <** MS. B. 36', 

see No. ^6). A Plan for streets and canals inside a town, by k*k the 
cellars of the houses are made accessible in boats. 

The third text give* under No. 747 refers to works executed by Leo- 

nardo in France. 

B. 37*1 


La faccia a 2 m dark il lume 'alle sta- 
4 Ze - 5 a e sark- braccia 6; a b fia braccia- 
8-, e fia braccia 30; accioche le stanze 
sotto i portici siano 6 luminose -, c- d-f- 
fia il loco donde se vadi a scaricare le navi 
in nelMe case; Avolere che questa cosa- 
abbia effetto bisogna che la inondatione 
de' fiumi non madasse 1' acqua alle ca- 
nove; e neciessario elegiere sito accomo- 
dato, 9 come porsi uicino a vno fiume, il 
quale ti dia i canali, che no si possino ne 
per 10 inodatione o secchezza delle acque 
dare mutatione alle altezze d'esse acque, 
e il modo e qui di sotto figurato, e fac- 
ciasi eletione di bel fiume che no intorbidi, 
ne "per pioggia, come Tesino Adda e 

The front a m will give light to the 
rooms; a e will be 6 braccia-a * 8 braccia 
-J * SO braccia, in order that the rooms 
under the porticoes may be lighted; c dj 
is the place where the boats come to the 
houses to be unloaded. In order to render 
this arrangement practicable, and m order 
that the inundation of the rivers may not 
penetrate into the cellars, it is necessary t 
chose an appropriate situation, such as a s] 
near a river which can be diverted into 
canals in which the level of the water will 
not vary either by -inundations or drought. 
The construction is shown below; and. make 
choice of a fine river, which the rams do 
not render muddy, such as the T 

modo . . .oto . . effaci . . nSnintorbidine. .2. per piogie chome 
. . sare . disfacicsino. 

745 L. .-4 are on the left hand side and within On the page #*. W hich comes next in the .original 

12 Tesino, Adda e molti altri, i. Drivers coming with p R> 

from the mountains and flowing through lakes. ^ 


|pfpipi '* -*. , J 



Heliog-^ D-ujardin. 

"..-' f ^ 

^ ...... ..f: ^x :s^SS 

746. 747-1 


stieno I3 a un altezza sara una coca, come to oblige the waters to keep constantly at 

qui disotto, la quale fia all' entrare della the same level . wil1 be a sort of dock > as 

.. . -IN shown below, situated at the entrance of the 

M terra, e megho alquato detro acioche town . or better ^ some way within ^ in 

nimici no la disfacciessino. order that the enemy may not destroy it [14]. 

B. 36 a] 


Tanto sia larga la stra 2 da , quanto e la Let the width of the streets be equal to 

universale 3 altezza delle case. the average height of the houses. 

Br. M. 270-5] 

II fiume di mezzo 2 no 
ricieva acqua 3 torbida, ma tale 
ac 4 qua vada per li fossi 5 di fori 
della terra 6 con 4 molina 
nelFe^trata e 4 nella u 8 scita, 
e questo si fa^ra col ringorgare 
1' acqua I0 di sopra a Romo- 

"Facciasi fonti I2 in cia- 
J 3scuna piazza. 


The main underground chan- 
nel does not receive turbid water, 
but that water runs in the ditches 
outside the town with four mills 
at the entrance and four at the 
outlet; and this may be done 
by damming the water above 

[ 1 1] There should be foun-' 
tains made in each piazza [13]. 

746. 3. alteza . . chase. 

747. i. el . . mezo. 3. mattale. 7. nella vs. 8. ecquesto. 9. ringhorghare. 12. [chome] in cias. 13. piaza. 

747. In the original this text comes immediately 10. Romolontino is Romorantin, South of Orleans 

after the passage given as No. 744. The remainder in France. 

of the writing on the same page refers to the con- Lines I II are written to the right of the plan 

struction of canals and is given later, in the "Topo- lines 11 13 underneath it. J. P. R. 

graphical Notes". 


///. Cast/es and 

A. Castles. 

PL LXXX, No. i (P. V.fol. 39*; No. ct'ordre 2282). The fortified 
place here represented is said by Vallardi to be the "castello" at Milan, but 
without any satisfactory reason. The high tower behind the "rivellino" ra- 
velin seems to be intended as a watch-tower. 

PI. LXXX, No. 2 (MS. B, 2$ b ). A similarly constructed tower pro- 
bably intended for the same use. 

PI. LXXX, No. 3 (MS. B). Sketches for corner towers with steps 
for a citadel. 

PL LXXX, No. 4 (W. XVI). A cupola crowning a corner tower; 
an interesting example of decorative fortification. In this reproduction of 
the original pen and ink drawing it appears reversed. 

B. Projects for Palaces. 

PI. LXXXI, No. 2 (MS. C A, 75*; 22 i, see No. 748;. Project for 
a royal residence at Amboise in France. 

PL LXXXII, No. i (C. A 308*; 939 a / A plan for a somewhat 
extensive residence, and various details ; but there' is no text to elucidate it; in 
courts are written the three names: 


(Cosmo) (John), 

mo nmo 

C. Plans for small castles or Villas. 

The three following sketches greatly resemble each other. 
PL LXXXII, No. 2 (MS. K* 36*; see No. 749;. 

.: :_- 


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Imp hudcs 

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Imp, Eudes. 




PL LXXXII, No. 3 (MS. B 60 ; see No. 750^. 

PL LXXXIII (W. XVII), The text on this sheet refers to Cyprus 
(see Topographical Notes No. 1103,), but seems to have no direct connection 
ivith the sketches inserted between. 

PL LX XX VIII, Nos. 6 and 7 (MS. B, 12"; .see No. 75 \). A sec- 
tion of a circiilar pavilion ivith the plan of a similar building by the side 
of it. These huo draivings have a special historical interest because the text 
ivritten below mentions the Duke and Duchess of Milan. 

The sketch of a villa on a terrace at the end of a garden occiirs in 
C. A. 150; and in C.A. 7J b ; 225^ is another sketch of a villa somewhat 
resembling the Belvedere of Pope Innocent VIII, at Rome. In C.A. 62^; 
193^ there is a Loggia. 

PL LXXXII, No. 4 (C.A. 387 a ; 1198*; is a tower -shaped Loggia 
above a fountain. The machinery is very ingeniously screened from 'view. 

C. A. 75<5; 22ia] 

74 8. 

[II palazzo del principe de' auere dinati 
vna piazza.] 

2 Le abitationi doue s'abbia a ballare 
o fare diuersi 3 S alti o uari movimeti con 
moltitudine di gente sieno terrene, perche 
gia n'6 veduto ruinare colla morte di 
5 molti; E sopra tutto fa che ogni muro, 
per sottile che 6 sia, abbia fondameto in 
terra o sopra archi bene 7fondati. 

8 Sieno li mezzanelli delli abitacoli $di- 
uisi da- muri fatti di stretti mat I0 toni e 
sanza legniami per ri^spetto del fuoco. 

I2 Tutti li neciessari abbino esalatio I3 ne 
per le grossezze de' muri, e in I4 modo che 
spirino per li tetti. 

*s Li mezzanelli sieno in volta, le quali 
I6 sara tanto piu forti quato e' .sara mi- 

18 Le catene di quercia sie rinchi'^use 
per li muri accio no sie ofifese 20 da foco. 

The Palace of the prince must have a 
piazza in front of it. 

Houses intended for dancing or any kind 
of jumping or any other movements with a 
multitude of people, must be on the ground- 
floor; for I have already witnessed the 
destruction of some, causing death to many 
persons, and above all let every wall, be it 
ever so thin, rest on the ground or on arches 
with a good foundation. 

Let the mezzanines of the dwellings be 
divided by walls made of very thin bricks, 
and without wood on account of fire. 

Let all the privies have ventilation [by 
shafts] in the thickness of the walls, so as to 
exhale by the roofs. 

The mezzanines should be vaulted, and 
the vaults will be stronger in proportion as 
they are of small size. 

The ties of oak must be enclosed in the 
walls in order to be protected from fire. 

748. i. palazo. 2. abitationini . . abballare offare. 3. chomoltitudine. 4. rrene . . cholla. 5. Essopra tucto . . persottile. 
6. ossopra arachi. 8. mezanelli . . abitacholi. 9. mac. 10. tono essanza . . ris. n. fuocho. 12. Tucti. 13. grosseze. 
14. chesspirino . . tecti. 15. mezanelli. 18. chatene diquercie. 20. focho. 21. Lesstaze . . adesstri. 23. il ferore non isspiri. 

748. The remarks accompanying the plan repro- moat. In the large court surrounded by a portico 

dticed on PI. LXXXI, No. 2 are as follows: Above, "in terre No. Largha l/r.So e lugha br 120." To 

to the left : "in a angholo stia la guardia de la sstalla" the right of the castle is a large basin for 

(in the angle a may be the keeper of the stable). aquatic sports with the words "Giostre colle nave 

Below are the words "strada dabosa" (road to doe li giostra li stieno sopra le na" (Jousting in boats 

Amboise), parallel with this "fossa br 40" (the that is the men are to be in boats). J. P. R. 
moat 40 braccia) fixing the width of the 

VOL. II. "E 




"Le staze d'andare a' destri sieno 
"molte che entrino Tuna nell' al^tra, ac- 
cioche il fiero odore non spiri per 24 le 
abitationi, e tutti li loro usci 2 Ssi serrino 
colli cotrapesi. 

26 La massima diuisione della frote di 
que 27 sto palazzo in due parti, cioe che 
la Iarghez 28 za della corte sia la meta di 
tutta la predetta 2 9fronte; La 2 a ... 

The privies must be numerous and going 
one into the other in order that the stench 
may not penetrate into the dwellings, and 
all, their doors must shut off themselves with 

The main division of the facade of this 
palace is into two portions; that is to say 
the width of the court-yard must be half the 
whole facade; the 2 nd ... 



Largo per ogni lato br. 30; 1'entrata da 
2 basso e in una sala larga braccia 10 e 
^ lunga braccia 30 e a 4 camere co sua cami 4 ni. 

30 braccia wide on each side; the lower en- 
trance leads into a hall 10 braccia wide and 30 
braccia long with 4 recesses each with a chimney. 

B. 6oa| 


II primo grado sia tutto 2 ripieno. 

The firststorey [or terrace] must be entirely 

B. 12 a] 


Padiglione del giardino della duchessa 
2 di Milano. 

Fondameto del padiglione ch'e nel 
* mezzo del laberinto del duca di Milano. 

The pavilion in the garden of the Du- 
chess of Milan. 

The plan of the pavilion which is in the 
middle of the labyrinth of the Duke of Milan. 

24. li . . ettutti . . vssci. 25. cholli chotrappesi. 26. ques. 26. chella larghe. 
749. i. Largho . . dab. 2. basso [e ino] e in . . la"r"gha br . 10 el. 3. lungha br 30. 
751. i. zardino. 3. del [z]. 4. mezo. 

749. On each side of the castle, PI. LXXXII. 
No. 2 there are drawings of details, to the left 
"Camino" a chimney, to the right the central lantern, 
sketched in red "8 latf i. e. an octagon. 

751. This passage was first published by AMO- 
RETTI in Memorie Storiche Cap. X : Una sua opera da 
riportarsi a quesf anno fu il bagno fatto per la duchessa 
Beatrice nel parco o giardino del Castello. Leonardo non 
sofo ne disegnb il piccolo edifizio a foggia di padiglione, 
nel cod. segnato Q. 3, dandone anche separatamente la 
pianta; ma sotto vi scrisse: Padiglione del giardino della 
duchessa; e sotto la pianta: Fondamento del padiglione 
ch'e nel metxo del labirinlo del duca di Milano; nessuna 
data e presso il padiglione t disegnato nella pagina 12, 
ma poco sopra fra molti circoli intrecciati vedesi = 10 Lu- 
glio 1492 = e nella pagina 2 presso ad alctmi disegni 
di legumi qualcheduno ha letto Settembre 1482 in vece di 
1492, come dovea scrrverevi, e probabilmente scrisse 

The original text however hardly bears the inter- 
pretation put i. pun it l>y AMORETTI. He is mis- 

taken as to the mark on the MS. as well as in his 
statements as to the date, for the MS. in question 
has no date ; the date he gives occurs, on the con- 
trary, in another note-book. Finally, it appears to 
me quite an open question whether Leonardo was 
the architect who carried out the construction of 
the dome-like Pavilion here shown in section, or 
of the ground plan of the Pavilion drawn by the 
side of it. Must we, in fact, suppose that "// duca 
di Milano" here mentioned was, as has been gene- 
rally assumed, Ludovico il Moro? He did not hold 
this title from the Emperor before 1494; till that 
date he was only called Govematore and Leonardo 
in speaking of him, mentions him generally as 
"il Moro" even after 1494. On Januaiy 18, 1491, 
he married Beatrice d'Este the daughter of Ercole I, 
Duke of Ferrara. She died on the 2"d January 1497, 
and for the reasons I have given it seems impro- 
bable that it should be this princess who is here 
spoken of as the "Duchessa di Milano". From the 
style of the handwriting it appears to me to be beyond 




j / 





i, < 

jl P 


? < ^^ 

PL LXXXlll. 

7jr~ ^ 


. i M 

? * 4. 

? c ^ 




B. 19 *J 752. 

II terreno che si cava dalle canove 2 si 
debe elevare da cato tato in alto che sfac- 
cia un orto , che sia alto quato la sala, 4 ma 
fa che tra'l terreno dell' orto e'l muro 
sdella casa sia uno intervallo, accio che 
6 l'umido no guasti i muri maestri. 

The earth that is dug out from the cellars 
must be raised on one side so high as to 
make a terrace garden as high as the level 
of the hall; but between the earth of the 
terrace and the wall of the house, leave an 
interval in order that the damp may not spoil 
the principal walls. 

753. i. tereno chessi chava delle chanove. 2. ellevare da chato. 3. chessia. 4. chettral tereno. 5. cbasa. 6. maesstri. 

all doubt that the MS. B, from which this passage the Duchess would be his wife Isabella of Aragon, 

is taken, is older than the dated MSS. of 1492 and to whom he was married on the second February 

1493. In that case the Duke of Milan here men- 14.89. J. P. R. 

tioned would be Gian Galeazzo (1469 1494) and 

Ecclesiastical Architecture. 

A. General Observations. 

B. 39*] 


Senpre vno edifitio vole essere 2 spic- 
cato dintorno a volere dimostra^re la sua 
vera forma. 

A building should always be detached 
on all sides so that its form may be seen. 

Ash. II. %b\ 


Qui no si pu6 ne si debe fare 2 capa- 
nile, anzi debe 3 stare separate come a il 
do 4 mo e Sa Giovanni di Fireze-, 5e cosl il 
domo di Pisa che mo 6 stra il capanile per se 
dispicca 7 to T circa e cosl il domo, e o 8 gni 
vno per se puo mostrare la sua 9 perfet- 
tione, e chi lo uolesse pure I0 fare colla 
chiesa, faccia la la^terna scusare capanile 
12 come e la chiesa di Chiaravalle. 

Here there cannot and ought not to be 
any campanile; on the contrary it must stand 
apart like that of the Cathedral and of San 
Giovanni at Florence, and of the Cathedral 
at Pisa, where the campanile is quite detached 
as well as the dome. Thus each can display 
its own perfection. If however you wish to join 
it to the church, make the lantern serve for 
the campanile as in the church at Chiaravalle. 

753. 2. ispichato. 

754. I. po nessi. 2. chlpanile. 3. chome. 4. essagiovani. 6. chapanile . . displicha. 7. circho e chosi. 8. po. 9. perfeclione. 
10. colla. II. schusare chapanile. 

753. The original text is reproduced on PI. XCII, 
No. i to the left hand at the bottom. 

754. This text is written by the side of the plan 
given on PI. XCI. No. 2. 

12. The Abbey of Chiaravalle, a few miles from 
Milan, has a central tower on the intersection of the 

cross in the style of that of the Certosa of Pavia, but 
the style is mediaeval (A. D. 1330). Leonardo seems 
here to mean, that in a building, in which the cir- 
cular form is strongly conspicuous, the campanile 
must either be separated, or rise from the centre of 
the building and therefore take the form of a lantern. 


; >,k' , 

' . ' -. 
"%-' - 


Iniv Eudes 






A nessuna chiesa sta 2 bene vedere tetti, It never looks well to see the roofs of 

azi 3 S ia rappianato e per canali 1'acqua a chur ch; they should rather be flat and the 

water should run off by gutters made in the 
discesda ai condotti fatti nel 6 fregio. frieze. 

755- 3- rapianato . . cha. 4. la ch . gua dissie. 5. chondotti. 

755. This text is to the left of the domed church reproduced on PL LXXXVII, No. 2. 

B. The theory of Dome Architecture. 

This subject has been more extensively treated by Leonardo in drawings 
than in writing. Still we may fairly assume that it was his purpose, ulti- 
mately to embody the results of his investigation in a "Trattato delle Cu- 
pole." The amount of materials is remarkably extensive. MS. B is parti- 
cularly rich in plans and elevations of churches with one or more domes from 
the simplest form to the most complicated that can be imagined. Considering 
the evident connexion betiveen a great number of these sketches, as well as 
the impossibility of seeing in them designs or preparatory sketches for any 
building intended to be erected, the conclusion is obvious that they were not 
designed for any particular monument, but were theoretical and ideal researches, 
made in order to obtain a clear understanding of the laws which must 
govern the construction of a great central dome, with smaller ones grouped 
round it ; and with or without the addition of spires, so that each of these 
parts by itself and in its juxtaposition to the other parts should produce the 
grandest possible effect. 

In these sketches Leonardo seems to have exhausted every imaginable 
combination. ' The results of some of these problems are perhaps not quite 
satisfactory ; still they cannot be considered to give evidence of a want of 
taste or of any other defect in Leonardos architectural capacity. They 
were no doubt intended exclusively for his own instruction, and, before all, 
as it seems, to illustrate the features or consequences resulting from a given 

' In MS. B, 32 * (see M. C III, No. 2) we find eight geometrical patterns, eaeh drawn in a square; and 
in MS. C.A., fol. 87 to 98 form a whole series of patterns done with the same intention. 

( / 

M j 

i "..'. , : *v~^-* ..^. - ,-j,. < . r >^^ 

j ' 



tr: :^fP 


Jn.f ft ^ 



/ have already, in another place, I pointed out the law of construction 
for buildings crowned by a large dome: namely, that such a dome, to pro- 
duce the greatest effect .possible, should rise cither from the centre of a Greek 
cross, or from the centre of a structure of which the plan has some sym- 
metrical affinity to a circle, this circle being at the same time the centre of 
the whole plan of the building. 

Leonardo s sketches show that he was fully aware, as was to be ex- 
pected, of this tritth. Few of them exhibit the form of a Latin cross, and 
when this is met with, it generally gives evidence of the determination to 
assign as prominent a part as possible to the dome ' in the general effect of 
the building. 

While it is evident, on the one hand, that the greater number of these 
domes had no particular purpose, not being, designed for execution, on the 
other hand several reasons may be found for Leonardos perseverance in his 
studies of the subject. 

Besides the theoretical interest of the question for Leonardo and his 
Trattato and besides the taste for domes prevailing at that time, it seems 
likely that the intended erection of some building of the flrst importance 
like the Duomos of Pavia and Como, the church of Sta. Maria delle Grazie 
at Milan, and the constriiction of a Dome or central Tower (Tiburio) on 
the cathedral of Milan, may have stimulated Leonardo to undertake a 
general and thorough investigation of the subject; whilst Leonardo s intercourse 
with Bramante for ten years or more, can hardly have remained without in- 
fluence in this matter. In fact now that some of this great Architect's 
studies for S. Peter s at Rome have at last become known, he must be con- 
sidered henceforth as the greatest master of Dome- Architecture that ever 
existed. His influence, direct or indirect ez>en on a genius like Leonardo 
seems the more likely, since Leonardo s sketches reveal a style most similar 
to that of Bramante, whose name indeed, occurs twice in Leonardos manu- 
script notes. It must not be forgotten that Leonardo was a Florentine; 
the characteristic form of the two principal domes of Florence, 
Sta. Maria del Fiore and the Battisterio, constantly appear as leading 
features in his sketches. 

The church of San Lorenzo at Milan, was at that time still intact. 
The dome is to this day one of the most wonderful cupolas ever constructed, 
and with its two smaller domes might well attract the attention and study 

1 Les Projets Primitifs pour la Basilique de St. Pierre de Rome, par Bramante, Raphael etc., 
Vol. I, p. 2. 


of a never resting genius such as Leonardo. A whole class of these sketches 
betray in fact the direct influence of the church of S. Lorenzo, and this also 
seems to have suggested the plan of Bramantes dome of St. Peter s at Rome. 
In the folloiving pages the various sketches for the construction of 
domes have been classified and discussed from a general point of view. On 
tivo sheets: PI. LXXXIV (C. A. 354*; 1 18; and PL LXXXV, Nos. i 1 1 
(Ash. //, 6 b ) we see various dissimilar types, grouped together ; thus these 
two sheets may be regarded as a sort of nomenclature of the different types, 
on which we shall now have to treat. 




i V 

f v <*.- 

1. Churches formed on the plan of a Greek cross. 

Group L 
Domes rising from a circular base. 

The simplest type of central building is a circular edifice. 

PL LXXXIV, No. 9. Plan of a circular building surrounded by a 

PL LXXXIV, No. 8. Elevation of the former, with a conical roof. 

PL XC. No. 5. A dodecagon, as most nearly approaching the circle. 

PL LXXXVI, No. i, 2, 3. Four round chapels are added at the 
extremities of the two principal axes ; compare this plan with fig. i on 
p. 44 and fig. 3 on p. 47 ( W. P. $' 6 J where the outer wall is octagonal. 

Group II. 
Domes rising from a square base. 

The plan is a square surrounded by a colonnade, and the dome seems 
to be octagonal. 

PL LXXXIV. The square plan below the circular building No. 8, and 
its elevation to the left, above the plan: here the ground-plan is square, the 
upper storey octagonal. A further development of this type is shown in two 
sketches C. A. 3 (not reproduced here), and in 

PL LXXXVI, No. 5 (which possibly belongs to No. 7 on PL 

PL LXXXV, No. 4, and p. 45, Fig. 3, a Greek cross, repeated p. 45, 
Fig. 3, is another development of the square central plan. 

The remainder of these studies show two different systems ; in the first 
the dome rises from a square plan, in the second from an octagonal base. 



Group III. 
Domes rising from a square base and four pillars* 

a) First type. A Dome resting on four pillars in the centre of a square 
edifice, with an apse in the middle, of each of the four sides. We have cle:en 
variations of this type. 

aa) PL LXXXVIII, No. 3. 

bb) PL LXXX, No. 5. 

cc) PL LXXXV, Nos. 2, 3, 5. 
dd) PL LXXXIV, No. i and 4 beneath. 

ee) PL LXXXV, Nos. i, 7, 10, n. 

b) Second type. This consists in adding aisles to the whole plan of the 
first type; columns are placed between the apses and the aisles; the plan 

thus obtained is very nearly identical with that of S. 'Lorenzo at Milan. 

Fig. i on p. 56. (MS. B, 7$ a ) shows the result of this treatment 
adapted to a peculiar purpose about which we shall have to say a few 
words later on. 

PL XCV, No. i, shows the same plan but with the addition of a short 
nave. This plan seems to have been suggested by the general arrangement 
of S. Sepolcro at Milan. 

MS. B. 57 b (see the sketch reproduced on p. $\). By adding towers 
in the four outer angles to the last named plan, we obtain a plan which bears 
the general features of Bramantes plans for S. Peter s at Rome. 2 (See 
p. 51 Fig. i.; 

Group IV. 

Domes rising from an octagonal base. 

This system, developed according to two different schemes, has given 
rise to two classes with many varieties. 

In a) On each side of the octagon chapels of equal form are added. 

In b) The chapels are dissimilar ; those which terminate the principal 
axes being different in form from those which are added on the diagonal 
sides of the octagon. 

a. First Class. 

The Chapel "degli Angeli," at Florence, built only to a height of about 
20 feet by Brunellesco, may be considered as the prototype of this group; 
and, indeed it probably suggested it. The fact that we see" in MS. B. \\ b 

i The ancient chapel San Satiro, via dd Falcone, Milan, is a specimen of this type. 
* See Les projets primitifs etc., PI. 9 12. 


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(PL XCI V, No. 3) by the side of Brunellescds plan for the Basilica of 
Sto. Spirito at Florence, a plan almost identical with that of the Capella 
degli Angeli, confirms this supposition. Only two small differences, or we 
may say improvements, have been introduced by Leonardo. Firstly the back 
of the chapels contains a third niche, and each angle of the Octagon a folded 
pilaster like those in Bramantes Sagrestia di S. M. presso San Satiro at 
Milan, instead of an interval between the two pilasters as seen in the Bat- 
tistero at Florence and in the Sacristy of Sto. Spirito in the same town 
and also in the above named chapel by Brunellesco. 

The first set of sketches which come under consideration have at first 
sight the appearance of mere geometrical studies. They seem to have been 
suggested by the plan given on page 44 Fig. 2 (MS. B, 55^ in the centre of 
which is written "Santa Maria in perticha da Pavia", at the place marked A 
on the reproduction. 

a) (MS. B, 34^, page 44 Fig. $). In the middle of each side a, co- 
lumn is added, and in the axes of the intercolumnar spaces a second row of 
columns forms an aisle round the octagon. These are placed at the inter- 
section of a system of semicircles,, of which the sixteen columns on the 
sides of the octagon are the centres. 

b) The preceding diagram is completed and becomes more monumental 
in -style in the sketch next to it (MS. B, 35", see p. 45 Fig. \). An 
outer aisle is added by circles, having for radius the distance between the 
columns in the middle sides of the octagon. 

c) (MS. B, 96 b , see p. 45 Fig. 2). Octagon with an aisle round it; 
the angles of botJi are formed by columns. The outer sides are formed by 8 niches 

forming chapels. The exterior is likewise octagonal, with the angles corre- 
sponding to the centre of each of the interior chapels. 

PL XCI I, No. 2 (MS.B. 96 b ). Detail and modification of the preceding 
plan half columns against piers an arrangement by which the chapels of 
the aisle have the same width of opening as the inner arches between the half 
columns. ' Underneath this sketch the following note owirs: questo vole avere 
1 2 facce co 1 2 tabernaculi come a b. (This will have twelve sides with 
twelve tabernacles as a bj In the remaining sketches of this class the octagon is 
not formed by columns at the angles. 

The simplest type shows a niche in the middle of each side and is re- 
peated on several sheets, viz: MS. B 3; MS. C.A. 354^ (see PI. LXXXIV, 
No. \\), and MS. Ash II 6^; (see PL LXXXV, No. 9 and the elevations 
No. 8; PL XCI I, No. 3/ MS. B. 4* [not reproduced here] and PL LXXXIV, 
No. 2). 



Fig. i. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig- 3- 



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Fig. i. 

Fig. 3- 

Fig. 2. 


PL XCII, 3 (MS. B, 56 b ) corresponds to a plan like the one in MS. 
B 35 fl *n which the niches would be visible outside or, as in the follow- 
ing sketch, with the addition of a niche in the middle of each chapel. 

PI. XC, No. 6. The niches themselves are surrounded by smaller niches 
(see also No. I on the same plate). 

Octagon expanded on each side. 

A. by a square chapel: 

MS. B. 34* (not reproduced here). 

B. by a square with 3 niches: 

MS. B.\\ b (see PI. XCIV, No. 3 / 

C. by octagonal chapels : 

a) MS. B,2\; PI. LXXXVIII, No. 14. 

b) No. 2 on the same plate. Underneath there is the remark: "quest'e 
come le 8 cappele ano a essere facte" (this is how the eight chapels 
are to be executed). 

c) PI. LXXXVIII, No. 5. Elevation to the plans on the same sheet, 
it is accompanied by the note: "ciasscuno de' 9 tiburi no'uole passare 
1'alteza di 2 quadri" (neither of the 9 domes must exceed tJte 
height of two squares). 

d) PI. LXXXVIII, No, i, Inside of the same octagon. 

MS. B, 30, and 34^; these are three repetitions of parts of the 
same plan with very slight variations. 

D. by a circular chapel: 

MS. B, i8 a (see Fig. I on page tf) gives the plan of this arrangement in 

which the exterior is square on the ground floor ivith only four of the 

chapels projecting, as is explained in the next sketch. 
PI. LXXXIX, MS. B, \j b . Elevation to the preceding plan sketched on 

the opposite side of the sheet, and also marked A. It is accompanied by 
' the following remark, indicating the theoretical character of these studies : 

questo edifitio anchora starebbe bene affarlo dalla linja a b c d 

insu. (" This edifice would also produce a good effect if only the part above 

the lines a b, c d, were executed"). 
PL LXXXIV, No. ii. The exterior has the form of an octagon, but tlic 

chapels project partly beyond it. On the left side of the sketch tht\ 

appear larger than on the right side. 

PI. XC, No. i, (MS. B, 25*); Repetition of PI. LXXXIV, No. u. 
PI. XC, No. 2. Elevation to the plan No. \, and also to No. 6 of the 

same sheet. 

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Fig. 3- 


E. By chapels formed by four niches: 

PL LXXXfV, No. 7 (the circular plan on the left below) shows this 
arrangement in which the central dome has become circular inside and 
might therefore be classed after this group. 1 

The sketch on the right hand side gives most likely the elevation for 
the last named plan. 

F. By chapels of still richer combinations, which necessitate an octagon of 

larger dimensions: 

PI. XCI, No. 2 (MS. Ash. II. 8*} 2 ; on this plan the chapels themselves 
appear to be central buildings formed like the first type of the third 
group. PI. LXXXVII I, No. 3. 

PL XCf, No. 2 above; the exterior of the preceding figure, particu- 
larly interesting on account of the alternation of apses and niches , the 
latter cantaining statues of a gigantic size, in proportion to the dimen- 
sion of the niches. 

b. Second Class. 

Composite plans of this class are generally obtained by combining two 
types of the first class the one worked out on the principal axes, the other 
on the diagonal ones. 

MS. B. 22 shows an elementary combination, without any additions on 
the diagonal axes, but with the dimensions of the squares on the two 
principal axes exceeding those of the sides of the octagon. 

In the drawing W. P. 5 b (see page 44 Fig. ij the exterior only of 
the edifice is octagonal, the interior being formed by a circular colonnade; 
round chapels are placed against the four sides of the principal axes. 

The elevation, drawn on ' the same sheet (see page 47 Fig. 3}, shows the 
whole arrangement which is closely related with the one on PL LXXXVI 
No. i, 2. 

MS. B. 2\ a shows: 

a) four sides with rectangular chapels crowned by pediments 

PL LXXXVII No. 3 (plan and elevation) ; 

b) four sides with square chapels crowned by octagonal domes. 

PL LXXXVII No. 4; the plan underneath. 

MS. B. i8 a shows a variation obtained by replacing the round chapels 
in the principal axes of the sketch MS. B. 1 8 a by square ones, with an 

This plan and some others of this class remind us of the plan of the Mausoleum of Augustus as it is 
represented for instance by Durand. See Cab. des Estampes, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Topographic de 
Rome, V, 6, 82. 

a The note accampanying this plan is given under No. 754. 



Imp. Euder 


Imp, Elides. 

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Imp s 


apse. Leonardo repeated both ideas for better comparison side by side, see 
page 47. Fig. 2. 

PI. LXXXIX (MS. B. \*j b ). Elevation for the preceding figure. The 
comparison of the drawing marked M with the plan on page 47 Fig. 2, 
bearing the same mark, and of. the elevation on PI. LXXXIX below 
(marked A) with the corresponding plan on page 47 is highly instructive, 
as illustrating the spirit in which Leonardo pursued these studies. 

PI. LXXXIV No. 12 shows the design PI. LXXXVII No. 3 com- 
bined with apses, with the addition of round chapels on the diagonal sides. 

PL LXXXIV No. 13 is a variation of the preceding sketch. 

PI. XC No. 3. MS. B. 25*. The round chapels of the preceding 
sketch are replaced by octagonal chapels, above which rise campaniles. 

PI. XC No. 4 is the elevation for the preceding plan. 

PL XCII No. i. (MS. B. 39^; the plan below. On the principal as 
well as on the diagonal axes are diagonal chapels, but the latter are sepa- 
rated from the dome by semicircular recesses. The communication between 
these eight chapels forms a square aisle round the central dome. 

Above this figure is the elevation, showing four campaniles on the angles. 1 

PI. CXXXIV No. 3. On the principal axes are square chapels ivith 
three niches ; on the diagonals octagonal chapels with niches. Cod. Atl. 340^ 
gives a somewhat similar arrangement. 

MS. B. 30. The principal development is thrown on the diagonal axes 
by square chapels with three niches ; on the principal axes are inner recesses 
communicating with outer ones. 

The plan PL XCII I No. 2 (MS. B. 22) differs from this only in so far 
as the outer semicircles have become circular chapels, projecting from the external 
square as apses ; one of them serves as the entrance by a semicircular portico. 

The elevation is drawn on the left side of the plan. 

MS. B. 19. A further development of MS. B. 1 8, by employing for 
the four principal chapels the type PL LXXXVIII No. 3, as we have al- 
ready seen in PL XCI No. 2 ; the exterior presents two varieties. 

a) The outer contour follows the inner. 2 

b) It is semicircular. 

PL LXXXVII No. 2 (MS. B. \% b ) Elevation to the first variation 
MS. B. 1 9. If we were not certain that this sketch was by Leonardo, we 
might feel tempted to take it as a study by Bramante for St. Peters at Rome3 

1 The note accompanying this drawing is reproduced under No. 753. 

2 These chapels are here sketched in two different sizes; it is the smaller type which is thus formed. 

3 See Les projets primitifs PI. 43. 

VOL. 11. G 


MS. P. V. 39*. In the principal axes the chapels of MS. B. 19, 
and semicircular niches on the diagonals. The exterior, oj the whole edi- 
fice is also an octagon, concealing the form of the interior chapels, but with 
its angles on their axes. 

Group V. 
Suggested by San Lorenzo at Milan. 

In MS. C. A. 266 IP, 812* there is a plan almost identical with that 
of San Lorenzo. The diagonal sides of the irregular octagon are not indi- 
cated. If it could be proved that the arches which, in the actual church, 
exist on these sides in the first story, were added in 1574 by Martimo Bassi, 
then this plan and the following section would be still nearer the original 
state of San Lorenzo than at present. A reproduction of this slightly sketched 
plan has not been possible. It may however be under stood from PI. LXXXVIII 
No. 3, by suppressing the four pillars corresponding to the apses. 

PL LXXXVII No. i shows the section in elevation corresponding with 
the above-named plan. The recessed chapels are decorated with large shells in the 
halfdomes like the arrangement in an Lorenzo, but with proportions 
like those of Bramantes Sacristy of Santa Maria presso S. Satiro. 

MS. C. A. 266; a sheet containing three views of exteriors of Domes. 
On the same sheet there is a plan similar to the one above-named but with 
uninterrupted aisles and with the addition of round chapels in the axes 
(compare PL XCVII No. 3 and .page 44 Fig. \), perhaps a reminiscence of 
the two chapels annexed to San Lorenzo. Leonardo has here sketched the way 
of transforming this plan into a Latin cross by means of a nave with 
side aisles. 

PL XCI No. i . Plan showing a type deprived of aisles and comprised 
in a square building which is surrounded by a portico. It is accompanied 
by the following text: 

Ash. n. 7 a] 756. 

Questo edifitio e abitato di sotto e di This edifice is inhabited [accessible] below 

sopra come e san Sepulcro, 2 ed e sopra and above, like San Sepolcro, and it is 

come sotto, saluo che '1 di sopra al tiburio the same above as below, except that the 

c d e' 1 di sotto 3 a l tiburio a b e quado upper story has the dome c d; and the 

756. i. tocto . . chome . . sansepulchro. a. chome. 3. a . b . e ecquado. 4. nela . . socto. 4. chali 10 schalini. 5. schalini . . 

756. The church of San Sepolcro at Milan, foun- of the XVI ih century, still stands over the crypt of 
ded in 1030 and repeatedly rebuilt after the middle the original structure. 



entri nella chiesa di sotto, 4 tu cali 10 sea- lower has the dome a b, and when you 

lini, e quado mod in quello di sopra tu sali enter into the cr 7P^ y u descend 10 steps, 

..... ... ._ . and when you mount into the upper you 

205scalim, che a '/ 3 luno fano 10 braccia, * 

e questo e lo spatio ch'e 6 infra i piani e ach, make 10 braccia, and this is the. height 

delPuna e 1'altra chiesa. 

10. br . e. n. ellaltra. 

between one floor of the church and the other. 

Above the plan on the same sheet is a view of the exterior. By the aid 
of these two figures and the description, sections of the edifice may easily 
be reconstructed. But the section drawn on the left side of the building 
seems not to be in keeping with the same plan, notwithstanding the expla- 
natory note written underneath it: "dentro il difitio di sopra" (interior of 
the edifice above) 1 . 

Before leaving this group , it is ^vell to remark that the germ of it 
seems already indicated by the diagonal lines in the plans PL LXXXV 
No. ii and No. 7. We shall fend another application of the same type to 
the Latin cross in PL XCVII No. 3. 

1 The small inner dome corresponds to a b on the plan it rises from the lower church into the upper ? 
above, and larger, rises the dome c d. The aisles above and below thus correspond (e di sopra come di sotto, 
salvoche etc.). The only difference is, that in the section Leonardo has not taken the trouble to make the form 
octagonal, but has merely sketched circular lines in perspective. J. P. R. 


2. Churches formed on the plan of a Latin cross. 

We find among Leonardos studies several sketches for churches on the 
plan of the Latin cross ; we shall begin by describing them, and shall add 
a few observations. 

A. Studies after existing Monuments. 

PI. XCIV No. 2. (MS. B. \\ b .) Plan of Santo Spirito at Florence, 
a basilica built after the designs of Brunellesco. Leonardo has added the 
indication of a portico in front, either his own invention or the reproduction 
of a now lost design. 

PL XCV No. 2. Plan accompanied by the words: "A e santo sepolcro 
di milano di sopra" ^A is the upper church of S. Sepolcro at Milan) ; although 
since Leonardos time considerably spoilt, it is still the same in plan. 

The second plan with its note: "B e la sua parte socto tera" (B zs its sub- 
terranean part [the crypt]") still corresponds with the present state of this 
part of the church as I have ascertained by visiting the crypt with this plan. 
Excepting the addition of a few insignificant walls, the state of this in- 
teresting part of the church still conforms to Leonardos sketch ; but in the 
Vestibolo the two columns near the entrance of the winding stairs are absent. 

B. Designs or Studies. 

PL XCV No. i. Plan of a church evidently suggested by that of 
San Sepolcro at Milan. The central part has been added to on the principle 
of the second type of Group III. Leonardo has placed the "coro" (choir) in 
the centre. 


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PL XCVI No. 2. In the plan the dome, as regards its interior, belongs 
to the First Class of Group ""IV, and may be grouped with the one in 
MS. B. 35 a . The nave seems to be a development of the type represented 
in PL XCV No. 2, B. by adding towers and two lateral porticos' 1 . 

On the left is a view of the exterior of the preceding plan. It is accom- 
panied by the following note: 

B. 24 ] 757- 

Questo edifitio e abitato di sopra e di This building is inhabited below and 

sotto; 2 di sopra -si va per li campanili e above; the way up is by the campaniles, 

uassi su per lo piano 3dove sono fondati f d ^ going up one has to use the plat- 

... , . x form, where the drums of the four domes 

i 4 tibun, e detto piano 4 a uno parapetto ^ and thig platform has a parapet in frontj 

dmazi, e di detti tibun nessuno s n e riesce an d none of these domes communicate with 
in chiesa, anzi sono separati I tutto. the church, but they are quite separate. 

757. 4. a i parapecto. 5. neriessie . . tucto. 

PL XCVI No. i (MS. C. A. i6 b ; 6$ a ). Perspective view of a church 
seen from behind; this recalls the Duomo at Florence, but with two campaniles 2 . 

PL XCVI I No. 3 (MS. B. 52). The central part is a development of 
S. Lorenzo at Milan, such as was executed at the Duomo of Pavia. There 
is sufficient analogy between the building actually executed and this sketch 
to suggest a direct connection between them. Leonardo accompanied Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio^ when the latter was consulted on June 2\ st , 1490 as to this 
church; the fact that the only word accompanying the plan is: "sagrestia", 
seems to confirm our supposition, for the sacristies were added only in 1492, 
i. e. four years after the beginning of the Cathedral, which at that time 
was most likely still sufficiently unfinished to be capable of receiving the 
form of the present sketch. 

PL XCV I I No. 2 shows the exterior of this design. Below is the note: 
edifitio al proposito del fodameto figurato di socto (edifice proper for the 
ground plan figured below). 

Here we may also mention the plan of a Latin cross drawn in MS. 
C. A. fol. 266 (see p. 50,). 

PL XCIV No. i (MS. L. 15^. External side view of Brunellescds 
Florentine basilica San Lorenzo, seen from the North. 

PL XCIV No. 4 (V. A. V, \). Principal front of a nave, most 
likely of a church on the plan of a Latin cross. We notice here not only the 

1 Already published in Les projets primitifs PI. IX. 

2 Already published in the Saggio PI. IX. 

3 See MALASPINA, il Duomo di Pavia. Documents. 



principal features which were employed afterwards in Albcrti's front of 
S. Maria Novella, but even details of a more advanced style, such as 
we are accustomed to meet with only after the year 1520. 

In the background of Leonardos unfinished picture of St. Jerome 
(Vatican Gallery) a somewhat similar church front is indicated (see the 
accompanying sketch). 

The view of the front of a temple, apparently a dome in the centre of 
four corinthian porticos bearing pediments (published by Amoretti Tav. II. B 
as being by Leonardo), is taken from a drawing, now at the Ambrosian 
Gallery. We cannot consider this to be by the hand of the master. 


. .- 

- r - ' 

Imp Eude s 

C. Studies for a form of a Church most proper for preaching. 

The problem as to what form of church might answer the require- 
ments of acoustics seems to have engaged Leonardo s very particular attention. 
The designation of "teatro" given to some of these sketches, clearly shows 
which plan seemed to him most favourable for hearing the preacher s voice. 
PI. XCVII, No. i (MS. B, 52). Rectangular edifice divided into three 
naves with an apse on either side, terminated by a semicircular theatre with 
rising seats, as in antique buildings. The pulpit is in the centre. Leonardo 
has written on the left side of the sketch: "teatro da predicare" (Theatre 
for preaching). 

MS. B, 55* (see page 56, Fig. ij. A domed church after the type of 
PL XCV, No. i, shows four theatres occupying the apses and facing the 
square "coro" (choir), which is in the centre between the four pillars of the 
dome. 1 The rising arrangement of the seats is shown in the sketch above. 
At the place marked B Leonardo wrote teatri per uldire messa (rows of 
seats to hear mass), at T teatri, and at C coro (choir). 

In MS. C.A. 260, are slight sketches of two plans for rectangular 
choirs and two elevations of the altar and. pulpit which seem to be in con- 
nection with these plans. 

In MS. Ash II, 8 a (see p. 56 and 57. Fig. 2 and $). "Locho dove si pre- 
dica" (Place for preaching). A most singular plan for a. building. The 
interior is a portion of a sphere, the centre of which is the summit of 
a column destined to serve as the preacher s pulpit. The inside is somewhat 

' The note teatro de predicar, on the right side is, I believe, in lJu' handwriting of Pontpeo Leoni. J. P. R. 


Fig. 2. 

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like a modern theatre, whilst the exterior and the galleries and stairs recall 
the ancient amphitheatres. 

Page 57, Fig. 4. A plan accompanying the two preceding drawings. 
If this gives the complete form Leonardo intended for the edifice, it would 

Fig. 3- 

Fig. 4. 

have comprised only about .two thirds of the circle. Leonardo wrote in the 
centre "fondamento", a word he often employed for plans, and on the left 
side of the view of the exterior: locho dove si predicha (a place for 
preaching in). 



D. Design for a Mausoleum. 

PI. XCVIII (P. V., 182. No. d'ordre 2386;. In the midst of a hilly 
landscape rises an artificial mountain in the form of a gigantic cone, crow- 
ned by an imposing temple. At two thirds of the height a terrace is cut 
out with six doorways forming entrances to galleries, each leading to three 
sepulchral halls, so constructed as to contain about Jive hundred funeral 
urns, disposed in the customary antique style. From two opposite sides 
steps ascend to the terrace in a single flight and beyond it to the tetnple 
above. A large circular opening, like that in the Pantheon, is in the dome 
above what may be the altar, or perhaps the central monument on the level 
of the terrace below. 

The section of a gallery given in the sketch to the right below shows 
the roof to be constructed on the principle of superimposed horizontal layers, 
projecting one beyond the other, and each furnished ivith a sort of heel, which 
appears to be undercut, so as to give the appearance of a beam from within. 
Granite alone would be adequate to the dimensions here given to the key 
stone, as the thickness of the layers can hardly be considered to be less than 
a foot. In taking this as the basis of our calculation for the dimensions of 
the whole construction, the width of the chamber would be about 2 5 feet but, 
judging from the number of urns it contains and there is no reason to 
suppose that these urns were larger than usual it would seem to be no 
more than about 8 or \ o feet. 

The construction of the vaults resembles those in the galleries of some 
etruscan tumuli, for instance the Regulini Galeassi tomb at Cervetri (late- 
ly discovered) and also that of the chamber and passages of the pyramid of 
Cheops and of the treasury of Atreus at Mycenae. 

The upper cone displays not only analogies with the monuments men- 
tioned in the note, but also with Etruscan tumuli, such as the Cocumella 

. - : 


Imp. Elide 


tomb at Vulci, and the Regulini Galeassi tomb' 1 . The whole scheme is one 
of the most magnificent in the history of Architecture. 

It would be difficult to decide as to whether any monument he had seen 
suggested this idea to Leonardo, but it is worth while to enquire, if any 
monument, or group of monuments of an earlier date may be supposed to 
have done so. 2 

1 See FERSGUSON, Handbook of Architecture, I, 291. 

2 There are, in Algiers, two Monuments, commonly called "Le Madracen" and "Le tombeau de la 
Chretienne," which somewhat resemble Leonardo's design. They are known to have served as the Mausolea of the Kings 
of Mauritania. Pomponius Mela, the geographer of the time of the Emperor Claudius, describes them as having 
been "Monumentum commune regiae gentis." See Le Madracen, Rapport fait par M. le Grand Rabbin AB. 
CAHEN, Constantine 1873 Memoire sur les fouilles executees au Madras'en . . par le Colonel BRUNON, 
Constantine 1873. Deux Mausolees Africains, le Madracen et le tombeau de la Chretienne par M. J. DE 
LAURIERE, Tours 1874. Le tombeau de la Chretienne, Mausolee des rois Mauritaniens par M. BERBRUGGER, 
Alger 1867. / am indebted to M. LE BLANC, of the Institut, and M. LUD. LALANNE, Bibliothecaire of the 
Instilut for having first pointed out to me the resemblance between these monuments; while M. ANT. HERON 
DE VlLLEFOSSE of the Louvre was kind enough to place the abovementioned rare works at my disposal. Leonardo's 
observations on the coast of Africa are given later in this work. The Herodium near Bethlehem in Palestine (Jebel 
el Fureidis, the Frank Mountain) was, according to the latest researches, constructed on a very similar plan. See 
Der Frankenberg, von Baurath C. SCHICK in Jerusalem, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins, 
Leipzig 1880, Vol. Ill, pages 8899 and Plates IV and V. J. P. R. 

E. Studies for the Central Tower, or Tiburio of Milan Cathedral. 

Towards the end of the fifteenth century the Fabbricceria del Duomo 
had to settle on the choice of a model for the crowning and central part of 
this vast building. We learn from a notice published by G. L. Calvi ' that 
among the artists who presented models in the year 1488 were: Bramante, 
Pietro da Gorgonzola, Luca Paperio (Fancelli), and Leonardo da Vinci. 

Several sketches by Leonardo refer to this important project: 

PL CXIX, No. 2 (MS. S. K. Ill, No. 36*; a small plan of the 
whole edifice. The projecting chapels in the middle of the transept are 
wanting here. The nave appears to be shortened and seems to be approached 
by an inner "vestibolo". 

PL C, No. 2 (Tr. 21). Plan of the octagon tower, giving the disposition 
of the buttresses ; starling from the eight pillars adjoining the four principal 
piers and intended to support the eight angles of the Tiburio. These but- 
tresses correspond exactly with those described by Bramante as existing in 
the model presented by Omodeo. 2 

PI. C, 3 (MS. Tr. 1 6). Two plans showing different arrangements 
of the buttresses, which seem to be formed partly by the intersection of a 
system of pointed arches such as that seen in 

PL C, No. 5 (MS. B, 2? a ) destined to give a broader base to the 
drum. The text underneath is given under No. 788. 

MS. B, 3 three slight sketches of plans in connexion with the pre- 
ceding ones. 

G. L. CALVI, Notizie sulla vita e sulle opere dei principali architetti scultori e pittori che fiori- 
rono in Milano, Part 111, 20. See also: H. DE GEYMULLER, Les projets primitifs etc. /, 37 and 116 119. 
The Fabbricceria of the Duomo has lately begun the publication of the archives, which may possibly tell us more 
about the part taken by Leonardo, than has hitherto been known. 

* Bramante's opinion was first published by G. MONGERI, Arch. stor. Lomb. V, fasc. 3 and afterwards by 
me in the publication mentioned in the preceding note. 

, , 

I- ; 


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PL XCIX, No. i (MS. Tr. 15) contains several small sketches of 
sections and exterior views of the Dome; some of them show buttress-walls 
shaped as inverted arches. Respecting these Leonardo notes: 

Tr. 15) 


L'arco rivescio e migliore per fare The inverted arch is better for giving a 

2 spalla che 1'ordinario, perche il rovescio shoulder than the ordinary one, because the 
3 trova sotto se muro resistete alia sua former finds below it a wall resisting its 

weakness, whilst the latter finds in its weak 

part nothing but air. 

4debolezza, e 1'ordinario no trova nel suo 
sdebole se non aria. 

758. i. larcho. 2. isspalla . . riverscio. 4. deboleza ellordinario. 

Three slight sketches of sections on the same leaf- above those repro- 
duced here are more closely connected with the large drawing in the centre of 

PL C, No. 4 (MS, Tr. 4 1) which shows a section of a very elevated 
dome, with double vaults, connected by ribs and buttresses ingeniously dis- 
posed, so as to bring the weight of the lantern to bear on the base of 
the dome. 

A sketch underneath it shows a round pillar on which is indicated 

which part of its summit is to bear the weight: "il pilastro sara charicho 

in a - 6." (The column will bear the weight at a b.^ Another note is 

above on the right side: Larcho regiera tanto sotto asse chome di sopra 

s e (The arch supports as much below it [i. e. a hanging weight] as above it). 

PL C, No. i (C.A. 303^. Larger sketch of half section of the Dome, 
with a very complicated system of arches, and a double vault. Each stone 
is shaped so as to be knit or dovetailed to its neighbours. Thus the inside 
of the Dome cannot be seen from below. 

MS. C.A. 303^. A repetition of the preceding sketch with very slight 
modi/lea tions. 

Fig. 2. 

MS. Tr. 9 (see Fig. i and 2). Section of the Dome with reverted 
buttresses between the windows, above which iron anchors or chains seem 
to be intended. Below is the sketch of the outside. 

Fig. i. 

Tr. 9 (see Fig. 



PI. XCIX, No. 3 (C.A., 262) four sketches of the exterior of the 

C. A. 1 2. Section, showing the points of rupture of a gothic vault, in 
evident connection with the sketches described above. 

It deserves to be noticed how easily and apparently without effort, 
Leonardo manages to combine gothic details and structure with the more 
modern shape of the Dome. 

The following notes are on the same leaf, oni cosa poderosa, and oni 
cosa poderosa desidera de(scendere); farther below, several multiplications 
most likely intended to calculate the weight of some parts of 
the Dome, thus 16 x 47 = 720; 720 x Soo = 176000, next to 
which is written: peso del pilastro di 9 teste (weight of the 
pillar 9 diameters high). 

Below: 176000 x 8 = 1408000; and below: 

Semjlio e se ce 80 (?) il peso del tiburio 
(six millions six hundred (?) 80 the weight of the Dome), 

Bossi hazarded the theory that Leonardo might have been 
the architect who built the church of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, 
but there is no evidence to support this, either in documents 
or in the materials supplied by Leonardos manuscripts 
and drawings. The sketch given at the side shows the 
arrangement of the second and third socle on the apses 
of the choir of that church ; and it is remarkable that 
j those sketches, in MS. S. K. M. II 2 , 2 a and i 6 , occur 
-\ with the passage given in Volume I as No. 665 and 
*J 666 referring to the composition of the Last Supper in 
the Refectory of that church. 

F. The Project for lifting up the Battistero of Florence and setting it on 

a basement. 

Among the very few details Vasari gives as to the architectural studies 
of Leonardo, we read: "And among these models and designs there was one 
by way of which he showed several times to many ingenious citizens who 
then governed Florence, his readiness to lift up without ruining it, the church 
of San Giovanni in Florence (the Battistero, opposite the Duomo) in order to 
place under it the missing basement with steps; he supported his assertions 
with reasons so persuasive, that while he spoke the undertaking seemed feas- 
able, although every one of his hearers, when he had departed, could see by 
himself the impossibility of so vast an undertaking" ^ 

In the MS. C. A. fol. 293, there are two sketches which possibly might 
have a bearing on this bold enterprise. We find there a plan of a cir- 
cular or polygonal edifice surrounded by semicircular arches in an oblique 
position. These may be taken for the foundation of the steps and of the new 
platform. In the perspective elevation the same edifice, forming a polygon, is 
shown as lifted up and resting on a circle of inverted arches which rest 
on an other circle of arches in the ordinary position, but so placed that the 
inverted arches above rest on the spandrels of the lower range. 

What seems to confirm the supposition that the lifting up of a building is 
here in question, is the indication of engines for winding up, such as jacks, 
and a rack and wheel. As the lifting apparatus represented on this sheet 
does not seem particularly applicable to an undertaking of such magnitude, 
we may consider it to be a first sketch or scheme for the engines to be used. 

i This latter statement of Vasarfs must be considered to be exaggerated. I may refer here to some data given 
by LlBRl, Histoire des sciences mathematiques en Italic (II, 216, 217): "On a cru dans ces derniers temps 
faire un miracle en mecanique en effectuant ce transport, et cependant des 1'annee 1455, Gaspard Nadi et 
Aristote de Fioravantio avaient transporte, a une distance considerable, la tour de la Magione de Bologne, 
avec ses fondements, qui avait presque quatre-vingts pieds de haut. Le continuateur de la chronique de 
Pugliola dit que le trajet fut de 35 pieds et que durant le transport auquel le chroniqueur affirme avoir 
assist^, il arriva un accident grave qui fit pencher de trois pieds la tour pendant qu'elle tait suspendue, 
mais que cet accident fut promptement repare (Muratori, Scriptores rer. ital. Tom. XVIII, col. 717, 718). 
Alidosi a rapporte une note ou Nadi rend compte de ce transport avec une rare simplicite. D'apres cette 
note, on voit que les operations de ce genre n'etaient pas nouvelles. Celle-ci ne couta que 150 livres 
(monnaie d'alors) y compris le cadeau que le L6gat fit aux deux mecaniciens. Dans la meme annee, 
Aristote redressa le clocher de Cento, qui penchait de plus de cinq pieds (Alidosi, instruttione p. 188 
Muratori, Scriptores rer. ital., torn. XXIII, col. 888. Bossii, chronica Mediol., 1492, in-fol. ad ann. 1455)- 
On ne conc,oit pas comment les historiens des beaux-arts ont pu negliger de tels hommes." J. P. R. 

G. Description of an unknown Temple. 

C. A. 2800; 8520] 


Per dodici gradi di scale al magno tem- 
pio si saliva, il quale otto cento braccia 
circundaua, e con ottagulare 2 figura era 
fabricate, e sopra li otto anguli otto gran 
base si posauano a un braccio e mezzo, e 
grosse 3, 3 e lunghe 6 nel suo sodo, col- 
Pangolo in mezzo, sopra delle quali si fon- 
dauano 8 gra pilastri: sopra del sodo della 
basa si Ie 4 vava per ispatio di 24 braccia, 
e nel suo termine erano stabiliti 8 capitelli 
di 3 braccia 1'uno, e largo 6, sopra di 
questi se 5 guiva architraue fregio e cornice 
con altezza di 4 braccia e 1 / 2 , il quale per 
retta linia 6 dall' un pilastro all' altro s' asten- 
dea, e cosl con circuito d'otto cento brac- 
cia il tempio circundava infra 1* u 7 pilastro 
e P altro; per sostentacolo di tal mebro 
erano stabiliti dieci gran colohe dell' altez- 
za de' pilastri e co 8 grossezza di 3 braccia 
sopra le base, le quali era alte vn braccio e l / 2 . 

^Salivasi a questo tenpio per 12 gradi di 
scale, il quale tempio era sopra il dodecimo 
grado fondato in figura ottan'gulare, e sopra 
ciascuno angulo nasceva vn gran pilastro; 
e infra li pilastri erano inframessi "dieci 

Twelve flights of steps led up to the 
great temple, which was eight hundred braccia 
in circumference and built on an octagonal 
plan. At the eight corners were eight large 
plinths, one braccia and a half high, and three 
wide, and six long at the bottom, with 
an angle in the middle; on these were eight 
great pillars, standing on the plinths as a 
foundation, and twenty four braccia high. 
And on the top of these were eight capitals 
three braccia long and six wide, above which 
were the architrave frieze and cornice, four 
braccia and a half high, and this was carried 
on in a straight line from one pillar to the next 
and so, continuing for eight hundred braccia, 
surrounded the whole temple, from pillar to 
pillar. To support this entablature there were 
ten large columns of the same height as the 
pillars, three braccia thick above their bases 
which were one braccia and a half high. 

The ascent to this temple was by 
twelve flights of steps, and the temple was 
on the twelfth, of an octagonal form, and at 
each angle rose a large pillar; and between 
the pillars were placed ten columns of the 

759. Either this description is incomplete, or, as 
seems to me highly probable, it refers to some ruin. 
The enormous dimensions forbid our supposing this 
to be any temple in Italy or Greece. Syria was the 

native land of colossal octagonal buildings, in the 
early centuries A. D. The Temple of Baalbek, 
and others are even larger than that here described. 

J. P. R. 



colonne colla medesima altezza de' pilastri, 
i quali si levaua sopra del pauimeto 28 
braccia e */ 2 ; sopra I2 di questa medesima 
altezza si posaua architraue fregio e cornice 
con lunghezza d'otto ceto braccia, e cignea 
X 3il tenpio a vna medesima altezza circuiua 
dentro a tal circuito sopra il medesimo pi- 
ano; in giro in centre del tempio per spatio 
di 24 braccia nascono ^le conrispondentie 
delli 8 pilastri delli angoli, e delle colonne 
poste a esse prime faccie, e si "Sleuauano 
alia medesima altezza sopra detta, e sopra 
tal pilastri li architraui perpetui l6 ritor- 
navano sopra li primi detti pilastri e 

same height as the pillars, rising at once 
from the pavement to a height of twenty eight 
braccia and a half; and at this height the archi- 
trave, frieze and cornice were placed which 
surrounded the temple having a length of 
eight hundred braccia. At the same height, 
and within the temple at the same level, and 
all round the centre of the temple at a distance 
of 24 braccia farther in, are pillars correspon- 
ding to the eight pillars in the angles, and 
columns corresponding to those placed in 
the outer spaces. These rise to the same 
height as the former ones, and over these the 
continuous architrave returns towards the 
outer row of pillars and columns. 

br e ^z. 12. di queste sta . . alteza . . frego e corice cho collungeza dotto ceto br cigea. 13. alteza . . attal . . piano | 
"iciero il centre del tenpio per ispatio di 24 br . nasscie. 14. e delle [ottamta] colone . . facce essi. 15. alteza sopra 
[di que] detta. 

L i?i "tff 

V. Palace architecture. 

But a small number of Leonardo s drawings refer to the architecture 
of palaces, and our knowledge is small as to what style Leonardo might 
have adopted for such buildings. 

PL CII No. i (W. XVIII). A small portion of a faqade of a palace 
in two stories ; somewhat resembling Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai. Compare 
with this Bramante s painted front of the Casa Silvestri, and a painting by 
Montorfano in San Pietro in Gessate at Milan, third chapel on the left 
hand side and also with Bramantes palaces at Rome. The pilasters with ara- 
besques, the rustica between them, and the figures over the window may be 
painted or in sgraffito. The original is drawn in red chalk. 

PI. LXXXI No. i (MS. Tr. 42). Sketch of a palace with battle- 
ments and decorations, most likely graffiti; the details remind us of those in 
the Castello at Vigevano.* 

MS. Mz. o", contains a design for a palace or house with a loggia in the 
middle of the first story, over which rises an attic with a Pediment repro- 
duced on page 67. The details drawn close by on the left seem to indicate 
an arrangement of coupled columns against the wall of a first story. 

PL LXXXV No. 14 (MS. S. K. M. Ill 79) contains a very slight 

i Count GlULIO PORKO, in his valuable contribution to the Archivio Storico Lombardo, Anno VIII, 
Fasc. IV (31 Dec. 1881): Leonardo da Vinci, Libro di Annotazioni e Memorie, refers to this in the following 
note: "Alia pag. 41 vi e uno schizzo di volta ed accanto scrisse: 'il pilastro- sara charicho in su 6' e potrebbe 
darsi che si riferisse alia cupola della chiesa delle Grazie tanto pii che a pag. 42 vi e un disegno che 
rassomiglia assai al basamento che oggi si vede nella parte esterna del coro.di quella chiesa." This may 
however be doubted. The drawing, here referred to, on page 41 of the same manuscript, is reproduced on PI. C No. 4 
and described on page 6 1 as being a study for the cupola of the Duomo of Afilan. J. P. R. 


6 7 

sketch in red chalk, which most probably is intended to represent the faqade 
of a palace. Inside is the short note 7 he 7 (j and 7). 

//////////// / f M 1 1 m\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 

. 7 2 8 a ^r^ pages 68 /^. i tfTZdf 2^) contains a view of an unknown 
palace. Its plan is indicated at the side. 

In MS. Br. M. 126* (see Fig. 3 on page 68) there is a sketch of a house, 
on which Leonardo notes: casa con tre 'terrazi (house with three terraces). 




PL CX, No. 4 (MS. L. 36*) represents the front of a fortified building 
drawn at Cesena in 1502 (see No. 1040). 




Fig. 2 

Fig. .. 

Here we may also mention the singular building in the allegorical 
composition represented on PL L VIII in Vol. I. In front of it appears 
the head of a sphinx or of a dragon which seems to be carrying the palace 
away. . . 

The following texts refer to the construction of palaces and other buil- 
dings destined for private use: 

W. XIX] 


La corte de' auere le parieti 2 per 1'al- 
On the pro- tezza la meta della sua ^larghezza, cioe 
corte *sara braccia 40, la casa deve 
essere Salta 20 nelle parieti di tal 6 corte, 
e tal corte vol essere ?larga per la meta 
di tutta la 8 facciata. 

portions of o~ 
a court yard. 

In the courtyard the walls must be half 
the height of its width, that is if the court 
be 40 braccia, the house must be 20 high 
as regards the walls of the said courtyard; 
and this courtyard must be half as wide as 
the whole front. 

760. i. pariete. 2. lalteza. 3. largezza coe sella. 4. br 40 . la casa e essere. 5. alte . . pariete. 6. volerssere. 7. faccata. 

760. See PL CI, no. i, and compare the dimensions here given, with No. 748 lines 26 29; and the 
drawing belonging to it PI. LXXXI, no. 2. 

I f4 : ^*i^&^|ft fc 

|ii^ r ^S 

j . ; ,V .l/v*rtl IW 

/ ' ': 

, , _ ' y.y,'. ' ' > - 

i . , ' . 

s>., ' , .. ( - - 

- ^i&.< y . '-' s 

-f -y. . 


i . ' vK'.^.;^-. 

'-. ? 


]mp . Eludes. 


6 9 

B. 39*] 



2 Modo come si de' componere vna 
stalla: Dividerai in prima la sua lar^ghez- 
za in parti -3-6 la sua lunghezza e libera -, 
e le 3 dette divisioni * sieno equali e di 
larghezza di braccia 6 per ciascuna, e alte 
10, e la parte di mezzo 5 sia in uso de' 
maestri di stalla , le 2 da cato per i ca- 
vagli, de' quali ciascuno ne de' 6 pigliare 
per larghezza braccia 6 , lughezza braccia 6, 
e alte piv dinanti che dirieto l / 2 braccio; 
7 la mangiatoia sia alta da terra braccia 2, 
il principio della rastrelliera 8 braccia -3-6 
1' ultimo braccia 4 ; Ora a volere atenere 
quello ch'io prometto, cioe di 9 fare detto 
sito cotro allo universale vso pulito e netto 

inquato al di sopra I0 della stalla , cioe 
dove sta il fieno , debe detto loco avere 
nella sua testa di fori vna "finestra alta 6 

e larga 6, donde con vn facil modo si 
coduca il fieno su detto I2 solaro, come 
appare nello strumeto E , e sia collocata 1 
un sito di larghez^za di braccia 6, e lungo 
quato la stalla, come appare in k -p e 1' altre 
2 parti J 4che mettano in mezzo questa, cias- 
cuna sia diuisa in 2 parti, le dua diverso 
il fieno sia I5 no braccia 4 , p s , solo allo 
ofitio e andamento de' ministri d'essa stalla, 
1' altre l6 2 che confinano colle parieti mu- 
rali sieno di braccia 2, come appare in s 
/-, I7 e queste sieno allo ofitio di dare-il 
feno alle magiatoie per condotti stretti nel 
18 principio e larghi sulle magiatoie, accio 
che'l feno no si fermi infra via, sieno ^bene 
Itonicati e politi, figurati dov' e segnato . 
f-s-, in quanto al dare 20 bere siano le ma- 
giatoie di pietra, sopra le quali sia 1' acqua, si 
che si possino 2I scoprire le magiatoie come 
si scoprono le casse, alzado i coperchi loro. 


The manner in which one must arrange ,. On .^ e 

,..,. . , . dispositions 

a stable. You must first divide its width m of a stable. 

3 parts, its depth matters not; and let these 

3 divisions be equal and 6 braccia broad 

for each part and 10 high, and the middle 

part shall be for the use of the stablemasters ; 

the 2 side ones for the horses, each of which 

must be 6 braccia in width and 6 in length, 

and be half a braccio higher at the head 

than behind. Let the manger be at 2 braccia 

from the ground, to the bottom of the rack, 

3 braccia, and the top of it 4 braccia. Now, 

in order to attain to what I promise, that is to 

make this place, contrary to the general 

custom, clean and neat: as to the upper 

part of the stable, i. e. where the hay is, 

that part must have at its outer end a 

window 6 braccia high and 6 broad, through 

which by simple means the hay is brought 

up to the loft, as is shown by the machine 

E; and let this be erected in a place 6 braccia 

wide, and as long as the stable, as seen at 

k p. The other two parts, which are on 

either side of this, are again divided; those 

nearest to the hay-loft are 4 braccia, / s, 

and only for the use and circulation of the 

servants belonging to the stable; the other two 

which reach to the outer walls are 2 braccia, 

as seen at s k, and these are made for the 

purpose of giving hay to the mangers, by means 

of funnels, narrow at the top and wide over 

the manger, in order that the hay should not 

choke them. They must be well plastered and 

clean and are represented at 4 fs. As to 

the giving the horses water, the troughs must 

be of stone and above them [cisterns of] 

water. The mangers may be opened as 

boxes are uncovered by raising the lids. 

761. 2. chome . . chomponere . . isstalla. 3. geza in parte. 3. ella . . lungeza . . decte. 4. largeza di br 6 . . mezo. 6. lar- 
geza br . 3 ellugeza br 6 . . 1/2 br. 7. la mangiatoria sialta dacterra br . 2 . [larastella era] il . . dela rastelliera. 8. br . 3 
, ellultimo br 4 . . attenere . . promecto. 9. decto . . necto. 10. feno . . decto . . nela. n. feno. 12. apare . . essia 
colocata . . large. 13. br 6 . . apare in K. p. laltre e laltre. 14. metano imezo . . si diuisa . . feno. 15. no br 4 
"p . s" . . ofitio [de mini si.ribe] e andamento. 16. 2 che che chonfinano chole pariete . . br 2 . . apare. 17. ecqueste . . 
magiatore . per condocti strecti. 18. sule magiatore acio. 20. le magiatore . . sia la sichessi. 21. magiatore chome si scho- 

761. See PL LXXVIII, No. i. 


[762. 763. 





s Modo come si debbono 6 mettere le per- 
tiche 7 per legare i mazzuoli 8 de' ginepri 
sopra esse 9 pertiche, le quali sono I0 confitte 
sopra rar jl matura della vol I2 ta e lega essi 
ma'3zzuoli con salci e 14 su per fare cimerosa 
scolle forbici e Ia l6 vora le co salci; 

J 7Sia da Pu l8 no all' altro ''cerchiouno 
20 l / 2 braccio e '1 gi 2I nepro si de' 22 regiere 
collie cime in giv 2 *c6mlciado 2 $di sotto; 

26 A questa colonna si lega 2 7d'intorno 
4 pertiche, dintor 2 *no alle quali s'inchioda 
2 9vinchi grossi uno dito e poi 3 si fa da 
pie e vassi in alto lega^do mazzuoli di 
cime di ^ 2 ginepro colle cime J ba^sso doe 
sotto sopra. 


The way in which the poles ought to be 
placed for tying bunches of juniper on to 
them. These poles must lie close to the frame- 
work of the vaulting and tie the bunches on 
with osier withes, so as to clip them even 
afterwards with shears. 

Let the distance from one circle to another 
be half a braccia; and the juniper [sprigs] 
must lie top downwards, beginning from below. 

Round this column tie four poles to 
which willows about as thick as a finger must 
be nailed and then begin from the bottom 
and work upwards with bunches of juniper 
sprigs, the tops downwards, that is upside 

Br. M. 19211] 

Sia lasciata cadere 1'acqua 2 in 
tutto il cerchio di a b. 



The water should be allowed to 
fall from the whole circle a b. 

762. i. fa. 2. larmadure. 5. debe. 7. mazoli. 10. chofittc. n. madura. 13. coli chon salcie[l]e. 16. cosalci. 19. cierchio i. 
20. */2 br. 22. cho. 26. acquesta. 28. ale. 29. i dito. 31. mazoli di [gin] cime. 32. cholle. 

763. i. lacq"a". 2. lotto il cierchio. 

762. See PI. CII, No. 3. The words here given 
as the title line, lines I 4, are the last in the ori- 
ginal MS. Lines 5 16 are written under fig. 4. 

763. Other drawings of fountains are given on 
PL CI (W. XX) ; the original is a pen and ink drawing 
on blue paper; on PL CIII (MS. B.) and PL LXXXII. 



- ' .>* 

, .-. r-' ' ' ::'^ 




. . 3 T r ".' \ V 

jlfcS^V 1> I 

p4**r^SSiS .^^ 

TTcliop^. Dxijardin 

Imp. Elides. 


VI. Studies of architectural details. 

Several of Leonardos drawings of architectural details prove that, like 
other great masters of that period, he had devoted his attention to the study 
of the proportion of such details. As- every organic being in nature has its 
law of construction and growth, these masters endeavoured, each in his way, 
to discover and prove a law of proportion in architecture. The following 
notes in Leonardos manuscripts refer to this subject. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. I. 

MS. S. K. M. Ill, 47 b (see Fig. i). A diagram, indicating the rules 
as given by Vitruvius and by Leon Battista Alberti for the proportions of 
the Attic base of a column. 

MS. S. K. M. Ill 55 (see Fig. 2). Diagram showing the. same rules. 



S. K. M. III. |8/>] 


L. 19 ; 

B toro superiore 
2 B nestroli .. 
3 B orbiculo 

4 B nestroli 

5 B toro Tferiore 

6 B latastro 



3 II latastro deve ^essere largo quaHo 
la grossezza di qua 6 luque muro dove 7 tale 
latastro s'ap 8 poggia. 

toro superiore 

astragali quadre 

. . troclea 

astragali quadre 
toro Iferiore 

plintho <^ 


The plinth must be as broad as the 
thickness of the wall against which the plinth 
is built. 

C. A. 318*; 9610] 


I nostri antichi architettori co- 

miciando in prima dagli Egitti, i quali se- 
codo che descrive Diodoro Sicolo 2 furo 
i primi edificatori e componitori di citta gran- 
dissime. e di castelli ed edifizi publici e 
privati di forma, grandezza 3 e qualita per 
le quali i loro antecedeti riguardevoli con 
stupefazione e maraviglia * le eleuate e gran- 
dissime macchine paredo loro .... 

s La colonna ch' a la sua grossezza nel ter- 
zo . . . . 6 quella che fusse sottile nel 
mezzo ronperassi nelle . . ; 7 quella 
ch'e di pari grossezza e di pari 
fortezza e migliore per 1'edi- 
fizio, 8 seconda di bonta sara 
quella ch'a la maggior gros- 
sezza dov' ella si cogivgnie colla 











\ s 



\ *> 

5 i 

s < 








^ ^ 

i ^ 




The ancient architects beginning 

with the Egyptians (?) who, as Diodorus 
Siculus writes, were the first to build and 
construct large cities and castles, public and 
private buildings of fine form, large and well 


The column, which has its thickness at 
the third part .... The one which 
would be thinnest in the middle, 
would break . . . ; the one which is of 
equal thickness and of equal strength, 
is better for the edifice. The se- 
cond best as to usefulness will be 
the one whose greatest thickness 
is where it joins with the base. 

764. i. toro superio . . super. 2. nexstroli. 3. torclea. 5. inferior . . Iferi. 6. | pinto] plinto. 

765. 2. (il muro]. 3, illatasstro debbe. 4. fg] largo. 5. grosseza di qu"a". 7. latastro. 8. pogga. 

766. i . . written Jrom left to right, i. nosstri . . otalecine chomlciando . . daglitii . . sechodo . . desscriue . . sicholo. 2. edi* 

tichatori e chomponitori di cita . . chasstella. 4. grandeza . . anticiedeti [gestupessani che] righuardevoli chonnistupefazione 
. . loro; here the text breaks off. 5. cholonna-. . groseza terzo qui . ve ana aroper se (?) 6. . . mezo . . nelle 2 ispasia. 

764. No explanation can be offered of the mean- 
ing of the letter B, which precedes each name. 
It may be meant for basa (base). Perhaps it refers 
to some author on architecture or an architect (Bra- 
mante ?) who employed the designations, thus marked 
for the mouldings. 

3. troclea. Philander: Trochlea sive trochalia aut 

6. Latercului or latastrum is the Latin name for 
Plinthus (TtMvdo;), but Vitruvius adopted this Greek 
name and "lataMro" seems to have been little 

in use. It is to be found besides the text given 
above, as far as I am aware, only on two drawings 
of the Uffizi Collection, where, in one instance, it 
indicates the abacus of a Doric capital. 

765. See PI. CX No. 3. The hasty sketch on the 
right hand side illustrates the unsatisfactory' effect 
produced when the plinth is narrower than the wall. 

766. See PI. CIII, No. 3, where the sketches 
belonging to lines 10 16 are reproduced, but rever- 
sed. The sketch of columns, here reproduced by a 
wood cut, stands in the original close to lines 5 8. 

7 6 7 . 768.] 



10 II capitello a a essere J questo formato, 
dividi la sua grossezza da capo j 8 

d' u pie, "e fa che sia alto 5 / 7 e ver ~ 

ra a essere quadro, dipoi dividi 1'altezza J 
8, come facesti la colonna, di poi poni 
*/8 1'uovolo I2 e un altro ottavo la grossezza 
della tavola che sta di sopra al capitello; 
'3i corni della tavola del capitello ano a 
sportare fuori dalla maggior larghezza della 
capana 2 / 7 I4 cioe settimi del di sopra della 
capana che tocca a ciascu corno di sporto 
Y 7 I5 e la mozzatura de' corni vuole essere 
largha quat' e alta, cioe l /& ; jl resto degli or- 
nameti lascio l6 jn liberta degli scultori; 
T 7ma per tornare alle colonne, e provare 
la ragione secondo la forma di lor fortezza 
18 o debolezza, dico cosl, che quado le linie 
si partiranno dalla sommita della I9 colonna 
e termineranno nel suo nascimeto e la lor 
uia e lughezza sia di pari 20 distanzia o 
latitudine, dico che questa colonna .... 

The capital must be formed in this 
way. Divide its thickness at the top into 
8; at the foot make it s/7 } and let it be 5/7 
high and you will have a square ; afterwards 
divide the height into 8 parts as you did for 
the column, and then take J /s f r the echinus 
and another eighth for the thickness of the aba- 
cus on the top of the capital. The horns of 
the abacus of the capitalhaveto project beyond 
the greatest width of the bell 2 / 7 , i.e. sevenths 
of the top of the bell; so l / 7 falls to the 
projection of each horn. The truncated part 
of the horns must be as broad as it is high. 
I leave the rest, that is the ornaments, to 
the taste of the sculptors. But to return to 
the columns and in order to prove the 
reason of their strength or weakness according 
to their shape, I say that when the lines starting 
from the summit of the column and ending at its 
base and their direction and length . . ., their 
distance apart or width may be equal; I say 
that this column . . 

Ash. III. 


Ilcilindro d'vn corpo di figura colo 2 nale, 
e le sua opposite fronti so due cierchi 
J d' interpositione paralella *e infra li lor 
cietri s'estede una linia 5 retta, che passa 
per il mezzo della grossezza 6 del cilindro 
e termina nelli cietri ?d'essi cierchi, la 
quale linia dalli antichi e detta axis. 

The cylinder of a body columnar in 
shape and its two opposite ends are two 
circles enclosed between parallel lines, and 
through the centre of the cylinder is a 
straight line, ending at the centre of 
these circles, and called by the ancients 
the axis. 

H.3 73^1 

a d */3 di n m ", 2 m l /t 
3 1' ovo sporta '/6 di . r o ; * s 7 */, 
s# b si diuida in 9 e 


r o; 

s r-o 

6 1 abaco e 5/9J 

7ovo 4/ 9 ; 8 fusaiolo e listello 2 / 9 e 

a b is J /3 of n m; mo is */6 of ^ o. 
The ovolo projects J /6 of r o; s j^/ s of r 0, 
a b is divided into Q 1 ^; the abacus is 3 / 9 the 
ovolo 4 / 9 , the bead-moulding and the fillet 
2 / 9 and T L, 

7. grosseza . . forteza. 8. sechonda . . magior grosseza dovela . . chogivgnie cholla. 10. chapitello . . grosseza da chapo 
J | 7 | Sdupie ne me 5/7. n. evera . . lalteza . . chome . . cholona . . poni 1/8 luovolo. 12. grosseza dalla . . chessta . . 
chapitello. 13. i chorni . . chapitello . . assorportera . . della magior largheza . . chapana. 14. cio settimi . . chapana 
che tocha aciasschu chorno dissporto 1/7. 15. mozatura de de chorni . . essre largha . . "j resto. 16. ischultori . . 17. cho- 
lonne . . sechondo . . forteza. 18. deboleza dicho chosi che quado [che qua] le. 19. cholonna ettermineranno . . nassci- 
meto ella . . ellugheza. 20. 1 disstanzia . . dicho . . cholonna. Here the text breaks off. 

767. i. El chilindro . . chorpo . . cholo. 2. elle . . fronte. 3. dinterpositio paralella . e infra li lor cietri. 4. sastede . . linia 
pa. 5. mezo . . grossetta. 6. chilindro ottermina. 7. linia e di detta. 8. lima cietrale e dalli . . assis. 

768. i8 R. 6. labaco he. 7. hovo. 8. fesaiolo. 

767. Leonardo wrote these lines on the margin of a page of the Trattato di Francesco 'Mi Giorgio, 
where there are several drawings of columns, as well as a head drawn in profile inside an outline 
sketch of a capital. 

768. See PL LXXXV, No. 16. In the original the drawing and writing are both in red chalk. 
VOL. u. K 


PL LXXXV No. 6 (MS. Ash. II 6 b ) contains a small sketch of a 
capital with the following note, written in three lines: I chorni del capitelo. 
deono essere la quarta parte d'uno quadro (The horns of a capital must 
measure the fourth part of a square). 

MS. S. K. M. ///72* contains two sketches of ornamentations of windows. 

In MS. C. A. 308"; 938* (see PI. LXXXII No. \) there are several 
sketches of columns. One of the two columns on the right is similar to those 
employed by Bramante at the Canonica di S. Ambrogio. The same columns 
appear in the sketch underneath the plan of a castle. There they appear 
coupled, and in two stories one above the other. The archivolls which seem 
to spring out of the cohtmns, are shaped like twisted cords, meant per- 
haps to be twisted branches. The walls between the columns seem to be formed 
out of blocks of wood, the pedestals are ornamented with a reticulated pattern. 
From all this we may suppose that Leonardo here had in mind either some 
festive decoration, or perhaps a pavilion for some hunting place or park. 
The sketch of columns marked "35" gives an example of columns shaped 
like candelabra, a form often employed at that time, particularly in Milan, 
and the surrounding districts for instance in the Cortile di Casa Castiglione 
now Silvestre, in the cathedral of Como, at Porta della Rana &c. 

G. 52a ] 7 6 9- 


-J L' architrave di piu pezzi piu potete An architrave of several pieces is stronger 

che quel d'u 4 sol pezzo, essendo essi pezzi than that of one single piece, if those 

colle lor lunghezze situati Sper inverso il pieces are placed with their length in the 

cetro del modo; pruovasi perche 6 le pietre direction of the centre of the world. This 

anno il neruo overo tiglio gienerato per il is proved because stones have their grain 

tra 7 verso, cioe per il uerso delli orizzonti or fibre generated in the contrary direction 

opposti d'un mede 8 simo emisperio, e questo /'. e. in the direction of the opposite horizons 

e contrario al tiglio delle 9piate 1 quali of the hemisphere , and this is contrary to 

anno . . . fibres of the plants which have . . . 

769. i. di i. 2. eddi 4. j. eppiu . . che cquel. 4. pezo . . cholle . . lungheza. 7. orizonti opopositi. 8. ecquesto e chontrario. 
769. The text is incomplete in the original. 

The Proportions of the stories of a building are indicated by a sketch 
in MS. S. K. M. 77 2 1 1* (see PL LXXXV No. 15;. The measures are 
written on the left side, as follows: br i 1 2 6 3 4 br ' 2 br 9 e ' a i ' , 
br 5 6 9 6 3 [br -= braccia; o onciej. 

PL LXXXV No. 13 (MS. B. 62*) and PL XCIII No. i. (MS. B. 15") 
give a few examples of arches supported on piers. 










Heliog-. Dujaxdin. 


Imp.Kudes . 


Theoretical writings on Architecture. 

Leonardo's original writings on the theory of Architecture have come down to us 
only in a fragmentary state; still, there seems to be no doubt that he 'himself did not 
complete them. It would seem that Leonardo entertained the idea of writing a large 
and connected book on Architecture; arid it is quite evident that the materials we 
possess , which can be proved to have been written at different periods, were noted 
doivn with a more or less definite aim and purpose. They might all be collected 
under the one title: "Studies on the Strength of Materials". Among them the investi- 
gations on the subject of fissures in walls are particularly thorough, and very fully 
reported; these f passages are also especially interesting, because Leonardo was certainly 
the first writer on architecture who ever treated the subject at all. Here, as in all other 
cases Leonardo carefully avoids all abstract argument. His data are not derived from 
the principles of algebra, but from the laws of mechanics, and his method throughout is 
strictly experimental. 

Though the conclusions drawn from his investigations may not have that 
precision which we are accustomed to find in Leonardo's scientific labours, their interest 
is not lessened. They prove at any rate his deep sagacity and wonderfully clear mind. 
No one perhaps, who has studied these questions since Leonardo, has combined with a 
scientific mind anything like the artistic delicacy of perception which gives interest and 
lucidity to his observations. 

I do not assert that the arrangement here adopted for the passages in question is 
that originally intended by Leonardo; but their distribution into five groups was suggested 
by the titles, or headings, which Leonardo himself prefixed to most of these notes. 
Some of the longer sections perliaps sJiould not, to be in strict agreement with this divi- 


sion, have been reproduced in their entirety in the place where they occur. But the 
comparatively small amount of the materials we possess will render them, even so, suffi- 
ciently intelligible to the reader; it did not therefore seem necessary or desirable to sub- 
divide the passages merely for the sake of strict classification. 

The small number of chapters given under the fifth class, treating on the centre of 
gravity in roof -beams, bears no proportion to the number of drawings and studies which 
refer to the same subject. Only a small selection of these are reproduced in this work 
since the majority have no explanatory text. 


r* -*'' 

* -' >. ^ 

'T . nj. 


^^ r -.w* >^ / 

; ^ " 

i^V'^^ vhv/r '^ ;i| 
fWJ %ivV)^-,/fi X^^WA^V'W-'UWI^^^^^y^JL (y 

^^^^^d^rc^ *fcM*i ^ w i ^ 

f >^?3^ 4 *r &S? 

AviriWA^ ^H-)ViVf ^ir^>>i j^W^W4^w ' 

2.2iteft***tiTw *fat* w/fL * S^.; 1 

A m *' Vf ' r *T*f^]ViAj>l 


fe^vf f^r W Hwr-?i 9WcZV 


*m * 


Imp Eudes 




Br. M. 157 ] 


Fa prima il trattato delle cause giene- 
ratrici de! 2 le rotture de' muri, e poi il 
trattato de'rimedi separate. 

3 Li fessi paralelli sono vniversalmete 
gienerati 4 in quelli edifiti che si edificano 
in lochi montuosi, li Squali sien coposti di 
pietre faldate con obbliquo 6 faldameto, e 
perche in tale obbliquita spesso penetra 
7 acqua e altra vmidita portatricie di cierta 
terra 8 vntuosa e sdrucciolante , e perche 
tali falde no sono 9 continuate insino al fon- 
do delle valli, I0 tali pietre si muovono per 
la loro obli"quita e mai terminao il moto 
insin I2 che discendono al fondo della valle, 
J 3portando con seco a vso di barca ^quella 
parte dello edifitio che per lo'Sro si separa 
dal suddetto rimanete; 

16 II rimedio. di questo e il fondare spes- 

17 si pilastri sotto il muro che si move, 

18 e con archi dall'uno alPaltro e be^ne ab- 
barbicati, e questi tali 20 pilastri sieno fun- 
da 2I ti e fermi 22 nelle falde le quali non 
sieno rotte; 

2 3Per trovare la parte stabile delle sopra 
dette falde e neciessario fare vn 2< * pozzo 
sotto il pie del muro co gra profondita in- 
fra esse falde 25 e di tal pozzo pulirne co 
piana superfitie la larghezza d'un palmo 

First write the treatise on the causes of 
the giving way of walls and then, separately, 
treat of the remedies. 

Parallel fissures constantly occur in 
buildings which are erected on a hill 
side, when the hill is composed of stratified 
rocks with an oblique stratification, because 
water and other moisture often penetrates 
these oblique seams carrying in greasy and 
slippery soil; and as the strata are not con- 
tinuous down to the bottom of the valley, 
the rocks slide in the direction of the slope, 
and the motion does not cease till they have 
reached the bottom of the valley, carrying with 
them, as though in a boat, that portion of 
the building which is separated by them from 
the rest. The remedy for this is always to 
build thick piers under the wall which 
is slipping, with arches from one to 
another, and with a good scarp and let 
the piers have a firm foundation in the 
strata so that they may not break away 
from them. 

In order to find the solid part of these 
strata, it is necessary to make a shaft at the 
foot of the wall of great depth through the 
strata; and in this shaft, on the side from 
which the hill slopes, smooth and flatten a 

770. i. chause. 3. [di] sono. 4. chessi edifichano illochi. 5. choposti . . chon obbriquo. 8. essdrucciolente. 9. chontinovate. 
10. tale . . simovan. 12. cheddisciendano. 13. chonsecho . . barcha. 16. Irimedio . . spe. 17. pilasstri . . chessi. 18. chon. 
19. abarbatiati esti. 20. pilasstri. 21. effermi. 22. rutte. 23. per [del]. 24. pozzo [no] sotto . . cho. 25. pozo . . cho . . 

770. See PL CIV. 



26 dalla somita insino al fondo da quel lato, 
donde il mote discede, 27 e in capo d'al- 
quato tempo questa parte pulita, che si fecie 
nella pa 28 riete del pozzo, mostrera manifesto 
segnio qual parte del mote si move. 

space one palm wide from the top to the 
bottom; and after some time this smooth 
portion made on the side of the shaft, will 
show plainly which part of the hill is 

Br. M. 157*] 77 1 - 

Mai le fessure de' muri 2 sara paralelle, 
fuor che se la 3 parte del muro, la qual * si 
separa dal suo rimanete, 5 non disceda. 


8 La permanetia delli edifiti e la regola 
contra9ria alle 2 anteciedeti, cioe che le mu- 
raglie 10 sieno eleuate in alto tutte equal- 
mete con e quali "gradi, che abbraccino 
1'intera circuitione dello I2 edifitio colle intere 
grossezze di qualunque sorte di '^muri, 
e ancora che il muro sottile secchi piu pre- 
sto che il grosso, e' no si avra a ropere 
per il peso che lui 'Spossa acquistare dal- 
1' una all' altra giornata, perche, l6 se il suo 
duplo seccassi in una giornata il dop I7 pio 
secchera in due o circa, si uerra ragguagli- 
ado l8 co piccola differetia di peso in piccola 

differetia di tepo. 

J 9Dicie 1'aversario 20 che a becca 2I tello 

22 E qui dicie 1'auersario 2 3che r disciede 
e non e. 


2 7Quella parte del muro che no disciede 
riserua 28 in se 1'obbiquita del beccatello, 
copritore dell' o 2 9bliquita del muro da lui 



3 2 Quando la fessura del muro e piu 
larga di sopra c he di sotto elli e manifesto 
segnio che la mu^raglia a la causa della 
ruina remota dal perpe^diculare d'essa fessura. 

The cracks in walls will never be parallel 
unless the part of the wall that separates from 
the remainder does not slip down. 



The stability of buildings is the result 
of the contrary law to the two former 
cases. That is to say that the walls must 
be all built up equally, and by degrees, to 
equal heights all round the building, and the 
whole thickness at once, whatever kind of 
walls they may be. And although a thin wall 
dries more quickly than a thick one it will 
not necessarily give way under the added 
weight day by day and thus, [i6J although 
a thin wall dries more quickly than a thick 
one, it will not give way under the weight 
which the latter may acquire from day to 
day. Because if double the amount of it 
dries in one day, one of double the thick- 
ness will dry in two days or thereabouts; 
thus the small addition of weight will be 
balanced by the smaller difference of time [18]. 

The adversary says that a which projects, 
slips down. 

And here the adversary says that r slips 
and not c. 


The part of the wall which does not 
slip is that in which the obliquity projects 
and overhangs the portion which has parted 
from it and slipped down. 


When the crevice in the wall is wider at the 
top' than at the bottom, it is a manifest sign, that 
the cause of the fissure in the wall is remote 
from the perpendicular line through the crevice. 

larcheza. 26. dacquel . . dissciede. 27. chapo dalquato lento questa . . chessi. 28. mossterra . . mote si m\\\\\. 
771. 2. paralelle. . chella. 3. par del. s.disscieda. 6. reghola ecquella cheffa. 8. edifiti(e) . . ella reghola. 9. chelle. 10. che 
qual . . cho quali. n. abraccino . . circhuitione. 12. cholle . . q aluche sorte. 13. anchora . . sechi. 14. ara . . chellui. 
15. acquisstare. 16. il sudduplo sechassi innuna. 17. sechera . . circha . . ragualgliado. 18. cho pichola diferetia . . pichola 
diferetia. 20. becha. 22. ecqui. 24. chause. 25. delle (mu). 27. [I| Quella . . no [si move] "disciede". 28. bechatello 
copritricio dello. 29. delei disciesa. 31. locho so chavsa. 32. largha. 33. chella. 34. alia chausa. 35. dichulare. 

771. Lines 15 refer to PI. CV, No. 2. 
Line 9 alle due anteciedete, see on the same page. 
Lines 1618. The translation of this is doubt- 

ful, and the meaning in any case very obscure. 
Lines 19 23 are on the right hand margin close 
to the two sketches on PI. CII, No. 3. 




Br. M. i 3 8rt] 772. 





4 Quel muro senpre si fende che s non si 
secca vniformemete 6 con equal tepo; 

7 E quel muro d' uniforme gros 8 sezza no si 
secca con equal 9 tepo, il quale non e in co- 
tat I0 to d' equal mezzo; come se "vna parte 
d'un muro fusse edi I2 ficata in cotatto d'u 
monte ^vmido e '1 rimanente restasse J 4in 
contatto dell' aria, che allo I5 ra il rimanete 
si ristrigne per l6 ciascun verso e 1'umido si 
man^tiene nella sua prima gradezza, l8 e 
allora-quel che s'asciuga ^nell'aria, restri- 
gnie e diminui 20 scesi, e quel che e inu- 
midito no 2I si asciuga e volentieri si r6 22 pe 
al secco daH'umido perche es 23 so vmido 
non a tenacita da 2 4seguitare il moto di 
quel che al continue si secca. 


28 Quelli fessi arcati larghi di sopra 
2 9e stretti di sotto nascono nelle 3porte 
rimurate che cala piu ne3 I l'altezza che nella 
larghezza loro 32 per tanto quato 1'altezza 
e maggiore 33 che nella larghezza e per 
quato le com34messure della calcina son 
piv numerosi 35 in nell'altezza che nella 

3 6 I1 fesso diminuisce 37 tanto meno in 
r o 3 8 che in m n, quato 39 infra roe. me 
ma4teria che in n m. 

4 r Ogni fessura fatta 421 loco cocavo 
e larga 43 di sotto, e stretta di sopra, 44 e 
questo nascie, come 4S mostra b c d da lato 
figu 46 rato. 

4 ? p a TICio che si inumidi4 8 sce cresce per 
tato 49 quato e 1'umido ac s quistato.H 

51 2 a HE ogni cosa umi S2 da si restrignie 
nel53lo asciugare per ta.54to quanto e 1' umido 
ss che da lei si diuide. If 




That wall which does not dry uniformly 
in an equal time, always cracks. 

A wall though of equal thickness will 
not dry with equal quickness if it is not 
everywhere in contact with the same 
medium. Thus, if one side of a wall were 
in contact with a damp slope and the other 
were in contact with the air, then this latter 
side would remain of the same size as before; 
that side which dries in the air will shrink 
or diminish and the side which is kept damp 
will not dry. And the dry portion will break 
away readily from the damp portion because 
the damp part not shrinking in the same pro- 
portion does not cohere and follow the move- 
ment of the part which dries continuously. 


Arched cracks, wide at the top and 
narrow below are found in walled-up 
doors, which shrink more in their height 
than in their breadth, and in proportion as 
their height is greater than their width, 
and as the joints of the mortar are 
more numerous in the height than in the 

The crack diminishes less in r o than in 
m n, in proportion as there is less material 
between r and o than between ;/ and m. 

Any crack made - in a concave wall is 
wide below and narrow at the top ; and this 
originates, as is here shown at bed, in 
the side figure. 

1. That which gets wet increases in 
proportion to the moisture it imbibes. 

2. And a wet object shrinks, while drying, 
in proportion to the amount of moisture which 
evaporates from it. 

773. 2. dappiedi esstrtte da cha. 3. ellor chausa. 5. secha. 6. chon. 7. Ecquel . . gro. 8. secha chon. 9. ch5ta. 10. del 
qual mezo comesse. u. fussi. 12. fichato. 13. resstassi. 14. chontatto. 15. sirisstrignie. 16. cias chun . . ellumido 
17. grideza. 18. [il] quel chesassciugha. 19. restringnie 20. ecquel . . Inumidito. 21. assciugha. 22. secho. 23. nona[re. 
tenacita. 24. ch5. 25. secha. 26. delli . . archati. 27. esstretti. 28. archati. 29. esstretti . . nasschano. 30. chala. 
31. lalteza . . largheza. 32. magiore. 33. larghezza . . lecho. 34. mesurie. 35. larghezza. 36. diminuisscie. 38. quado. 
41. Oni . . tatta. 42. locho chochavo ellargha. 43. esstretta. 44. ecquesto nasscie. 45. dallato fighu. 47. chessi inumidis 
48. scie cresscie. 49. ellumido. 51. chosa. 53. Ho assciugrare. 54. ellumido. 55. dallei. 

772. The text of this passage is reproduced in 
facsimile on PI. CVI to the left. L. 3640 are written 

inside the sketch No. 2. L. 4146 are partly written 
over the sketch No. 3 to which they refer. 




Br. M. 1580] 



2 Romponsi li muri per fessure, che anno 
del cliretto e alcune che 'anno dello obbliquo ; 
le rotture che anno del diretto 4 son gienerate 
dalli muri novi sin cogiutio de' muri vecchi di- 
litti o co morse giute alii 6 muri vecchi, perche 
tali morse, no potendoresistereallo ?insoppor- 
tabile peso del muro a lor'cogiuto, e necies 
8 sario a quelle ronpersi e dar loco al discieso 
del predet 9 to muro novo, il quale cala vn 
braccio per ogni 10 braccia, o piu I0 o meno, 
secondo la maggiore o minore sorha di 
calcina "interposta infra le pietre murate 
e co calcina piu I2 o me liquida; E nota che 
senpre si debbe iprima fare 'Jfi muri e poi 
vestirli delle pietre che li ano a vestire, ^per- 
che se cosl no si faciesse, il muro facciedo 
maggiore calo che j sla crosta di fori, e' sa- 
rebbe neciessario che le morse fatte I6 nelli 
lati de' muri si ropessino; perche le pietre 
che vestono li mu I7 ri, essendo di maggiore 
grandezza che le pietre da quel l8 le vestite, 
e neciessario che ricievino minor quatita di 
calcina '^nelle loro comessure e per cose- 
gueza faccino minore calo, 2 9il che accadere 
no puo, essendo murate tali croste poi ch' el 
rmr'ro e secco. 

22 a b muro nuo 2 3vo, c e muro vechio 
2 iche gia a fatto il calo, 2 5e lo a b fa il 
calo poi, 26 beche a, essedo fonda 2 ?to 
sopra il c muro 28 vechio, no si puo 
in nes 2 9su modo ropere per ave 3 re 
stabile fondameto 3' SO pra del muro 
ve> 2 chio, ma sol si ronpe 33 ra il rima- 
nete del mu 34 ro nvovo b c635ciosia 
ch'elli e murato di 36 S opra dalla som- 
mita del edifitio insino al fondo, 37 fa- 
ciedo il rimanete del muro nuovo 
beccatello ^ 8 sopra il muro che di- 


The walls give way in cracks, some of 
which are more or less vertical and others 
are oblique. The cracks which are in a 
vertical direction are caused by the 
joining of new walls, with old walls, 
whether straight or with indentations fitting 
on to those of the old wall; for, as these 
indentations cannot bear the too great weight 
of the wall added on to them, it is inevitable 
that they should break, and give way to the 
settling of the new wall, which will shrink 
one braccia in every ten, more or less, 
according to the greater or smaller quantity 
of mortar used between the stones of the 
masonry, and whether this mortar is more or 
less liquid. And observe, that the walls 
should always be built first and then faced 
with the stones intended to face them. For, if 
you do not proceed thus, since the wall settles 
more than the stone facing, the projections 
left on the sides of the wall must inevitably 
give way ; because the stones used for facing 
the wall being larger than those over which 
they are laid, they will necessarily have less 
mortar laid between the joints, and consequent- 
ly they settle less; and this cannot happen 
if the facing is added after the wall is dry. 
a b the new wall, c the old wall, which 
has already settled; and the part a b 
settles afterwards, although a, being 
founded on c, the old wall, cannot 
possibly break, having a stable foun- 
dation on the old wall. But only the 
remainder b of the new wall will break 
away, because it is built from top to 
bottom of the building; and the re- 
mainder of the new wall will over- 
hang the gap above the wall that has 

773. i. chausa . . pubbici. 2. ronpasi . . alchune. 3. rocture. 4. novi fmurati in tepo brcvissimo]. 5. in chogiutio de muri 
[no] ve "echi" . . cho. 7. allor chogiuto. 8. acquelle . . locho al disscicso. 9. chala vn br per ogni 10 br . oppiu 
jo. sechondo . . ominore . . chalcina. xx. interpossta infralle . . cho chalcina. 12. ome . . chessenpre. 13. eppoi vesstirl. 
chelli . avesstire. 14. chosi . . faciessi . . magiore chalo chel. 15. lacrossta . . farebe . . chelle. 16. vesstano. 17. esendo 
. . chelle . . dacque. 18. vesstite . . chalcina. 19. chomessure e per choseghueza . . chalo. 20. achadere . . murato tale 
crosste. ax. essecho. 22. muro [vechio] nuo. 24. affatto il chalo. 25. ello . . chalo. 30. fondame. 34. cho. 30. cio chelli. 
37. bechatello. 38. \\\\\\il muro cheddistiede. 

774 776.] 



Br. M. 159 6] 


Torre nova fundata 2 sopra la 
vecchia in parte. 

A new tower founded partly on old 

Br. M. 157 ] 



pietre d'equal numero nella loro 
altezza, migrate con equal quatita di calcina, 
fano equal s c alo nella partita dell'umido 
che mollifi 6 c6 essa calcina. 

7 Per lo passato si prvova che la poca 
quatita 8 del muro nuovo interposta infra 
A n fara po 9 co calo rispetto alia quatita 
del medesimo mu I0 ro che s'interpone infra 
c d, e tal fia la pro"portione che anno in- 
fra loro le rareta delle I2 dette calcine qual' 
e la proportioe delli ^nvmeri over delle 
quatita delle calcine interpo^ste nelle comes- 
sure delle pietre murate so is pra le varie 
altezze delli muri vechi. 


Stones laid in regular courses from bottom 
to top and built up with an equal quantity of 
mortar settle equally throughout, when the 
moisture that made the mortar soft evaporates. 

By what is said above it is proved that 
the small extent of the new wall between A and 
n will settle but little, in proportion to the 
extent of the same wall between c and d. 
The proportion will in fact be that of 
the thinness of the mortar in relation to 
the number of courses or to the quantity 
of mortar laid between the stones above the 
different levels of the old wall. 

A. 53 a] 


Questo muro si ropera sotto 1' arco e 
/perche i sette quadrelli 2 integri no sono 

soffitieti a sostenere il pie dell' arco sopra 
postoli 3 e roperannosi questi 7 quadrelli 
nel mezzo aputo come appare in a b ; 

la ragione si e che il quadrello a a sola- 
mete sopra se il peso a k s e 1' ultimo 
quadrello sotto 1'arco a sopra se il peso 

c d, x- a\ 6 c d- pare che facci fare for- 

This wall will break under the arch e f, 
because the seven whole square bricks are 
not sufficient to sustain the spring of the 
arch placed on them. And these seven 
bricks will give way in their middle 
exactly as appears in a b. The reason 
is, that the brick } a has above it only 
the weight a k, whilst the last brick under 
the arch has above it the weight c d x a. 

774. 2. sopra il vechio. 

775. i. chessi. 2. giughano . . chalcina. 3. puetre. 4. chon . . chalcina. 8. cho . . chalcina. 7. la passata . . chella pocha. 
9. pocho chalo risspecto. 10. chessinterpone . . ettal. n. portione [di] che anno infralloro. 12. chalcine. 13. chal- 
cine. 14. ste . . chomesure. 

776. i. Quessto . . larcho [c] e . f. 2. assosstenere . . archo . . posstoli. 3. e roperanosi . quesste . . mezo . . chome apare. 
6. larcho. 7. cheffacci . . archo uerlasspalla. 8. archo. 9. chome . . dopio. 

775. See PI. CV, No. I. The top of the tower is wanting in this reproduction, and with it the 

letter n which, in the original, stands above the letter A over the top of the tower, while c stands 
perpendicularly over d, 





za all'arco verso la spalla nel puto / , 7 ma 
il peso / o 11 fa resistetia , ode tutto il 
peso ne va nella radice delParco; 8 adu- 

c d seems to press on the arch towards 
the abutment at the point / but the weight 
/ o opposes resistence to it, whence the whole 

que fa la radice delli archi come 7 6, ch' e 
piu forte il doppio che x z. 

pressure is transmitted to the root of the 
arch. Therefore the foot of the arch acts 
like 7 6, which is more than double of x z. 



lir. M. 



2 L'arco fatto del semicircolo, il quale 
fia carico nelli 3 due oppisiti terzi della sua 
curvita, ropera in 4 cinque lochi 
della sua curvita; provasi e sieno 
li pe 5 si n m, li quali rompono 
esso arco a b f ., dico per lo 
6 passato come c a stremi sono 
equalmete aggravati dal peso n, 
7 seguita per la 5 a che 1'arco ronpera 
nella parte piii remota dalle 8 due 
potentie che lo premono, il quale 
e il mezzo e , e altre^tanto intedo 
aver detto dell' arco opposite d 
g d; adu I0 que n m pesi vegono 
a discedere, e disceder no posso lj no per la 
7 a che non si faccl piu vicini, e avicinar 
no si pos I2 sono, se 1'arco che infra lor s'in- 
terpone non avicini li sua ^stremi, li quali 
no si possono accostare sanza 
rottura del ^suo mezzo; adu- 
que 1'arco si ronpera in 2 
lochi come fu primo ^pos- 
to ecc. 

l6 Domada del peso dato in * 
a, che parte ne risponde I n 
'yiinia, e co che peso s'a a 
vinciere il peso posto in /. 


An arch constructed on a semicircle and 
bearing weights on the two opposite thirds 
of its curve will give way at five 
points of the curve. To prove 
this let the weights be at n m 
which will break the arch a, 
b, f. I say that, by the foregoing, 
as the extremities c and a are 
equally pressed upon by the thrust 
n, it follows, by the 5 th , that 
the arch will give way at the point 
which is furthest from the two forces 
acting on them and that is the middle 
e. The same is to be understood of 
the opposite curve, d g b; hence the weights 
n m must sink, but they cannot sink by the 7 th , 
without coming closer together, and they can- 
not come together unless the extremities of the 
arch between them come closer, 
and if these draw together the 
crown of the arch must break; and 
thus the arch will give way in 
two places as was at first said &c. 
I ask, given a weight at a what 
counteracts it in the direction n 
f and by what weight must the 
weight at / be counteracted. 

777. i. rocture. 2. semil . . charicho. 3. churvita. 4. churvita prosi essieno. 5. ronpano . . archo . . per la. 6. passata chome 
ca"stremi" sono ecqualmete agravati. 7. seguita "per la 5" chellarcho." 8. chello priemano . . altrec. 9. archo . . addu. 
10. veghano addissciedere e disscieder no possa. 12. sano dellarclio che infrallor. 13. achosstare. 14. larcho . . chome 
fu pr"o" . ne rissponde. 17. cho . . possto. 

8 4 



Br. M. 





^ La finestra a e causa della rottura del 
b e questa tal rot^tura e aumetata dal peso 
n m, il quale piu si ficca ovvero penetra 
intra la ter 5 ra che ricieve il suo fondameto, 
che no fa la leuit& del b , e ancora il fo- 
6 dameto vechio che sta sotto b a fatto il 
calo, il che fatto non avea li pi^lastri n m 
e la parte b non disciede perpendiculare, 
anzi si gitta info 8 ri per obbliquo e non 
si pu6 per 1'aversario gittare in detro, 
perch tal parte disuni^ta dal tutto e piu 
larga di fori che di dentro e li labri del 
rimanente I0 e della medesima figura, e se 
tal parte disunita avesse a etrare in den- 
tro, "il maggiore entrerebbe nel mi- 
nore, il che sarebbe inpossibile; adunque 
12 e cocluso che per necessita la parte 
di tale emiciclo si disuniscie dal tutto 
col '^gittarsi colla parte inferiore infori 
e non indetro come vole ^Pauersario 

'sQuando le tribune intere o mezze 
16 sara di sopra vinte da superchio peso, al- 
J 7lora le sue volte si aprirano l8 co apritura 
diminuitiva ^dalla parte di sopra e larga 
di sot 20 to e stretta dalla parte di dentro e 
21 larga di fuori, a similitudine della 22 scorza 
del pomo ovvero melaracia 2 ^ divisa in molte 
parti per la sua Iughez 2 'za, che quato ella 
sara premuta da! 25 le opposite parti della 
sua lughezza, 26 quella parte delle giuture 
piu si a 27 prira, che fia piu distate alia causa 
28 che la prieme , e per questo mai si 2 9deb- 
bono caricare li archi delle volte 3di qual- 
unche emiciclo dalli archi dello 3 1 suo 
edifitio massimo, perche quel che * 2 pi\i 
pesa piu prieme sopra cio che li e di33sotto, 
e piu disciende sopra li sua fon^dameti, il 
che interuenire no pu6 35 a lle cose piu lieui 
come sono li emi3 6 cicli predetti. 

The window a is the cause of the crack 
at b; and this crack is increased hy the 
pressure of n and m which sink or penetrate 
into the soil in which foundations are built 
more than the lighter portion at b. Besides, 
the old foundation under b has already 
settled, and this the piers n and m have not 
yet done. Hence the part b does not settle 
down perpendicularly; on the contrary, it is 
thrown outwards obliquely, and it cannot 
on the contrary be thrown inwards, be- 
cause a portion like this, separated from 
the main wall, is larger outside than inside 
and the main wall, where it is broken, is of 
the same shape and is also larger outside 
than inside ; therefore, if this separate portion 
were to fall inwards the larger would have 
to pass through the smaller which is impos- 
sible. Hence it is evident that the portion 
of the semicircular wall when disunited 
from the main wall will be thrust outwards, 
and not inwards as the adversary says. 

When a dome or a half-dome is crushed 
from above by an excess of weight the vault 
will give way, forming a crack which dimi- 
nishes towards the top and is wide below, 
narrow on the inner side and wide outside; 
as is the case with the outer husk of a 
pomegranate, divided into many parts length- 
wise; for the more it is pressed in the 
direction of its length, that part of the joints 
will open most, which is most distant from 
the cause of the pressure ; and for that reason 
the arches of the vaults of any apse should 
never be more loaded than the arches of 
the principal building. Because that which 
weighs most, presses most on the parts be- 
low, and they sink into the foundations ; but 
this cannot happen to lighter structures like 
the said apses. 

778. i. chorpi. 2. "ollarghezza". 3. finesstra . . chausa . . roctura . . ecquesta . . roc. 4. ficha over . . intralla. 5. anchcia 
6. chessta . . affatto il chalo. 7. lasstri n . m . ella . . dissciede per pedichulare . . infer. 8. po. 9. eppiu largha . . 
cheddi dentro [ess] elli. 10. fighura essettal . . avessi. n. enterrebbc . . addunque. 12. e chocluso . . disunisscie . . chol. 
13. gittari [dap] cholla . . inferiore [di] inforienone . . chome. 15. trebune . . omeze. 17. apirrano [chota]. 18. [tamaj 
cho. 19. ellargha. 20. esstreta . . dentro el. 21. largha . . assimilitudine. 22. over. 23. imolte parte. 24. sara permuta. 
25. parte . . lugheza. 26. quela. 27. pirra chcffia . . chausa. 28. chella . . quessto. 29. debbe charichare. 32. sopra chilli 
edi. 33. dissciende. 35. chose . . chome. 36. predecti. 37. quessti . . chubi. 38. ho. 39. chubo. 40. chubo b sosspeso. 41. in- 

778. The figure on PI. CV, No. 4 belongs to 
the first paragraph of this passage, lines I 14; 
fig. 5 is sketched by the side of lines 15 and 

following. The sketch below of a pomegranate 
refers to line 22. The drawing fig. 6 is, in the 
original, over line 37 and fig. 7 over line 54. 

toll.*? ~ Ji \ , \ \ L Vflf/ Aftw 

. I Y 3 frr7l > M '<M |T 

2j^r^*T H *rt >/*w *Y 

W*:*fo ^V^-v' 

^ *M^.rCJ^7 -/T /H^ 

f r' <j -*^ ., 




37 Qual di questi due cubi dimi^ 8 nuira 
piu vniformemete , o 39il cvbo A posato 
sopra il pavi'meto, o'l cubo b sospeso 
41 infra 1'aria, essedo 1'uno 42 e 1'altro cubo 
equal! in peso *3 e in quantita e di terra 
mista 44 con equale vmidita? 

45 Quel cubo che si posa sopra 46 il pavi- 
meto piu diminui^scie della sua altezza che 
per la * 8 sua larghezza, il che 4 ?far no puo 
il cubo ch'e di 5 sopra e sospeso infra 1'a- 
ria; S'pruovasi cosl; il cubo po S2 sato so- 
pra questa medesima 53 S ta meglio qui di 

5411 fine delli dua cilindri di ss terra 
fresca cioe a.b sa5 6 ra le figure piramidali 
di s; sotto c d j provasi co5 8 sl : il cilindro a, 
posato 59 sopra il suo pavimeto per esse 6o re 
lui di terra assai mista 6l coll'umido, va ca- 
lado me 62 diante il suo peso che da di se 
6 3alla sua basa, e tato piu camera e in- 
grossera, quato e'sa 6 5ra colle sua parti piu 
presso 66 alla sua basa, perche 11 si cari 6 ?ca 
il suo tutto ecc; E si 68 mile fara il peso d, 
il quale pi 6 9u s'astedera, quato elli a mag- 
gi?or peso sotto se, la qual maggiorita 7'e 
ne'cofini del suo sostetaculo. 

Which of these two cubes will shrink the 
more uniformly: the cube A resting on the 
pavement, or the cube b suspended in the 
air, when both cubes are equal in weight 
and bulk, and of clay mixed with equal 
quantities of water? 

The cube placed on the pavement dimi- 
nishes more in height than in breadth, which 
the cube above, hanging in the air, cannot 
do. Thus it is proved. The cube shown above 
is better shown here below. 

The final result of the two cylinders of 
damp clay that is a arid b will be the 
pyramidal figures below c and d. This is 
proved thus: The cylinder a resting on 
block of stone being made of clay mixed 
with a great deal of water will sink by its 
weight, which presses on its base, and in 
proportion as it settles and spreads all the 
parts will be somewhat nearer to the base 
because that is charged with the whole 
weight, &c.; and the case will be the same 
with the weight of b which will stretch 
lengthwise in proportion as the weight at 
the bottom is increased and the greatest ten- 
sion will be the neighbourhood of the weight 
which is suspended by it. 

frallaria esse luno. 44. ellaltro chub. 43. missta. 44. chon. 45. chubo chessi. 47. alteza. 48. [che] il che. 49. chubo. 
50. essosspeso. 51. chosi il chubo. 54. chilindri. 55. fressca. 56. ra le. 57. socto . . cho. 58. chilindro. 60. missta. 
61. chollumido va chalado. 63. ettato piu cha. 64. egrossera. 65. cholle .. . parte. 66. chari. 67. cha . . Essi. 69. sas- 
stedera . . magi. 70. laqqual magiorita. 71. cne chofusi . sostetachulo. 






2 Arco non e altro che una fortezza 
cavsata da due debolezze, Jpero^ch^ 
1'arco negli edifiti e coposto di 2 
quarti di circulo , i quali 4 quarti cir- 
culi, ciascuno debolissimo per se, desi- 
dera cadere, e opponeMosi alia ruina 
1'uno dell' altro de'due debolezze, si cover- 
tono in vni 6 ca fortezza. 


The arch is nothing else than a force 
originated by two weaknesses, for the 
arch in buildings is composed of two 
segments of a circle, each of which 
being very weak in itself tends to fall; 
but as each opposes this tendency in 

the other, the two weaknesses combine to 

form one strength. 


8 Poiche 1'arco fia coposto , quello ri 
mane in equilibrio, Ipero9che tato spi- 
gie 1'uno 1' altro quato 1' altro 
1'uno-, e se pesa piv 1'uno I0 quarto 
circulo che 1' altro , quivi fia leuata 
e negata la permaneza, "imperoch^ 
'1 maggiore viciera il minore peso. 


As the arch is a composite force it 
remains in equilibrium because the 
thrust is equal from both sides; and 
if one of the segments weighs more 
than the other the stability is lost, 
because the greater pressure will out- 
weigh the lesser. 


il peso equale de' quarti 
circuli e neciessario dare loro equale 
'+peso di sopra, altremeti si corre- 
rebbe nel sopra detto errore. 


Next to giving the segments of 
the circle equal weight it is neces- 
sary to load them equally, or you will 
fall into the same defect as before. 

779. i. chosa e archo. 2. archo . . * forteza . . deboleze. 3. larcho . . choposto . . circhuli. 4. circhuli ciaschuno . debolisimo 
. . chadere eopone. 5. deboleze . . chouertano. 6. cha forteza. 7. dela . . deli. 8. choposto quelo . . equilibra. 9. chettato 
. . esse e pesa. 10. circhulo . . premaneza. IT. magriore. iz. chartcho dati ali. 13. circhuli. 14. chorerebe . . erore 



l6 L'arco si ropera J 
quella parte che passa il 
suo mezzo sotto il cietro. 


l8 Se '1 superchio peso fia 
posto I mezzo 1'arco nel puto a , 
quello desi J 9dera cadere in b , e 
ronpesi ne' 2 / 3 della sua altezza 
m . c e, 20 e tato fia piu potete 
g e che e a quanto 2I ;/z <? en- 
tra in w n. 


2 3 L' arco verra ancora meno per essere 
sospito da traverse, inpero 2 *che qua- 
do il carico no si dirizza ai pie de- 
1'arco, 2 s 1'arco poco dura. 


An arch breaks at the 
part which lies below half 
way from the centre. 


If the excess of weight be pla- 
ced in the middle of the arch at 
the point a, that weight tends to 
fall towards b, and the arch breaks 
at 2 / 3 of its height at c e and g e 
i is as many times stronger than e a, 
as m o goes into m n. 


The arch will likewise give way under a 
transversal thrust, for when the charge 
is not thrown directly on the foot of the 
arch, the arch lasts but a short time. 

A. 50,5] 



2 II modo di fare 1'arco permanete si e 
a rienpiere i sua angoli di 
buono ripieno 3 insino al suo 
raso overo culmine. 


The way to give stability to the arch is 
to fill the spandrils with good 

masonry up to the level of its 










15. larcho. 16. larcho . . mezo [da], 17. sechodo . . archo. 18. imezo larcho . . quelo. 19. chadere . . dela . . alteza. 
20. [c . in n che in . e] g . e. 22. chagione. 23. larcho vera . anchora . . esserre. 24. charicho . . diriza . . archo. 
25. larcho pocho. 

780. i. dela forteza delarcho. 2. larcho. 3. chulmine. 4. charichare . . larcho. 5. charichare larcho achuto. 6. delo incho- 
veniete . . charichare. 7. larcho achuto . . mezo. 8. dano . . larcho achuto. 9. charichato sopra a sua fiachi. 10. larcho 


[ 7 8l. 





10 L'arco poco curvo fia sicuro 
"ma se fia carico , le 
spalle bisognia I2 bene 
armare; '3 1' arco d'assai 
curvita fia per se debole, 
MC piv forte se fia carico 
efara poca noia 'Salle sue 
spalle , e lui ropera in 

per se, 

-* e 1 


c i 

A. 51 



An arch of small curve is safe in itself, 
but if it be heavily charged, 
it is necessary to strengthen 
the flanks well. An arch of a 
very large curve is weak in 
itself, and stronger if it be 
charged, and will do little 
harm to its abutments,and its 
places of giving way are*/. 


The arch which throws its pressure 

per 6 qualuque verso si stia, ?o rovescio, o 
a giacere, 8 o ritto. 

9lL'arco no si ropera se la corda 
del' arco di fori no tocchera 1' arco di den- 
trol; IO Questo-appare per isperieza, che 
ogni-volta che la corda- a-o-n dell' arco 
"di fori- n-r-a- tocchera -1' arco di dentro 
x-b-y , 1'arco dark pricipio a sua 12 debo- 
lezza , e tato si fara piv - debole quato 
1'arco-di detro- ropera dessa- corda. 

1 3 Quell' arco -il quale fia- carico dal'una 
de'lati, I4 il peso si carichera sulla somita 

its function whatever be its direction, upside 
down, sideways or upright. 

The arch will not break if the chord 
the outer arch does not touch the inner 
arch. This is manifest by experience, 
because whenever the chord a o n of 
outer arch n r a approaches the inner arch 
x b y the arch will be weak, and it will 
weaker in proportion as the inner arch passes 
beyond that chord. When an arch is loaded 
only on one side the thrust will press on 
the top of the other side and be transmit! 

780. Inside the large figure on the right is the note: Da par* I* f*na dM archo. 



8 9 

dePaltro mezzo-, e pas'Ssera 
il peso per isino al suo fon- 
dameto , e ropera in quella I(3 par- 
te che fia piv lontana dai sua 
stremi e dalla sua corda. 

to the spring of the arch on that 
side; and it will break at a point 
half way between its two extre- 
mes, where it is farthest from 
the chord. 

H.I 35*1 

La quatita cotinua, 
che per forza in arco 
2 fia piegata, splgie per 
la linia, ode deside^ra 

H.I 36 a] 

L'arco di quatita discreta 
fa forza 2 per linia obliqua, 


cioe il triangulo 
sete peso 

n b no 


A continuous body 
which has been forcibly 
bent into an arch, thrusts 
in the direction of the 
straight line, which it 
tends to recover. 

In an arch judiciously 
weighted the thrust is oblique, 
so that the triangle c n b 
has no weight upon it. 

S. K. M. Il.a 676] 


Domando qui che 2 pesi fieno quelli 
^ de' contrapesi a fa^re resistetia alia 
di ciascun arco? 

I here ask what weight will be needed to 
counterpoise and resist the tendency of each 
of these arches to give way? 

chera sula soraita . . mezo e pa. 15. quela. 16. cheffia . . dala. 
782. 13 R. i. archo. 2. fie. 783. i 3 R. i. larcho. 

784. 2. hce pesi. 3. affa. 4. resisetia. 

784. The two lower sketches are taken from the MS. S. K. M. Ill, io; they have there no explanatory text. 




Br. M. 158 6} 






3 La permaneza dell' arco fabbricato dallo 
architetto coivsiste nella corda e nelle spalle 


5 La situatione della corda a equale ne- 
cessita nel princi 6 pio dell'archo, e nel fine 
della rettitudine del pilastro 7 dove si posa; 
pruovasi per la 2 a delli sostetaculi che 
dicie: 8 Quella parte del sostentaculo manco 
resiste che e piu remota dal fersmame'to 
del suo tutto; adunque essendo la * "somita 
del pilastro vltima reniotione d il suo fer- 
mameto, e '1 si 1 'mile accadedo ntlli oppositi 
stremi dell' arco, che sono vl^tima distantia 
dal mezzo, suo vero fermameto, noi abbia 
con^cluso, che tal corda a b di neciessita 
richiede la situatione delli J *sua oppo- 
siti stremi infra li 4 oppositi stremi pre- 

'5 Dicie 1' auersario che tale arco vole essere 
piu che mezzo I6 tondo, e allora non avra 
bisognio di corda perche tali stremi J 7no 
spignerano infuori, ma indentro, come si di- 
l8 mostra nello ecciesso a c b d\ Qui si 
risponde, tale ^inventione essere trista per 
5 cause, e la prima e inquanto 20 alla for- 
tezza, perche e provato jl paralello cir- 
2I culare, essendo coposto di due semicirculi, 
sol ropersi dove "tali semicirculi insieme 
si congiugono, come mo 23 stra la figura ;/ m ; 
oltre a di questo seguita, ch'egli e mag- 
2 4giore spatio infra li stremi del semicirculo 
che infra le pa 2 5rieti delli muri; terza e che '1 
peso posto per cotro alia fortezza 26 dell' arco 
diminuiscie tanto di peso, quato le poste 
dell'arco 2 7 sono piu larghe che detto spatio 
interposto infra li pilastri, 4* e 28 che li pilastri 
indeboliscono per tato quato la parte loro 

The stability of the arch built by an 
architect resides in the tie and in the 


The position of the tie is of the 
same importance at the beginning of the 
arch and at the top of the perpendicular 
pier on which it rests. This is proved 
by the 2 nd "of supports" which says: that 
part of a support has least resistance which 
is farthest from its solid attachment; hence, 
. as the top of the pier is farthest from the 
middle of its true foundation and the same 
being the case at the opposite extremities of 
the arch \\hich are the points farthest from the 
middle, which is really its [upper] attachment, 
we have concluded that the tie a b requires to 
be in such a position as that its opposite ends are 
between the four above-mentioned extremes. 

The adversary says that this arch must 
be more than half a circle, and that then it 
will not need a tie, because then the ends 
will not thrust outwards but inwards, as is 
seen in the excess at a c, b d. To this it 
must be answered that this would be a very 
poor device, for three reasons. The first 
refers to the strength of the arch, since 
it is proved that the circular parallel 
being composed of two semicircles will 
only break where these semicircles cross 
each other, as is seen in the figure n m', 
besides this it follows that there is a wider 
space between the extremes of the semicircle 
than' between the plane of the walls; the 
third reason is that the weight placed to 
counterbalance the strength of the arch 
diminishes in proportion as the piers of the 
arch are wider than the space between the 
piers. Fourthly in proportion as the parts 
at c a b d turn outwards, the piers are weaker 
to support the arch above them. The 5 th 
is that all the material and weight of the 

785. i. dellarcho. 2. premaneza dellarcho fabrichato . . architettoch \\\\\\. 3. chorda. 4. chorda . . archo. 3. chorda allaq"a" 
neciessita. 6. rectitudine del pilasstro. 7. dovessi . . pella . . sostetachuli cheddicie. 8. sostentachulo ma. 9. tucto . . 
essendo [la somita delli] la. 10. somita . . pilasstro . . repotione. n. achadedo [nellarcho] ntlli . . archo chessono . . 
chon. 13. chluso chettal chorda "a b" di. 14. infralli . . predecti. 15. chettale archo. 16. ara . . chorda. 17. no [gitte- 
ranno] inspignierano . . indreto. 18. mosstra . . rispoule. 19. trissta per "5" [tre] chause ella . . e inq. 20. provato 
[larcho sol] jl. 21. chulare . . choposto . . semice . . 22. semicirchuli . . chongiughano . . mos. 23. fighura . . quessto 
. . ema. 24. infralli . . semics . . infralle. 25. riete . . possto perchotro. 26. archo diminuisscie . . posste dellarcho. 27. e 
piu largha . . interpostu infralli pilasstri\\\\\. 28. \\\\ elli pilasstri indebolisschano. 29. larcho . . la 5" he. 30. chettutta. 



c a 2< *b d si piegha indirieto nel ritienere 
sopra di se 1'arco; la 5 a e 3che tutta la spesa 
e '1 peso dell' arco che eccede il mezzo tondo 
3 J e inutile e dafioso, ed e qui da notare, 
che il peso 3 2 sopra posto all' archo ropera 
co piu facilita 1'arco in a b troua^do la 
curuatura dell'ecciesso che al mezzo circulo 
s'agiugnie 34 che essendo dirieto il pilastro 
insino al cotatto del semicirculo. 



37Frouasi per la 7 a di questo che dicie 
38 tie opposite stremita delli sostetaculi sono 
equalmete agra39yate dal peso che per lor 
si sospede; aduque il peso dato in /si 4 sete 
in b c cioe mezzo per ciascuno stremo, e 
per la terza che dicie: 4I Quella parte del 
sostetacolo d' equal potetia piu presto si 
rompe 42 che e piu distante al suo ferma- 
meto, ode seguita che .... 4 3per essere d 
equalmente distate al f e ferma 

arch which are in excess of the semicircle 
are useless and indeed mischievous; and here 
it is to be noted that the weight placed above 
the arch will be more likely to break the 
arch at a b, where the curve of the excess 
begins that is added to the semicircle, 
than if the pier were straight up to its 
junction with the semicircle [spring of the 




This is proved by the 7 th of this which 
says: The opposite ends of the support are 
equally pressed upon by the weight suspended 
to them; hence the weight shown at f is 
felt at b c, that is half at each extremity; 
and by the third which says: in a support 
of .equal strength [throughout] that portion 
will give way soonest which is farthest from 
its attachment; whence it follows that d being 
equally distant from /, e 

35 Se 1'armadura dell'ar3 6 co no cala in- 
sieme 37 C ol calo dell' arco, la cal3 8 cina nel 
seccarsi restri39gnie in se medesima e 4 si 
spicca dall'u de'matto 4I ni, alii quali ella per 
co! 42 legarli e interpo 43 sta, e cosl li lascia 
dis 44 legati, per la qual co 4 5sa la uolta resta 
disu 46 nita e le pioggie in brie 47 ve la ruinano. 

If the centering of the arch does not 
settle as the arch settles, the mortar, as it 
dries, will shrink and detach itself from the 
bricks between which it was laid to keep 
them together; and as it thus leaves them 
disjoined the vault will remain loosely built, 
and the rains will soon destroy it. 




IMQuella parte dell' arco che fia piv 
piana, fara minore resistetia 4 al peso so- 
pra postoli.H 

That part of the arch which is nearer 
to the horizontal offers least resistance to the 
weight placed on it. 

archo . . eciede. 31. [dellarcho] e innutile. 32. possto . . larcho. 33. churuatura . . mezo circhulo. 34. pilasstro . . cho- 
tatto. 35. charicho . . mezo. 36. desstro essinisstro. 37. cheddicie. 18. sosstetachuli seno. 40. ciasscuno. 41. sosste- 
tacholo . . si r\\\\\\\\\\. 42. disstante . . seghuita che \\\\\\\\\\. 43. deq distante al f e ferma \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\. 36. cho no chala. 
37. chol chalo dell archo. 38. secharsi. 40. sispicha. 41. chol. 42. legharsi. 43. e chosi. 44. leghati . . qual che. 45. la 
la . . ressta. 46. elle. 47. ve le. 
786. i. forteza. 2. chosi le cholone. 3. archo cheffia. 6. chalando chaccia. 7. ciaschuno 1/2 archo. 8. echosi. n. ciasschuno 

9 2 


[ 7 86. 

z n 6 calan- 

sQuando jl triagolo 
do caccia indirieto 
7j 2 / 3 di ciascuno 
'/a arco 8 cioe a.s-e 
cosl z m, ela 9ra- 
gio si e che a 
pioba sopra b, I0 e 
cosl 5- sopra /. 

1 ' Ciascuno */ 2 arco , sendo vinto dal 
superchio peso , si ronpera ne 2 / 3 della 
"sua altezza-, la quale-parte risponde per 
perpediculare linia sopra il mezzo della 
sua l * basa- come appare in a b\ E questo 
accade che'l pe o desidera cadere '*e pas- 
sare pel puto r ; E s'egli desiderasse cotra 
sua natura cade'Sre dal puto s -, 1'arco 
M s si roperebbe nel stio mezzo apputo 
16 e se 1' arco n s - fusse d' u solo legnio, il 
peso posto in- desidereb'7be cadere in 
m e ronperebbesi in mezzo * 2 all' arco e- 
m , altremeti si ropera nel terzo l8 di sopra 
nel puto l ?a -, perche da a n 20 e 1'arco 
piv pia 2I no, che non e da 22 a o e che 
no^n e da o s; 2 4,e tanto quato *$p .t - e 
maggio 26 re che t-n-^ tanto fia piv for 28 te 
-a o che 2 9non e a n ; -Je similmete 
3 1 tanto fia piv * 2 forte s o che 33 - a 
quato ^r- p fia maggi^ore che p t. 

3 6 Quel arco che fia raddoppiato nella 
quadratura della sua grossezza 37 re giera 
quattro tanti peso quanto regieva lo sce- 
pio , tanto piv 3 8 quanto il diamitro della 
sua grossezza entra me numero di uolte 
nella 39 S ua lunghezza, Cioe se la grossezza 
delFarco sciepio entra- 10 * volte nella sua 

lughezza, la grossezza del arco dupplicato 

etrera 5 volte *' nella sua lughezza ; Adu- 
que entrado la meta meno la grossezza de 
4 2 P arco- dupplicato nella sua lunghezza 
che no fa quella de+ 3 1'arco- sciepio nella 

sua -, e ragionevol cosa che regga la meta 
piv 4peso che no gli toccherebbe, se fusse 
alia proportione dell' aH SCG sciepio; Onde 
essendo quest' arco dupplicato per 4 volte 
la qua4 6 tita del' arco sciepio, parrebbe che 
dovesse regiere?4 tati piv peso, 47 e la sopra 
detta regola dimostra che ne sostiene 8 co- 
tati apputo. 

When the triangle u z n, by settling, 
drives backwards the 
2 / 3 of each '/ 2 circle 
that is a s and in the 
same way z m , the 
reason is that a is 
perpendicularly over 
b and so likewise z 
is above f. 
Either half of an arch, if overweighted, 
will break at 2 / 3 of its height, the point which 
corresponds to the perpendicular line above 
the middle of its bases, as is seen at a b; 
and this happens because the weight tends 
to fall past the point r. And if, against its 
nature it should tend to fall towards the 
point s the arch n s would break precisely 
in its middle. If the arch n s were of a single 
piece of timber, if the weight placed at n 
should tend to fall in the line n ni, the arch 
would break in the middle of the arch e m, 
otherwise it will break at one third from the 
top at the point a because from a to n 
the arch is nearer to the horizontal than from 
a to o and from o to j, in proportion as / / 
is greater than t n, a o will be stronger than 
a n and likewise in proportion as s o is 
stronger than o a, r p will be greater than / /. 
The arch which is doubled to four times 
of its thickness will bear four times the 
weight that the single arch could carry, and 
more in proportion as the diameter of its 
thickness goes a smaller number .of times 
into its length. That is to say that if the 
thickness of the single arch goes ten 
times into its length, the thickness of the x 
doubled arch will go five times into its length. 
Hence as the thickness of the double arch 
goes only half as many times into its length 
as that of the .single arch does, it is 
reasonable that it should carry half as 
much more weight as it would have to carry 
if it were in direct proportion to the 
single arch. Hence as this double arch has 
4 times the thickness of the single arch, it 
would seem that it ought to bear 4 times 
the weight; but by .the above rule it is 
shown that it will bear exactly 8 times as 

'/2 archo. 12. alteza . . risponde perpedichulare . . mezo dela. 13. chome apare . . Ecquesto achade . . chadere. 
14. Essegli desiderassi . . chotra . . chade. 15. larcho . . roperebe . . aputo. 16. esselnrcho (in) fussi . . desidere. 17. be cha- 
dere eronprrebesi in 1/2 archo. 20. elarcho. 25. magio. 30. essimilmete. 34. magi. 36. archo . cheffia radopiato . . grosseza. 
37. lossciepio . Ettanto. 38. grosseza. 39. lungeza . . sella grosseza dellarcho duplichato etera. 40. volte ila . . lugeza 
la grosseza . . archo duplichato etera. 41. nela . . lugeza . . grosseza. 42. larcho duplichato . . lungeza che no fa che 
no fa. 43. larcho . . chosa che rega. 44. peso |ap] che . . tocherebe [ali] sefuss ssi ala. 45. cho . . archo duplichato. 
46. archo . . parebe . . dovessi. 47. cbotali aputo. 48. cheffia charicho . . diseghuale . . vcra. 49. macho. 50. cholona . . cha 




50 La colonna c b - per 1'essere carica 
d' equale somma fia piv perma- 
nete, $ l e 1'altre 2 di fori ano 
bisognio di tato peso dal loro 
cietro infori S2q U at'e dal loro 
cietro indetro cioe dal cietro 
della colonna insino a mezzo 1'arco. 

53 Li archi che stano per forza di catene 
no fieno permaneti. 




55 L' arco per se desidera cadere, e se 1' ar- 
co fia 30 braccia e lo iteruallo 
ch' e infra i mvri s^che lo so- 
stegono sia 20 , noi sap- 
piamo che 30 no passera per 
20, se 20 no si 57 fa ancora 
lui 30 ; ode sendo vinto 
1' arco dal superchio peso si 
dirizza e i mvri s8 ma i e resiteti 
1'aprono e dano 1'entrata in- 
fra loro spatio alia ruina 
del' arco; 59Ma se tu no uolessi mettere al- 
1'arco la sua corda di ferro, li debbi fare 
tali 6o spalle che facciano resistetia al suo 
spingiere, la qual cosa farai cosl : carica 
61 li angoli m n di pietre che le linie delle 
loro givnture se dirizzino al cientro 62 del 
circulo del' arco, E la ragione, che sara 
1'arco permanete, fia questa, Noi 6 3sap- 
piamo chiaro che chi carica 1'arco nel 
quarto suo a - b di superchio peso che' 1 
6 ^muro -f-g- fia sospmto, perche 1'arco si 
uorra dirizzare; E chi caricasse Paltro 
quarto 6 s . c ch'eli tirerebbe il mvro 
f-g- indetro, se no fusse la linia delle 
pietre ^x y che fa sostegnio. 


The column c b , being charged with an 
equal weight, [on each side] will be 
most durable, and the other two out- 
ward columns require on the part out- 
side of their centre as much pressure 
as there is inside of their centre, 
that is, from the centre of the co- 
lumn, towards the middle of the arch. 
Arches which depend on chains for their 
support will not be very durable. 




The arch itself tends to fall. If the arch be 
30 braccia and the interval be- 
tween the walls which carry it 
be 20, we know that 30 cannot 
pass through the 20 unless 20 
becomes likewise 30. Hence 
the arch being crushed by the 
excess of weight, and the walls 
offering insufficient resistance, 
part, and afford room between 
them, for the fall of the arch. 
But if you do not wish to strengthen the arch 
with an iron tie you must give it such 
abutments as can resist the thrust; and you 
can do this thus: fill up the spandrels m n 
with stones, and direct the lines of the joints 
between them to the centre of the circle 
of the arch, and the reason why this makes 
the arch durable is this. We know very 
well that if the arch is loaded with an ex- 
cess of weight above its quarter as a b, the 
wall f g will be thrust outwards because the 
arch would yield in that direction; if the 
other quarter b c were loaded, the wall f g 
would be thrust inwards, if it were not for 
the line of stones x y which resists this. 

S. K. M. II. 2 661] 



2 Qui si dimostra come li archi 3 f a tti ne' 
lati dell' ottagolo spmgo^no i pilastri delli 


Here it is shown how the arches made 
in the side of the octagon thrust the piers 

richa . . soma . . premanete. 51. ano . . tado . . daloro. 52. daloro . . cholona . . ihezo. 53. stano . . chatene. 54. larcho . . 
ara . . chontrario. 55. larcho . . chadere Esselarcho . . 30 br . . Tterualo. 56. sostegano . . sapiano. 57. anora . . larcho 
. . diriza. 58. laprano edano . . ala . . archo. 59. Massettu . . archo . . chorda. 60. spale cheffacino . . chosa . . chari- 
cha. 61. chelle . . dele . . dirizino. 62. circhulo . . archo .' . larcho . . premanete. 63. sapiano . . chariche larcho. 
64. larcho si uora dirizare . . charichassi. 65. tirerebe . . fussi. 66. cheffa. 
787. 2. dimosstra chome. 3. caciarlo. 



[ 7 88. 

angoli infori, Scome si 
dimostra nella linia k c 
6 e nella linia / d che 
spingono ^ il pilastro m 
in fori, ciod si 8 sforzano 
cacciarlo dal cietro di tale 

of the angles outwards, as 
is shown by the line h c 
and by the line / d which 
thrust out the pier m ; 
that is they tend to force 
it away from the centre of 
such an octagon. 

B. 37 a] 


La sperieza che vn peso posto sopra 
vno arco no si carica tutto sopra alle sua 
colon 2 ne, anzi quato e maggior peso fra- 
posto sopra 1'archi , tanto me pesa ^I'arco 
il peso alle colone ; la sperienza sie questa : 
sia messo vn omo * sopra le stadere in mezzo 
la troba d'uno pozzo; fa dipoi che questo 
allarghi le mani s e piedi infra le parieti di 
detto pozzo , vedrai questo pesare alia sta- 
dera molto meno ; da li vno peso alle 
spalle, uedrai per sperieza quato maggior 
7 peso ti dara, maggiore forza fara in aprire 
le braccia eganbe, e piv p6 8 dare nelle parieti, 
e piv macare il podo alle stadere. 

An Experiment to show that a weight 
placed on an arch does not discharge itself 
entirely on its columns; on the contrary the 
greater the weight placed on the arches, the less 
the arch transmits the weight to the columns. 
The experiment is the following. Let a man 
be placed on a steel yard in the middle of 
the shaft of a well, then let him spread out 
his hands and feet between the walls of the 
well, and you will see him weigh much less on 
the steel yard; give him a weight on the 
shoulders, you will see by experiment, that the 
greater the weight you give him the greater 
effort he will make in spreading his arms 
and legs, and in pressing against the wall 
and the less weight will be thrown on 
the steel yard. 

788. i. archo . . carica tu sopra . . colo. 2. magior. 3. larcho el . . cholone . . questa si mezzo. 4. imezo . . pozo. 5. pozo 
. . ala. 6. spalli . . isperieza . . magior. 7. darai magiore. 8. pariete . . mac hare. 


< /h/rr<4'th?fe 

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++ /Ml* 


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is22S3^^ ^/^ 

'l^!Si*v : *** Wl ^ ~ *^r*y fcn*"F - 11 :? 

i _,^V'i r ""'^"- <3 X- v WM^W*^ -""n;"","!""^' 
iii^ r "I '-iVB^KPrt ;' LA. %1 < *n*(re*C2i'2 

K A>jpiI>v *' h .iw.r.ftvo} ** .) ^ .J,1 /.Jirfifi. 

/AvA-'""i AN '' > " v ' f T ^^vS-'fi JS^tf*^ : 

r/r* "/ oiiVrf*.-^"***^'' JL.wv c Mr *i\ '_!: Juni^K 
i.^6^?J;,?-J --'' B5Ka.J ^.i? 

>^r : %^W 

i^i-jS Wrt'* N '*T c '^ > .^flT 

Hcliog-. Dujardin , 

Imp. Eude s . 





Br. M. 1380] 


La prima parte neciessarissima e la loro 

2 Delli fondameti che anno le mebrifica- 
tioni componi3trici delli tepli e altri edi- 
fiti public!, tal proporti 4 one deve essere da 
profondita a profondita quale s e da peso a 
peso che scaricare si deve sopra essi me 6 bri. 

?Ogni parte della pro 8 fondita, che a la 
terra 9 per alquato spatio, e I0 fatta a suoli, 
e o TI gni suolo e coposto di I2 parti, piu 
grave '3e piv leue Puna chel'aHtra; nel pro- 
fondarsi e piu grave, e questo si prova, 
is perche qu'esti tali soli so co^posti dalle 
turbulentie l6 delle acque scaricate I l8 mare 
dal corso de' fiumi, X 9che in quello ver- 
sano, 20 delle quali turbulentie 2I la parte 
piu grave fu 22 quella che prima 2 3si scarico 
successiva 24 mete, e" questo fa Pac 25 qua, dov' 
ella si ferma, Ie 26 vado prima dove es 2 ?sa 
si move; E di que 28 sti tali soli di terra 
2 9si manifesta nelli lati 3di fiumi che coi lor 
con3 T tinui corsi anno secati z 2 e partiti con 
gra pro33fondita di tagli Pu m634te dall'al- 
tro, doue per li 35ghiajosi soli 1' acque so 36 no 
scolate e per questo 37 l a materia si e sec- 

The first and most important thing is 

As to the foundations of the component 
parts of temples and other public buildings, 
the depths of the foundations must bear 
the same proportions to each other as the 
weight of material which is to be placed 
upon them. 

Every part of the depth of earth in a 
given space is composed of layers, and 
each layer is composed of heavier or 
lighter materials, the lowest being the 
heaviest. And this can be proved, because 
these layers have been formed by the sedi- 
ment from water carried down to the sea, 
by the current of rivers which flow into it. 
The heaviest part of this sediment was that 
which was first thrown down, and so on by 
degrees; and this is the action of water 
when it becomes stagnant, having first 
brought down the mud whence it first flowed. 
And such layers of soil are seen in the banks 
of rivers, where their constant flow has cut 
through them and divided one slope from 
the other to a great depth; where in gra- 
velly strata the waters have run off, the ma- 

789. i. ella loro perfnanentia. 2. chean le mebrificationi chonponi. 3. pubblici. 4. debbe . dapprofondita approfondita. 5. dap- 
peso . . chesscarichare si debbe. 8. alia. 9. spatiotio. 10. faetata assuoli. n. chopossto. 12. parte . . grave [opi].. 
13. eppiv lievi luna chellal. 14. tra "nel -grave" prove. 15. quessti. 16. turbbulentie. 17. scharichate. 21. fuc. 
22. prim"a". 23. sisscharicho. 24. ecquesto fallac. 25. ferme. 29. manifessta. 30. cholor chon. 31. chorsi an seghati. 
32. esspartiti. 34. dallaltre. 35. gliorosi. 37. se secha. 38. chovertita. 40. fagho. 41. ecquesto. 43. tereste. 45. chosi 
de choverso. 


[790. 791. 

cata 3 8 ecouertita in dura 39pietra, e massime 
di *quel fago, che era piu 4'sottile, e questo 
ci < 2 fa cocludere, che ogni par 4 He della ter- 
restre superfitie fu * gia cietro della terra e 

de coverso ecc. 

terials have, in consequence, dried and been 
converted into hard stone, and this happened 
most in what was the finest mud; whence 
we conclude that every portion of the sur- 
face of the earth was once at the centre of 
the earth, and vice versa &c. 



UQuellaparte del fondameto delli edifiti 
che piv pesa 2 piv si ficca e lascia in alto 
il piv leggiero disunite da se; 1 3 1E quel ter- 
reno ch' e piv premvto, sendo poroso , piv 
acconsente ; 1 Senpre tu devi fare i fon- 
dameti che sportino egualmete fori del 
scarico-de'lor mvri e pilastri come appare 
in m a b , e se 6 farai come molti fanno, 
cioe di fare uno fondameto d'equale 7 lar- 
ghezza in sino alia superfitie della terra, 
e di sopra li danno diseguale 8 carico come 

The heaviest part of the foundations of 
buildings settles most, and leaves the 
lighter part above it separated from it. 

And the soil which is most pressed, if 
it be porous yields most. 

You should always make the foundations 
project equally beyond the weight of the walls 
and piers, as shown at m a b. If you do 
as many do, that is to say if you make a 
foundation of equal width from -the bottom 
up to the surface of the ground, and charge 


si dimostra in b e e in e o, la parte del 
fonda^meto b e, perche e piena dal pilas- 
tro del catone , piv pesa e piv splgie xo in 
basso il suo fodameto che no fa il muro- 
e o che non occupa 1 1 interamete il suo 
fodameto, e pero meno spegnie e me si 
ficca, I2 onde ficcadosi il pilastro b e - e si 
diunisce e parte dal mv^ro e o come si 
uede nel piv delli edifiti che sono spicati 
intorno a detti pilastri. 

it above with unequal weights, as shown at 
b e and at e o, at the part of the foundation 
at b e, the pier of the angle will weigh most 
and thrust its foundation downwards, which 
the wall at e o will not do; since it does not 
cover the whole of its foundation, and there- 
fore thrusts less heavily and settles less. Hence, 
the pier b e in settling cracks and parts 
from the wall e o. This may be seen in most 
buildings which are cracked round the piers. 

A. S3"! 

La finestra a sta bene sotto 
2 la finestra c - e la finestra -3- b 
sta male sotto lo spatio **/, 
perche detto spatio e sanza 
Ssostegnio e fondameto, 6 si che 
ricordati di no ropere 7 mai sotto 
li spati delle finestre. 


The window a is well placed 
under the window c, and the win- 
dow b is badly placed under the 
pier d, because this latter is without 
support and foundation; mind there- 
fore never to make a break under 
the piers between the windows. 

790. i. Quela. 2. ficha . ellasscia . . el . . legieri . dasse. 3. Ecquel tereno . . achosete. 4. debi . . chessportino. 5. pilasstri 
chome "aparc . . csse. 6. chome . . ! fondameto [equi] de quale. 7. largeza . . ala . . delatera . . dano. 8. charicho. 
9. chatone. 10. baso . . none ochupa. n. ficha. 12. fi[g] chadosi . . disunis>cie. 13. ckome . . chessono spichati. 14. pil.isslri. 

791. 2. ella. 3. sotto [la finestra] lo spatio. 5. effondameto. 6. richordati. 




A. 48*5] 



2 II pilastro moltiplicato per grossezza- A pillar of which the thickness is in- 

cresciera tanto piv che la sua debita po- creased will gain more than its due 

tetia 3quato e' maca della ragionevole strength, in direct proportion to what its 

altezza. loses in relative height. 


s Se uno pilastro debe essere alto 9 
grossezze-, cioe che s'egli sara- grosso uno 
braccio, la regola 6 lo pone di 9 braccia-; 
se ne collegherai 100 insieme per gros- 
sezza fia grosso braccia 10 e alto -9, 7 e se 
ilprimo pilastro regieva 10000 libbre, perche 
questo secodo non e alto se non e circa 8 a 
una grossezza, e macadoli 8 parti della 
lunghezza e' regiera piv otto volte, 9 cioe 
ogni pilastro collegato li toccera a regi- 
ere piv 8 volte che dislegato, cioe I0 che se 
prima regieva dieci mila libbre , adesso ne 
sosterra 90 mila. 


If a pillar should be nine times as high 
as it is broad that is to say, if it is one 
braccio thick, according to rule it should be 
nine braccia high then, if you place 100 
such pillars together in a mass this will be 
ten braccia broad and 9 high; and if the first 
pillar could carry 10000 pounds the second 
being only about as high as it is wide, and 
thus lacking 8 parts of its proper length, 
it, that is to say, each pillar thus united, 
will bear eight times more than when dis- 
connected; that is to say, that if at first it 
would carry ten thousand pounds, it would 
now carry 90 thousand. 

799. i. sosstetachulo. 2. pilasstro mvltiplichato per grosseza cressciera . tanto "piv che". 3. macha . . alteza. 5. Se I . . gros- 
seze . . chesseli . . 1 br . [de] la. 6. 9 br . . cholegerai . . grosseza . br. 10. 7. esse . . Ibr . . sechodo . . circha. 
8. a i grosseza e machadoli . . dela lungeza. 9. cholegato . . tochera. 10. chesse . . mila Ibr . . sostera. 





s. K. M. n.i 72 a] 793- 

2 QuelPangolo sa^ra di piv resiste 4 tia That angle will offer the greatest resi- 

che fia piv aScuto e '1 piv ottu 6 so fia piv stance which is most acute, and the most 
debole. obtuse will be the weakest. 


S. K. M. III. i got] 

Se i travi e'l peso o 
fia 100 libre, 2 quato 
peso sara in a b a fa3re 
resistetia a esso peso 
che 4 no caggia in basso? 

If the beams and the weight 
o are i oo pounds, how much 
weight will be wanted a.ia-b 
to resist such a weight, that 
it may not fall down? 

A. 531 795- 

1 Quella trave che fia luga piv che le 


That beam which is more than 20 times 

20 sua 3maggiori grossezze, fia poco per- as long as its greatest thickness will be of 
manete e roperasi in 1 / 2 ; *e ricordati che brief duration and will break in half; and 

793. 4. cheffia. 5. piotu. 

794. 14 R. 2. affa. 3. resisstetia. ' 4. chaggio. 

793. The three smaller sketches accompany the text in the original, but the larger one is not di- 
rectly connected with it. It is to be found on fol. 89 a of the same Manuscript and there we read in 
a note, written underneath, coverchio della perdicha del castello (roof of the flagstaff of the castle). Compare 
also PI. XCIII, No. i. 




la parte ch'etra nel mvro, sia penetrata 
s di pece calda e fasciata d' asse di quercia, 
acor essa penetrata ; 6 Ogni trave vole pas- 
sare i sua muri e esser ferma di la da essi 
mv^ri co soffitieti catene, perche spesso si 

vede per terremoti le tra- f 

vi usci 8 re de'mvri e rovi- 
nare poi i mvri e solari; 
dove, se sono icatenate, 
9 terranno i mvri in si- 
eme fermi, e i mvri fermano i solari. 

10 Ancorati ricordo che tu no faci mai 
i smalti sopra legni lj ame, imperoche nel 
cresciere e discresciere che fa il legname 
12 per 1'umido e secco, spesse volte cre- 
pano detti solai e crepa^te le loro diuisioni 
a poco a poco si fano in poluere e fano 
^brutta evidetia. 

'sAncora ti ricordo no facci solari soste- 
nvti da archi l6 e travi, imperoche col tepo il 
solaro, ch' e sostenvto dalle tra 1 ?vi, cala al- 
quato in nel suo mezzo, e quella parte 
18 del solaro, ch'e sostenuta dal arco, resta 
nel suo loco, onde *9j solari che sono soste- 
nvti da 2 varie nature di sosteta 20 culi paiono 
col tepo fatti a colli. 

remember, that the part built into the wall 
should be steeped in hot pitch and filleted 
with oak boards likewise so steeped. Each 
beam must pass through its walls and be 
secured beyond the walls with sufficient 
, chaining, because in con- 
sequence of earthquakes 
the beams are often seen 
to come out of the walls 
and bring down the walls 
and floors; whilst if they are chained they will 
hold the walls strongly together and the 
walls will hold the floors. Again I remind 
you never to put plaster over timber. 
Since by expansion and shrinking of 
the timber produced by damp and dryness 
such floors often crack, and once cracked 
their divisions gradually produce dust and 
an ugly effect. Again remember not to 
lay a floor on beams supported on arches; 
for, in time the floor which is made on 
beams settles somewhat in the middle 
while that part of the floor which rests on 
the arches remains in its place; hence, floors 
laid over two kinds of supports look, in 
time, as if they were made in hills [19]. 

795. i. dela lungeza. 2. cheffia . . pivi . chele [10] 20. 3. magiori grosseze . . pocho. 4. richordoti. 5. chalda . . essa t's 
wanting. 7. cho soffitiete chatene . . tremoti . . ussci. 8. Ichatenate. 9. terano . . e e mvri. 10. Anchora ti richordo 
chettu. u. cressciere e disscressciere rheffa ilegname. 12. essecho . . isspesse . . detti soli e crep. 13. ti le . . apocho 
apocho . . effano. 15. Anchora ti richordo no faci. 16. ettrav . . chol . . dale. 17. chola . . inel . . mezo [che elp] equle 
parte. 18. sostenta . . archo . . locho. 19. propositione J solari chessone. 20. ch chili paiano ch'ol . . acholli. The word 
propositione written on the margin near line 19 has apparently nothing to do with this text, but M. Ravaisson, in his edition of 
MS. A. has been misled by it to take j solari (line 18) for the beginning of a new paragraph. 

795. 19. M. RAVAISSON, in his edition of MS. A gives a very different rendering of this passage 
translating it thus : Les planchers qui sont soutenus far deux differmtes natures de supports paraisseiit avec le 
temps /aits en voute [a chollt\. 


Remarks on the style of Leonardo's architecture. 

A few remarks may here be added on the style of Leonardo s archi- 
tectural studies. However incomplete, however small in scale, they allow 
us to establish a certain number of facts and probabilities, well worthy of 

When Leonardo began his studies the great name of Brunellesco was 
still the inspiration of all Florence, and we cannot doubt that Leonardo 
was open to it, since we Jind among his sketches the plan of the church of 
Santo Spirito* and a lateral view of San Lorenzo (PL XCIV No. i), a plan 
almost identical with the chapel Degii Angeli, only begun by him (PI. XCIV , 
No. $) "while among Leonardos designs for domes several clearly betray the 
influence of Brunellesco s Cupola and the lantern of Santa Maria del Fiore*. 

The beginning of the second period of modern Italian architecture falls 
during the first twenty years of Leonardos life. However the new impetus 
given by Leon Battista Alberti either was not generally understood by his 
contemporaries, or those who appreciated it, had no opportunity of showing 
that they did so. It was only when taken up by Bramante and deve- 
loped by him to the highest rank of modern architecture that this new in- 
fluence was generally felt. Now the peculiar feature of Leonardos sketches 
is that, like the works of Bramante, they appear to be the development and 
continuation of Alberti s. 

See PI. XCIV, No. 2. Then only in course of erection after the designs of Brunellesco, though he IMS 
already dead; finished in 1481. 

2 A small sketch of the tower of the Palazzo della Signoria (MS. C. A. 309^) proves that he also studied 
mediaeval monuments. 


But a question here occurs which is difficult to answer. Did Leonardo, 
till he quitted Florence, follow the direction given by the dominant school of 
Brunellesco, which would then have given rise to his " First manner', or 
had he, even before he left Florence, felt Albertis influence either through 
his works (Palazzo Ruccellai, and the front of Santa Maria Novella) or 
through personal intercourse? Or was it not till he went to Milan that 
Albertis work began to impress him through Bramante, who probably had 
known Alberti at Mantua about 1470 and who not only carried out Albertis 
views and ideas, but, by his designs for St. Peter s at Rome, proved himself 
the greatest of modern architects. When Leonardo went to Milan Bramante 
had already been living there for many years. One of his earliest works in 
Milan was the church of Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Via del Falcone*. 

Now we find among Leonardos stiidies of Cupolas on Plates LXXXIV 
and LXXXV and in PI. LXXX several sketches which seem to me to have 
been suggested by Bramante s dome of this church. 

The MSS. B and Ash. II contain the plans of S. Sepolcro, the pavilion 
in the garden of the duke of Milan, and two churches, evidently inspired by 
the church of San Lorenzo at Milan. 

MS. B. contains besides two notes relating to Pavia, one of them a 
design for the sacristy of the Cathedral at Pavia, which cannot be supposed 
to be dated later than 1492, and it has probably some relation to Leonardos 
call to Pavia June 21, I49O 2 . These and other considerations justify us in 
concluding, that Leonardo made his studies of cupolas at Milan , probably 
between the years 1487 and 1492 in anticipation of the erection of one of 
the grandest churches of Italy, the Cathedral of Pavia. This may explain 
the decidedly Lombardo-Bramantesque tendency in the style of these studies, 
among which only a few remind us of the forms of the cupolas of S. Maria 
del Fiore and of the Baptistery of Florence. Thus, although when compared 
with Bramante s work, several of these sketches plainly reveal that masters 
influence, we find, among the sketches of domes, some, which show already 
Bramante s classic style, of which the Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio, 
his first building executed at Rome, is the foremost example 3 . 

On Plate LXXXIV is a sketch of the plan of a similar circular 
building; and the Mausoleum on PI. XCVIII> no less than one of the pedestals 
for the statue of Francesco Sforza (PI. LXV), is of the same type. 

1 Evidence of this I intend to give later on in a Life of Bramante, which I have in preparation. 

2 The sketch of the plan of Brunellescrfs church of Santo Spirito at Florence, -which occurs in the same 
Manuscript, may have been done from memory. 

3 It may be mentioned here, that in 1494 Bramante made a similar design for the lantern of the Cupola of 
the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie. 


The drawings PL LXXXIV No. 2, PL LXXXVI No. i and 2 and 
the ground flour of the building in the drawing PI. XCI No. 2, with the 
interesting decoration by gigantic statues in large niches, are also, I believe, 
more in the style Bramante adopted at Rome, than in the Lombard style. 
Are we to conclude from this that Leonardo on his part influenced Bramante 
in the sense of simplifying his style and rendering it more congenial to 
antique art? The answer to this important question seems at flrst difficult 
to give, for we are here in presence of Bramante, the greatest of 
modern architects, and with Leonardo, the man comparable with no other. 
We have no knowledge of any buildings erected by Leonardo, and unless we 
admit personal intercourse which seems probable, but of which there is no 
proof , it would be difficult to understand how Leonardo could have affected 
Bramante s style. The converse is more easily to be admitted, since Bramante, 
as we have proved elsewhere, drew and built simultaneously in different 
manners , and though in Lombardy there is no building by him in his 
classic style, the use of brick for building, in that part of Italy, may 
easily account for it. 

Bramante s name is incidentally mentioned in Leonardos manuscripts 
in two passages (Nos. 1414 and 1448^). On each occasion it is only a 
slight passing allusion, and the nature of the context gives us no due infor- 
mation as to any close connection between the two artists. 

It might be supposed, on the ground of Leonardos relations with the 
East given in sections XVII and XXI of this volume, that some evidence 
of oriental influence might be detected in his architectural drawings. I do 
not however think that any such traces can be pointed out with certainty 
unless perhaps the drawing for a Mausoleum, PI. XCVIII. 

Among several studies for the construction of cupolas above a Greek 
cross there are some in which the forms are decidedly monotonous. These, 
it is clear, were not designed as models of taste; they must be regarded as 
the results of certain investigations into the laws of proportion, harmony 
and contrast. 

The designs for churches , on the plan of a Latin cross are evidently 
intended to depart as little as possible from the form of a Greek cross; and 
they also show a preference for a nave surrounded with outer porticos. 

The architectural forms preferred by Leonardo are pilasters coupled 
(PL LXXXII No. i) or grouped (PL LXXX No. 5 and XCVI No. 4), 
often combined with niches. We often meet with orders superposed, one in 
each story, or two small orders on one story, in combination with o ne great 
order (PI. XCVI No. 2). 


The drum (tamburo) of these cupolas is generally octagonal, as in the 
cathedral of Florence, and with similar round windows in its sides. In 
PL LXXXVII No. 2 it is circular like the model actually carried out 
by Michael Angelo at St. Peters. 

The cupola itself is either hidden under a pyramidal roof, as in the 
Baptistery of Florence, San Lorenzo of Milan and most of the Lombard 
churches (PL XCI No. i and PL XCII No. \) ; but it more generally suggests 
the curve of Sta Maria del Fiore (PL LXXXVII I No. 5; PL XL No. 2; 
PL LXXXIX, M; PL XL No. 4, PL XCVI No. 2). In other cases 
(PL LXXX No. 4; PL LXXXIX; PL XC No. 2) it shows the sides of the 
octagon crowned by semicircular pediments, as in Brunellescds lantern of 
the Cathedral and in the model for the Cathedral of Pavia. 

Finally, in some sketches the cupola is either semicircular, or as in 
PL LXXXVII No. 2, shows the beautiful line, adopted sixty years later 
by Michael Angelo for the existing dome of St. Peter s. 

It is worth noticing that for all these domes Leonardo is not satisfied 
to decorate the exterior merely with ascending ribs or mouldings, but employs 
also a system of horizontal parallels to complete the architectural system. Not 
the least interesting are the designs for the tiburio (cupola) of the Milan 
Cathedral. They show some of the forms, just mentioned, adapted to the 
peculiar gothic style of that monument. 

The few examples of interiors of churches recall the style employed in 
Lombardy by Bramante, for instance in S. Maria di Canepanuova at 
Pavia, or by Dolcebuono in the Monastero Maggiore at Milan (see PL CI 
No. i /C. A. i8i b ; 546^ PL LXXXIV No. iqj. 

The few indications concerning palaces seem to prove that Leonardo 
followed Albert? s example of decorating the walls with pilasters and a flat 
rustica, either in stone or by graffitti (PL CII No. i and PL LXXXV 
No. i 4 ;. 

By pointing out the analogies between Leonardos architecture and that 
of other masters we in no way pretend to depreciate his individual and 
original inventive power. These are at all events beyond dispute. The 
project for the Mausoleum (PL XCVI II) would alone suffice to rank him 
among the greatest architects who ever lived. The peculiar shape of the 
tower (PL LXXX), of the churches for preaching (PL XCVII No. i and 
pages 56 and 57, Fig. i 4), his curious plan for a city with high and low 
level streets (PL LXXVII and LX XVIII No. 2 and No. 3 ;, his Loggia 
with fountains (PL LXXX I I No. 4) reveal an originality, a power and fa- 
cility of invention for almost any given problem, which are quite wonderful. 



In addition to all these qualities he propably stood alone in his day in 
one department of architectural study, his investigations, namely, as to the 
resistance of vaults, foundations, walls and arches. 

As an application of these studies the plan of a semicircular vault 
(PL CHI No. 2) may be mentioned here, disposed so as to produce no thrust 
on tht columns on which it rests: volta I botte e non ispignie Tfori le colone. 
Above the geometrical patterns on the same sheet, close to a circle inscribed 
in a square is the note: la ragio d'una volta cioe il terzo del diamitro 
della sua . . . del tedesco in domo. 

There are few data by which to judge of Leonardos style in the 
treatment of detail. On PI. LXXXV No. 10 and PL CIII No. 3, we find 
some details of pillars', on PL CI No. 3 slender pillars designed for a fountain 
and on PL CIII No. i MS. B, is a pen and ink drawing of a vase which 
also seems intended for a fountain. Three handles seem to have been 
intended to connect the upper parts with the base. There can be no doubt 
that Leonardo, like Bramante, but unlike Michael Angel o, brought infinite 
delicacy of motive and execution to bear on the details of his work. 


Anatomy, Zoology and Physiology. 

Leonardo's eminent place in the history of medicine, as a pioneer in the sciences of 
Anatomy and Physiology, will never be appreciated till it is possible to publish the mass 
of manuscripts in which he largely treated of these two branches of learning. In the 
present work I must necessarily limit myself to giving the reader a general view of 
these labours, by publishing his introductory notes to the various books on anatomical 
subjects. I have added some extracts, and suck observations as are scattered incidentally 
through these treatises , as serving to throw a light on Leonardo's scientific attitude, 
besides having an interest for a wider circle than that of specialists only. 

VASARI expressly mentions Leonardo's anatomical studies, having had occasion to 
examine the manuscript books which refer to them. According to him Leonardo studied 
Anatomy in the companionship of Marc Antonio della Torre "aiutato e scambievolmente 
aiutando." This learned Anatomist taught the science in the universities first of Padua 
and then of Pavia , and at Pavia he and Leonardo may have worked and studied 
together. We have no clue to any exact dates, but in the year 1506 Marc Antonio 
della Torre seems to have not yet left Padua. He was scarcely thirty years old when 
he died in 1512, and his writings on anatomy have not only never been published, but 
no manuscript copy of them is known to exist. 

This is not the place to enlarge on the connection between Leonardo and Marc An- 
tomo della Torre. I may however observe that I have not been able to discover in 
Leonardo's manuscripts on anatomy any mention of his younger contemporary. The few 
quotations which occur from writers on medicine either of antiquity or of the middle 
ages are printed in Section XXII. Here and there in the manuscripts mention is 
made of an anonymous "adversary' 1 ' 1 (avversario) whose views are opposed and refuted 
by Leonardo, but there is no ground for supposing that Marc Antonio della Torre 
should have been this "adversary". 

Only a very small selection from the mass of anatomical drawings left by Leonardo 
have been published here in facsimile, but to form any adequate idea of their scientific 

VOL. 11. O 


should be chared * * -n * *-** A""-" **"* '" * 

time of George III. of seeing the originals in the King's L,brary has 

suc " desins 

/ * useul ,o a pa.nter in his own profession. But I saw, W t 
astonishment, that Leonardo had been a general and deep student. When I cons,der 
^a, pains ,:< >u,s taken upon every part of tke My, the superiorly of ,ns u,:,v^ 
genius his particular excellence in mechanics an,t hydrauhcs, and the attend ,.v/A 
ihichsuch a man would ermine and see oojects vhich he ><as to draw am JuUy 
persuaded that Leonardo was the best Anatomist, at that time, m the world . Leo- 
nardo was certainly the firs, man, * know of, who introduced the P rac,,ce of makmg 
anatomical drawings" (Two introductory letters. London 1784, pages 37 < & 

The illustrious German Naturalist Johan Friedrich Blumenbach esteemed the:,. 
no less highly ; he was one of tke privileged few who, after Hunter, had the chance 
of seeing these Manuscripts. He writes: Der Scharfblick dieses grosser, Forschers 
und Darstellers der Natur hat schon auf Dinge geachtet, die noch Jahrhunderte nachher 
unbemerkt geblieben sind" (sec Blumenbach's medicinische Bibhothek, 

1795 ' These ^nions were founded on the dr^nngs alone. Up to the present day hardly 
anything has hen made known of the text, and, for the reasons I have gn-en, ,t ,s ,, 
intention to reproduce here no more than a selection of extracts which 1 have mad. fro,,, 
the originals at Windsor Castle ami elsewhere. In the Bibliography of the Manuscript, at 
the end of this volume a short review is given of the valuable contents of these Ana- 
tomical note books which are at present almost all in the possession of her Majesty the 
Oueen of England. It is, I believe, possible to assign the date with approbate accu- 
racy to almost all the fragments, and I am thus led to conclude that the greater part of 
Leonardo's anato,nical investigations were carried out after the death of dclla Torre 

Merely in reading the introductory notes to his various books on Anatomy whuh are 
here printed it is impossible to resist the impression that the Master's anatomtcal studies 
bear to a very great extent the stamp of originality and independent thought. 


W. An. IV. 167 a] 


Voglio far miraculi; 2 abbi me cheli altri 
o 3 mini piu quieti , e 4 quelli che vogliono 
arSricchirsi in u dl ; vivi 6 nel lungo tepo in 
?gra poverta, co 8 me interviene e ^interverra 
in etter I0 no alii alchimisti, "cercatori di 
cre I2 are oro e argeto, I3 e all' Igegnieri che 
^vogliono che I'a'Scqua morta dia l6 vita 
motiua *?a se medesima l8 con cotinuo J 9mo- 
to, 20 e al somo sto! 2I to negromante 22 e 

23 E tu che dici, esser me 24 glio il uedere 
fare 25 l'anatomia, che uede 26 re tali disegni, 
dire 2 ?sti bene, se fusse 28 possibile vedere 
tu^tte queste cose che 3 in tal disegni si 
di 3I mostrano in una 32 sola figura, nella 
33 quale con tutto il tu 34 o ingenio no ve- 
dra 35 i, e non avrai la no 36 titia, se no 
d'alqua,37te poche vene, de! 38 le quali io, 
per aver^ne vera e plena 4 notitia, 6 
disfatti 4I piv di dieci co 42 rpi vmani, 43 di- 

I wish to work miracles; 'it may be A general 
that I shall possess less than other men o f introduction 
more peaceful lives, or than those who want 
to grow rich in a day. I may live for a 
long time in great poverty, as always hap- 
pens, and to all eternity will happen, to al- 
chemists, the would-be creators of gold and 
silver, and to engineers who would have 
dead water stir itself into life and perpetual 
motion, and to those supreme fools, the ne- 
cromancer and the enchanter. 

[23] And you, who say that it would be 
better to watch an anatomist at work than 
to see these drawings, you would be right, 
if it were possible to observe all the things 
which are demonstrated in such drawings in 
a single figure, in which you, with all your 
cleverness, will not see nor obtain knowledge 
of more than some few veins, to obtain a true 
and perfect knowledge of which I have dissec- 
ted more than ten human bodies, destroying 

796. 3. quieti ecq. 4. voliano a. 5. richire nudi. 6. lungho. 9. intervera. io. archimisti. 14. voglia. 15. cq"a" morta. 
17. asse. 20. somo. 23. "e" ettu che di. 27. fussi. 31. mosstrano. 35. e non arai. 37. vene de. 43. destrugendo. 

796. Lines I 59 and 60 89 are written in two 
parallel columns. When we here find Leonardo 
putting himself in the same category as the Alche- 
mists and Necromancers, whom he elsewhere mocks 
at so bitterly, it is evidently meant ironically. In 
the same way Leonardo, in the introduction to the 

Books on Perspective sets himself with transpa- 
rent satire on a level with other writers on the 

Line 23 and the following seem to be directed 
against students of painting and young artists rather 
than against medical men and anatomists. 




struggendo ogni "altri mebri, consumando 
con minutis 6 sime particule ?tutta la carne 
chc 8 d'intorno a esse 9vene si trovaua, 
s-sanza insanguis'narle, se non d'i 2 sen- 
sibile insanSJguinameto delle vene capillari; 
s e vn sol corpo no ssbastava a tanto 
tepo, che bisoS 6 gnava procedere di mano 
in mano 7 in tanti corpi, che si finisca la 
inte^ra cognitione; le qual repli *cai 2 
volte per vedere le diflerentie. 

60 E se tu avrai 1'amore a tal cosa, 
01 tu sarai forse inpedito dallo 6a stomaco, 
e se questo no ti inpedi 63 sce, tu sarai iorse 
inpedito dal 6 *la paura coll' abitare nelli te- 
6 5pi notturni in copagnia di tali 66 * : 

66 morti 

squadrati e scorticati e 6 ?spaventevoli a 
vederli; e se que b8 sto no t'Ipedisce, forse 
ti mache^rk il disegnio bono, il quale 
s'appa7rtiene a tal figuratione; E 7'se tu 
avrai il disegnio e' no sara ? 2 accopagnato 
dalla prospettiva, ^ e se sara accopagnato 
7e'ti machera 1'ordine 75 delle dimostratio 
7 6 geometriche e 1'ordine 77 delle calculation 
delle 7*fbrze e valimeto de' 79muscoli; e 
forse ti 8o machera la patietia che 8l tu no 
sarai diligete; Delle 82 quali se in me tutte 
queste 8 ->cose sono state o no, 84 i ceto 
20 libri da me 8 5conposti ne dara sente- 
86 tia del si o del no, nelli 8 ?quali no sono 
stato inpedi 88 to ne d'auaritia o negligetia, 
8 9ma sol dal tenpo vale. 

all the other members, and removing the very 
minutest particles of the flesh by which these 
veins are surrounded, without causing them to 
bleed, excepting the insensible bleeding of 
the capillary veins; and as one single body 
would not last so long, since it was neces- 
sary to proceed with several bodies by 
degrees, until I came to an end and had a 
complete knowledge; this I repeated twice, to 
learn the differences [59]. 

And if you should have a love for such 
things you might be prevented by loathing, and 
if that did not prevent you, you might be de- 
terred by the fear of living in the night hours in 
the company of those corpses, quartered and 
flayed and horrible to see. And if this did not 
prevent you, perhaps you might not be able to 
draw so well as is necessary for such a demon- 
stration ; or, if you had the skill in drawing, it 
might not be combined with knowledge of per- 
spective; and if it were so, you might not under- 
stand the methods of geometrical demonstration 
and the method of the calculation of forces 
and of the strength of the muscles; patience 
also may be wanting, so that you lack per- 
severance As to whether all these things 
were found in me or not [84], the hundred 
and twenty books composed by me will give 
verdict Yes or No. In these I have been hin- 
dered neither by avarice nor negligence, but 
simply by want of time. Farewell [89]. 

W. A. II. 3(>a (21)] 



2 Questa opera si deve pricipiare alia 
and cocietticne- deH'omo ., e devi descrivere il 
* u F*r"the n * m d della matrice, 3 e come il putto-1'a- 
, e in che grado lui risegga- T quella-, 


This work must begin with the concep- 
tion of man, and describe the nature of the 
womb and how the foetus lives in it, up to 
what stage it resides there, and in what way 

ormeiau' , , 

(797-802). e '1 modo dello vivificarsi e cibarsi, 4 e '1 it quickens into life and feeds. Also its 
suo accrescimeto , e che interuallo sia growth and what interval there is between 

44. consi. 45. niinuti. 46. partichule. 53. capillar "e"(?). 54. e [altrettate] e vn. 55. attanto tepo chc. 56. imano. 
57. corpi che si nnisMmi la inte. 58. cognitione le qual [s] ripri. 59. cai [i] ''2" volte . . diferentie. 60. essettu arai. 
66. squartati. 68. notipedisce. 69. qual sapa. 70. attal. 71. settu arai. 72. acopagnato. 73. esse . . acopagnato. 76. geo- 
metrice. 79. efforse. 82. scimc. 83. onno [lili]. 84. icceto 20. 86. tia [di] del. 88. negli etia. 89. d 1 [dalla ve] tenpo. 
797. 2. debe. 2. e disscrivere. 3. chome il pucto . . risega . . uiuicharsi. 4. acresscimelo . . da i grado da cresscimcto . a . 1 . 

84. Leonardo frequently, and perhaps habitually, 
wrote in note books of a very small size and only 
moderately thick; in most of those which have 
been preserved undivided, each contains less than 
fifty leaves. Thus a considerable number of such 
volumes must have gone to make up a volume of the 
bulk of the * Codex Atlanticuf which now contains 
nearly 1200 detached leaves. In the passage under 
consideration, which was evidently written at a late 

period of his life, Leonardo speaks of his Manu- 
script note-books as numbering 120; but we should 
hardly be justified in concluding from this passage 
that the greater part of his Manuscripts were now 
missing (see Prolegomena, Vol. I, pp. 5 7). 

797. The meaning of the word nervo varies in 
different passages, being sometimes used for muscolo 



da uno grado d' accrescimeto a uno 
altro, e che cosa lo spigna fori sdel corpo 

della madre , e per che cagione qualche 
uolta lui uega fori dal uetro di sua madre 
inati al debito 6 tepo. 

? Poi discriuerai quali mebrasieno quelle 

che crescono poi che' 1 putto e nato piv 
che 1'altre, 8 e da la misura d'u putto d'un 

9 Poi discrivi I'omo crescivto e la femina- 
e sue misure e nature di complessione 
colore I0 e fisonomie. 

11 Di poi descrivi com'egli e coposto 
di uene , nerui , muscoli e ossa; Questo 
farai nell' ultimo del libro; lz di poi figura 
in 4 storie quattro vniversali casi delli 
omini, cioe letitia con uari atti di ridere, 
figura la cagio del riso ; piato in 
var modi colla sua cagione ; cotetione 
co uari movi^meti d' uccisione , fughe , 
pavre , ferocita , ardimeti , micidi e tutte 
cose apparteneti a simil casi; I5 di poi 
figura vna fatica co tirare, spiegniere 

portare, fermare, sostenere e simili 
16 cose; 

T ?Di poi discriui attitudine e movimeto; 

18 di poi prospettiva per 1'ofitio e effetti 
dell'ochioe dell' udito, dirai di mvsicha e 
descrivi delli altri sesi. 

J 9Di poi discrivi la natura de' sensi. 

20 Questa figura strumetale dell'omo di- 
mostreremo in . . figure, delle 2I quali le 3 
prime saranno la ramificatione delle ossa, 
cioe vna dinazi che "dimostri 1'altitudine 
de' siti e figure delli ossi, la seconda sara 
veduta in 2 3proffilo e mostrera la profondi- 
ta del tutto e delle parti e loro sito; La 3 a 
2 figura fia dimostratrice delle ossa dalla 
parte dirieto; Di poi faremo ^3 altre 
figure ne' simili aspetti colle ossa segate, 
nelle quali si vedranno le lor 26 grossezze e 
uacuita; 3 altre figure faremo dell' ossa in- 
tere e de' nerui che na 2 ?scono dalla nuca, 
e in che mebra ramificano; E 3 altre 
de'ossa e vene e do 28 ve ramificano, poi 3 
con muscoli e 3 con pelle, e figure propor- 
tionate, e 3 della femina per dimostrare 
matrice e vene mestruali, 3 c he vanno alle 

one. stage of growth and another. What it 
is that forces it out from the body of the 
mother,, and for what reasons it sometimes 
comes out of the mother's womb before the 
due time. 

Then I will describe which are the mem- 
bers, which, after the boy is born, grow more 
than the others, and determine the propor- 
tions of a boy of one year. 

Then describe the fully grown man and 
woman, with their proportions, and the nature 
oftheir complexions, colour, and physiognomy. 

Then how they are composed of veins, 
tendons, muscles and bones. This I shall do 
at the end of the book. Then, in four draw- 
ings, represent four universal conditions of 
men. That is, Mirth, with various acts of 
laughter, and describe the cause of laughter. 
Weeping in various aspects with its causes. 
Contention, with various acts of killing; 
flight, fear, ferocity, boldness, murder and 
every thing pertaining to such cases. Then 
represent Labour, with pulling, thrusting, carry- 
ing, stopping, supporting and such like things. 

Further I would describe attitudes and 
movements. Then perspective, concerning 
the functions and effects of the eye ; and of 
hearing here I will speak of music , 
and treat of the other senses. 

And then describe the nature of the senses. 

This mechanism of man we will demon- 
strate in ... figures; of which the three 
first will show the ramification of the bones; 
that is: first one to show their height and 
position and shape : the second will be seen 
in profile and will show the depth of the 
whole and of the parts, and their position. 
The third figure will be a demonstration of 
the bones of the backparts. Then I will 
make three other figures from the same point 
of view, with the bones sawn across, in which 
will be shown their thickness and hollow- 
ness. Three other figures of the bones com- 
plete, and of the nerves which rise from the 
nape of the neck, and in what limbs they ra- 
mify. And three others of the bones and 
veins, and where they ramify. Then three 
figures with the muscles and three with the 
skin, and their proper proportions ; and three 
of woman, to illustrate the womb and the 
menstrual veins which go to the breasts. 

altro . . chosu . . spiga. 5. chorpo . . chagione . . uega ..del. 7. cresscano enato. 9. ella . . essue . . choprlessione chollore 
effisosbmie. n. desscrivi chom eli e choposto . . musscoli. 12. chasi . . chouari. 13. effigura la chagio . de riso . . cholla 
. . chagione . chotetione cho. 14. ucisione . fuge . . ettutte chose aparteneti assimil chasi. 15. faticha cho . . sosstenere 
essimili. 16. chose. 18. lofitio effetti . . della uldito . . musicha . . sesi. 19. de . 2 . "sensi" sensi. 20. dimosterreno. 
22. effigure . . sechonda. 23. mossterra. 24. delle [ner] ossa . . faren. 20. asspetti . . segate . . uetra le. 26. gosseze e 
uachuita . . fareno. 27. sea della nucha . . ramifichino. 28. ramifichino . . mvsscoli . . effigure. 29. tionati . . me- 




W. An. IV. 

79 8. 



1 Questa mia figuratione del corpo vmano 
ti sara climostra no altre'menti, die se 
tu auessi 1'omo naturale inati, e la rago si 
e, che se tu vuoi be'ne conoscere le parti 
delFomo anatomizzato, tu lo vuoi o I'o- 
chio tuo per di s versi aspetti, quello coside- 
rando di sotto, e di sopra, e dalli lati, vol- 
taiuiolo e cercando 1'origine di ciascu 
mcbro, e I tal modo la notomia na?turale 
a soddisfatta alia tua notitia; Ma tu ai a 
intedere, che tal noti"tia no ti lascia sad- 
disfatto, cociosiache la gradissima confusione 
che 'resulta della mistione di paniculi misti 
co uene, arterie, nerui, corde, "'muscoli, 
ossi, sangue, il quale tignie di se ogni parte 
d'un medesimo colo^re, e le vene, che di tal 
sangue si votano non sono conosciute per la 
lordimi I2 nutione, ela integrita delli pannicoli, 
nel cercare le parti che dentro a '^loro 
s'includono, si viene a rompere, e la lor 
trasparetia, tinta di sangue, ^no ti lascia 
conoscere le parti coperte da loro per la 
similitu' 5 dine del lor colore insanguinato, e 
no puoi avere la notitia dell'u che tu l6 no 
cofonda e distrugga 1' altro ; adunque e 
necessario fare piu notomie, '^delle quali 3 
te ne bisognia per auere piena notitia delle 
vene e arterie, l8 distruggedo con soma 
diligentia tutto il rimanete, e altre 3 per 
auere la notitia '9 delli pannicoli, e 3 per 
le corde e muscoli e legameti, e 3 per 
li ossi e car 20 tilagini , e 3 per la notomia 
delle ossa, le quali s' anno a segare e dimo- 
"strare, quale d buso e quale no, quale e 
midolloso, quale 6 spugno 22 so, e quale 
grosso dal fori al dentro, e quale e sottile, 
e alcuno a in al^cuna parte gra sottiglezza, 
e in alcuna e grosso, e in alcuna busa, o 

This depicting of mine of the human 
body will be as clear to you as if you had 
the natural man before you; and the reason 
is that if you wish thoroughly to know the 
parts of man, anatomically, you or your 
eye require to see it from different aspects, 
considering it from below and from above 
and from its sides, turning it about and 
seeking the origin of each member; and in 
this way the natural anatomy is sufficient 
for your comprehension. But you must 
understand that this amount of knowledge 
will not continue to satisfy you; seeing the 
very great confusion that must result from 
the combination of tissues, with veins, ar- 
teries, nerves, sinews, muscles, bones, and 
blood which, of itself, tinges every part the 
same colour. And the veins, which dis- 
charge this blood, are not discerned by rea- 
son of their smallness. Moreover integrity 
of the tissues, in the process of the inves- 
tigating the parts within them , is inevitably 
destroyed, and their transparent substance being 
tinged with blood does not allow you to 
recognise the parts covered by them, from the 
similarity of their blood-stained hue; and 
you cannot know everything of the one with- 
out confusing and destroying the other. 
Hence, some further anatomy drawings be- 
come necessary. Of which you want three 
to give full knowledge of the veins and ar- 
teries, everything else being destroyed with 
the greatest care. And three others to dis- 
play the tissues; and three for the sinews 
and muscles and ligaments; and three for 
the bones and cartilages; and three for the 
anatomy of the bones, which have to be 
sawn to show which are hollow and which 
are not, which have marrow .and which are 
spongy, and which are thick from the out- 
side inwards, and which are thin. And some 
are extremely thin in some parts and thick 
in others, and in some parts hollow or filled 
up with bone, -or full of marrow, or spongy. 
And all these conditions are sometimes found 

798. 2. Quessta. 3. chessettu . . ella . . chessettu. 4. conosscere le parte . . natomizate tu lo voli ollui ollochio. 5. asspetto. 6. ec- 
cerchando . . ciasscu. 7. turale ta sadidisfatto . . chettal. 8. lasscia . . cocosia chella . . chonfusione. 9. della . . pani- 
chuli. 10. musscoli . . dumedesimo. n. elle . . cognosscute. 12. nuitione ella . . pannichuli nel cierchare le parte . . al. 
ij. sincludano . si uegano . . ella . . trassparetia. 14. lasscia cognossciere le parte [che son sotto a] coperte dalloro per 
almilitu. 15. poi . . chettu. 16. desstruggha . . natomie. 18. desstrugedo . . soma. 19. pannichuli . . musscoli ellegameti 
ejej. 20. e [ij 3 per la natomia . . assegare e dimos. 21. quale he spugn"a". 22. ecqua le he . . essottile . . innnl. 
23. chuna . . sotu'glicza . alchuna . . alchuna. 24. osspugnosa e chosi . . sarano. 25. numedesimo. 26. essuo. 28- as- 



79 8.] 


I I I 

piena 24 d'osso, o midollosa, o spugnosa; e 
cosl tutte queste cose sarano alcuna volta 
tro 25 vate in un medesimo osso, e alcuno 
osso fia che non a nessuna ; e 3 te ne bisog- 
26 na fare per la donna, nella quale e gra mis- 
terio, mediante la matrice e suo feto; 2 ?a- 
dunque per il mio disegnio ti fia noto ogni 
parte e ogni tutto mediante la di 28 mostratione 
di 3 diuersi aspetti di ciascuna parte, perche 
quando tu avrai vedu 2 9to alcun mebro dalla 
parte dinanzi con qualche neruo, corda, o 
vena che 3 nasca dalla opposita parte, ti fia 
dimostro il medesimo mebro volto per lato 
3 z o dirieto-; non altremeti che se tu auessi 
in mano il medesimo mebro e andas3 2 si lo 
voltado di parte in parte insino a tanto 
che tu auessi piena notitia di que! 3 3lo che 
tu desideri sapere, e cosl similmete ti fia 
posto inariti in tre o 344 dimostrationi di 
ciascu mebro per diuersi aspetti in modo che 
tu resterai con^vera e piena notitia di quello 
che tu vuoi sapere della figura dell'omo. 

3 6 Adunque qui con 12 figure intere ti 
sara mostrata la cosmografia del minor 
37 modo col medesimo ordine che inazi a 
me fu fatto da Tolomeo nella sua cosmo- 
3 8 grafia, e cosl diuidero poi quelle in 
mebra, come lui diuise il tutto in provin- 
cie; 39 e ,'poi diro 1'ufitio delle parti per 
ciascu verso, mettedoti dinati alii ochi la 
notitia 4 di tutta la figura e valitudine del- 
l'omo inquato a moto locale mediante le 
sue parti, 4I E cosl piacesse al nostro autore 
che io potessi dimostrere la natura delli 
omini e Io 42 ro costumi nel modo che io 
descrivo la sua figura. 

43 E ricordoti che la notomia delli ner- 
ui non ti dara la situatione della loro rami- 
44 ficatione, ne in quali muscoli essi si rami- 
ficano mediante li corpi disfatti . in acqua 
45 correte, o in acqua di calcina, perche, 
ancorache ti rimaga la origine de'lor nas- 
scimenti 46 sanza tale acqua come coll' ac- 
qua, le ramificationi loro pel corso del- 
1'acqua si 4 ?vengono a vnire, non altremeti 
che si fascia il lino o canapa pettinata per 
filare, 48 tutto in vn fascio in modo che in- 
possibile e a ritrovare in quali muscoli o 
co quale 4 9 o co quate ramificationi li nerui 
s'infondino ne' predetti muscoli. 

in one and the same bone, and in some 
bones none of them. And three you must 
have for the woman, in which there is 
much that is mysterious by reason of the 
womb and the foetus. Therefore by my 
drawings every part will be known to you, 
and all by means of demonstrations from 
three different points of view of each part; 
for when you have seen a limb from the 
front, with any muscles, sinews, or veins 
which take their rise from the opposite side, 
the same limb will be shown to you in a 
side view or from behind, exactly as if you 
had that same limb in your hand and were 
turning it from side to side until you 
had acquired a full comprehension of all 
you wished to know. In the same way there 
will be put before you three or four demon- 
strations of each limb, from various points 
of view, so that you will be left with a true 
and complete knowledge of all you wish to 
learn of the human figure [3 5]. 

Thus, in twelve entire figures, you will 
have set before you the cosmography of this 
lesser world on the same plan as, before 
me, was adopted by Ptolemy in his cosmo- 
graphy ; and so I will afterwards divide them 
into limbs as he divided the whole world 
into provinces; then I will speak of the func- 
tion of each part in every direction, putting 
before your eyes a description of the whole 
form and substance of man, as regards his 
movements from place to place, by means 
of his different parts. And thus, if it 
please our great Author, I may demonstrate 
the nature of men, and their customs in the 
way I describe his figure. 

And remember that the anatomy of the 
nerves will not give the position of their 
ramifications, nor show you which muscles 
they branch into, by means of bodies dis- 
sected in running water or in lime water; 
though indeed their origin and starting point 
may be seen without such water as well as 
with it. But their ramifications, when under 
running water, cling and unite just like flat 
or hemp carded for spinning all into a skein, 
in a way which makes it impossible to trace 
in which muscles or by what ramification the 
nerves are distributed among those muscles. 

spetti . . quanto . . arai. 30. parte [tuj eti . . per lalo. 31. chessettu . . imano. 32. attanto chettu. 33. Ho chettu . . 
possto. 34. asspetti . . chettu. 35. chettu voi. 36. mosstro la cossmografia. 37. fuffatto dattolomeo . . cossmo. 38. imebra 
. . province. 39. ciasscu.- 40. lochale . . parte. 41. Eccosi piacessi . . altore . . dimosstrare. 42. cosstumi . . desscrivo. 
43. cholla dilora. 44. facione . . musscoli . . ramifichino. 45. corete o in acq"a" . . rimagha. 46. tale acq"a" . . 
ramificatione. 47. vengono chessi facci . . chanapa. 48. fasscio. 49. ramificatione . . mvsscoli. 

798. 35. Compare PI. CVII. The original drawing at Windsor is 281/2 X ^9 I /z centimetres. The 
upper figures are slightly washed with Indian ink. On the back of this drawing is the text No. 1140. 







Fa prima Fossa come dire le braccia, 
e poni il motore dalla spalla al 'gomito per 
tuttelelime;Dipoidal g omitoalbracc,o; 

Di poi dal 'braccio alia mano e dalla mar 

alii diti. . , , 

sE nel braccio norrai h moton 

ado a crado per non 
nnmo po?ni sopra dell' 
che con essi ossa 
SSLTalSa confusione 
e co^quelli porrai li 
che li nutriscono, auendo _ 
bero delle ue"ne e neru, 
plici ossa. 


ossa quell, mu- 

si congiungono, 
d'altri muscol,, 
neru, e uene, 

pnma fat to 1 al- 
sopra delle sen- 


First draw the bones, let us say, of the 
arm and put in the motor muscle from the 
shoulder to the elbow with all its lines. 
Then proceed in the same way from the 
elbow to the wrist. Then from the wrist to 
the hand and from the hand to the fingers. 

And in the arm you will put the motors 
of the fingers which open, and these you 
will show separately in their demonstration. 
In the second demonstration you will clothe 
these muscles with the secondary motors c 
the fingers and so proceed by degrees to 
avoid confusion. But first lay on the bones 
those muscles which lie close to the said 
bones, without confusion of other muscle 
and with these you may put the nerves and 
veins which supply their nourishment, aftt 
having first drawn the tree of veins and 
nerves over the simple bones. 

W. An. IV, XXI] 


Cormcia la notomia alia testa e finis- 
cila nella piata del piede. 

Begin the anatomy at the head and finish 
at the sole of the foot. 

W. An. II. 39* ()1 

80 1. 

of entire figures ' 

W. An. IV. 151 a] 


s superficial,. 

gunghano. 10. musscoli. n. chelli notrissc 

800. cffiniscila. 

801. i. homini. 2. chon. 3. ssenplici. 6. tiere. 

8oa. 2. cress 

ciere . . ettu. 3- lasstatua . cho. 

8oa. Crescifre V omo. The meaning of this ex- 
pression appears to be different here and in the 
passage C. A. i$7 a , 468- (see No. 526, Note I. 2). 
Here it can hardly mean anything else than 
modelling, since the sculptor forms the figure by 
degrees, by adding wet clay and the figure conse- 
quently increases or grows. Tu farai la statua would 

then mean, you must work out the figure in marble. 
If this interpretation is the correct one, this pas 
sage would have no right to find a place m tl 
series on anatomical studies. I may say that 
was originally inserted in this connection unde 
the impression that di crescitrc should be , 

803. 804.] 


W. An. Ill, XXII] 


Farai tutti li moti dell' ossa 2 colle 
giunture loro dopo M a dimostratione delle 
pri 4 me tre figure dell' ossa, e s questo si deve 
fare nel prime 6 libro. 

You must show all the' motions of the Plans for 
bones with their joints to follow the demon- ^J^ 6 " 
stration of the first three figures of the bones, m d ^?* b j 
and this should be done in the first book. (803-809). 



Ricordoti che per farti certo del nas- 
cimento di qualunche muscolo, che tu tiri 
2 la corda, partorita da esso muscolo, in 
modo che tu veda movere esso 3 muscolo 
e '1 suo nascimeto sopra delle legature 
delli ossi. 


sTu non farai mai se no confusione 
nella di 6 mostratione de' muscoli e lor siti, 
nascimeti ?e fini, se prima non fai vna 
dimostratione di 8 muscoli- sottili a uso di 
fila di refe, e cosl potrai 9figurare Pun- 
sopra dell' altro, come li a situati la I0 na- 
tura, e cosl li potrai nominare secodo il 
mebro "al quale lor seruono, cioe il motore 
della pu I2 ta del dito grosso e del suo osso 
di mezzo o del primo ecc; T 3e dato che 
tu ai tale notitia, figurerai al lato a ^questa 
la uera forma e quatita e sito di ciascu 
muscolo; 'Sma ricordati di fare li fili, che 
insegniano li muscoli, neg l6 li medesimi siti 
che son le linie centrali di ciascu musscolo, 
e "cosl tali fili dimostreranno la figura del- 
la ganba l8 e la loro distantia spedita e nota. 
'9 Ho spogliato di pelle vno il quale per 
una mala 20 ttia s'era tanto diminuito che li 
muscoli era 2I consumati e restati a uso di 
pellicola sottile, 22 in modo che le corde 
in scabio del conuertirsi 2 3in muscolo si 
convertivano in larga pelle, 24 e quado 1' ossa 
era uestite di pelle, poco acqui 25 staua 
della lor naturale grossezza. 

Remember that to be certain of the point 
of origin of any muscle, you must pull the 
sinew from which the muscle springs in such 
a way as to see that muscle move, and 
where it is attached to the ligaments of the 


You will never get any thing but con- 
fusion in demonstrating the muscles and their 
positions, origin, and termination, unless you 
first make a demonstration of thin muscles 
after the manner of linen threads; and thus 
you can represent them, one over another 
as nature has placed them; and thus, too, 
you can name them according to the limb 
they serve; for instance the motor of the 
point of the great toe, of its middle 
bone, of its first bone, &c. And when 
you have the knowledge you will draw, by 
the side of this, the true form and size and 
position of each muscle. But remember to 
give the threads which explain the situation 
of the muscles in the position which corre- 
sponds to the central line of each muscle; 
and so these threads will demonstrate the 
form of the leg and their distance in a plain 
and clear manner. 

I have removed the skin from a man 
who was so shrunk by illness that the 
muscles were worn down and remained in 
a state like thin membrane, in such a way 
that the sinews instead of merging in mus- 
cles ended in wide membrane; and where 
the bones were covered by the skin they 
had very little over their natural size. 

803. 2. guhture. 3. dimosstratione. 4. ecq. 5. defare. 

804. i. nasscimeto . . chettu. 2. corta. 3. musscolo .. nasscimeto. 6. mosstratione . . musscoli ellor . . nassci.neti. 7. effini . . 
dimosstratione. 8. musscoli. 10. mebr. n. seruano coe . . motore [delluli], 12. mezo. 13. chettu. 14. cquessta . . essito . . 
mussolo. 15. musscoli ne. 16. le medesimi . . chesson . . ciasscu. 17. dimostera. 18. ella . . disstantia . . e note. 19. hos- 
spogliato. 20. chelli musscoli. 21. cresstati. 22. chelle corde niscabio. 23. musscolo . . largha. 24. pocho. 25. grosseza. 

804. The photograph No. 41 of Grosvenor 
Gallery Publications : a drawing of the muscles 
VOL. u. 

of the foot, includes a complete facsimile of the 
text of this passage. 




W. An. I. if[ 

Quale nervo e cagione del moto del- 
1'ochio a lare-che '1 moto dell'un ochio 
tin Paltro. 

2 1Del chiudere le ciglia, 'dello alzare 
leciglia, * dello abbassare le 5 1 dello 
chiudere li ochi, 6 dello aprire li ochi,1i 
71 dello alzare le narici, "del aprire le labra 
co deti-serrati, sdello-apputare- le labra, 
I0 del ridere, "del maravigliarsi. 

"A discriuere il principio deH'omo quado 
elli si cavsa-nella matrice, '^e perche uno 
putto no uive-d'otto-mesi; '<che cosa e 
starnvto, 'Sche cosa e sbadiglio, I6 mal- 
maestro, '^spasimo, l8 paralitico, ^tremito 
di freddo, 20 sudore, 2I stachezza, "fame, 
2 Jsonno, ^sete, 2 Mussuria. 

26 1 Del neruo-ch'e cagione del moto 
della spalla al gomito, 27 del moto che e dal 
gon.ito alia mano, 2t) dalla givntura della 
mano-al nascimeto de'diti, 2 <>dal nascimeto 
de'diti-al loro-rnezzo Je dal mezzo all'ul- 

^ 'Del neruo che e cagione del moto della 
coscia, 3'e dul ginochio al pie, e dalla givn- 
tura del pie ai diti ^e cosl ai lor mezzi, 
3e del girare d'essa ganba. 


Which nerve causes the motion -of the 
eye so that the motion of one eye moves 
the other? 

Of frowning the brows, of raising the 
brows, of lowering the brows, of closing the 
eyes, of opening the eyes, of raising the 
nostrils, of opening the lips, with the teeth 
shut, of pouring with the lips, of smiling, 
of astonishment. 

Describe the beginning of man when it 
is caused in the womb and why an eight 
months child does not live. What sneezing 
is. What yawning is. Falling sickness, spasms, 
paralysis, shivering with cold, sweating, fa- 
tigue, hunger, sleepiness, thirst, lust. 

Of the nerve which is the cause of mo- 
vement from the shoulder to the elbow, of 
the movement from the elbow to the hand, 
from the joint of the hand to the springing 
of the fingers. From the springing of the 
fingers to the middle joints, and from the 
middle joints to the last. 

Of the nerve which causes the movement 
of the thigh, and from the knee to the foot, 
and from the joint of the foot to the toes, 
and then to the middle of the toes and of 
the rotary motion of the leg. 



2 Quali nerui over corde della mano so 
3quelle che accostano e discostano li -diti 
della mano e de'piedi 1'un dall'altro? 


Which nerves or sinews of the hand are 
those which close and part the fingers and 
toes latteraly? 

W. 238*) 


Scuopri a grado a grado tutte le parti 
dinanti deH'omo 2 nel fare la tua notomia, 
e cosl insino in sull'osso; ^descritione de' 
mebra della vita e lor trauagliameti. 

Remove by degrees all the parts of the 
front of a man in making your dissection, 
till you come to the bones. Description of 
the p'arts of the bust and of their motions. 

K.3 28 a] 


Fa la notomia della ga 2 ba insino al fiaco 
per nutti i versi e per tutti li 'atti e in 

Give the anatomy of the leg up to the 
hip, in all views and in every action and in 

805. i. chagione . . affare. j. anarise. 8. cho . . strati. 12. [facci] a desscrivere . . chausa. 13. 5 putto. 14. chosa esstarnuto. 
15. chosa essbaviglio. 16. malmaesstro. 18. parletkho. 19. fredc. 21. stachcza. 26. chagione . . dalla. 28. nassimeto. 
29. nassimeto . . raezo. 30. roezo. 31. chagione . . cosscia. 33. mezi. 

806. i. anotamia. 3. quelle che achosstano e disscostano. 807. i. parte. 3. discretio de mebr . . vite ellor. 
808. i 9 R. 2. fiucho. 7. He. 8. scghatc . . gro. 

808. A straightened leg in profile is sketched by the side of this text. 

8098 1 


tutte le spoglie, 5 vene, arterie, nerui, 6 corde 
e mvscoli, pe! 7 le e ossa, e poi dell'ossa 
8 segate per uedere la gros 9 sezza dell'ossa. 

every state; veins, arteries, nerves, sinews 
and muscles, skin and bones ; then the bones 
in sections to show the thickness of the bones. 

w. A. n. 7 6 <*] 


Farai regola e misura di ciascun muscolo, 
2 e renderai ragione di tutti li loro vfiti, e 
in che moMo s'adoperano e che li mu- 
ove ecc. 

4 Farai prima la spina del dosso, di poi 
va vestendo 5a gradi 1'un sopra dell'altro 
di ciascu di questi musco 6 li, e poni li nervi 
all' arterie e vene a ciascun 7 muscolo per 
se, e oltre a di questo nota a qua 8 ti spon- 
dili si congiugono, e che intestini sono 9 loro 
a riscotro e che ossi e altri strumeti orga- 
I0 nici ecc. 

JI Le parti piu alte de'magri son piu alte 
nelli mu I2 scolosi, e similmete ne'grassi; Ma 
la differetia, che e ^dalla figura de'muscoli 
che anno li grossi a rispetto I4 delli musco- 
losi, sara qui di sotto descritta. 

Make the rule and give the measurement 
of each muscle, and give the reasons of all 
their functions, and in which way they work 
and what makes them work &c. 

[4] First draw the spine of the back; 
then clothe it by degrees , one after the 
other, with each of its muscles and put in 
the nerves and arteries and veins to each 
muscle by itself; and besides these note the 
vertebrae to which they are attached; which of 
the intestines come in contact with them; and 
which bones and other organs &c. 

The most prominent parts of lean people On corpu- 

. r 11 lency and 

are most prominent in the muscular, and equally leanness 
so in fat persons. But concerning the dif- ( 8 9 8l1 )- 
ference in the forms of the muscles in fat 
persons as compared with muscular persons, 
it shall be described below. 

W. An IV. 7 (A. A)] 


Descriui quali mu 2 scoli si perdono nello 
Pgrossare, e nel dimagratre quali muscoli 
si sco s prono. 

6 E nota che quel loco del?la superfitie 
del grasso 8 che sara piu cocauata, 9quado 
si disgrassa- fia I0 piu eleuato. 
"Doue li muscoli I2 si separano 1'u dal- 
^.I'altro, farai p^roffili, e doue s'^appiccano 
insieme . . . 

Describe which muscles disappear in 
growing fat, and which become visible in 
growing lean. 

And observe that that part which on the sur- 
face of a fat person is most concave, when 
he grows lean becomes more prominent. 

Where the muscles separate one from 
another you must give profiles and where 
they coalesce ... 

W. 239 (= W. L. 131)] 



2 Qual parte e quella nell'omo che nel 
suo ingrassa 3 re mai cresce carne? 

4 Quale e quella parte che nel dimagrare 
dell'omo Smai no dimagra con dimagratio 
troppo sesibile? 6 infra le parti che ingras- 
sano qual'e quella che piu ?ingrassa? 


Which is the part in man, which, as he 
grows fatter, never gains flesh? 

Or what part which as a man grows 
lean never falls away with a too perceptible 
diminution? And among the parts which 
grow fat which is that which grows fattest? 

809. i. reghola . . ciasscu musscolo. 3. he chilli. 4. lasspina . . vavesstendo. 5. hagradi . . ciasscu di quessti. 6. ciasscu. 
7. musscholo . . addi quessto . . acqua. 8. chongiughano . . intesstini. 9. arrisscotro . . orgha. n. parte . . mus. 12. scho- 
losi essimilmete . . Malla diferetia. 13. musscoli che ali . . aris specto. 14. musscholosi . . disocto desscrcta. 

810. 2. perdano. 4. musscoli. 5. prano. 6. que lochi. 7. lla. 8. chessara. 9. dissgrassa. n. musscoli. 15. apichano. 

811. 3. cressce. 4. ecquella. 6. infralle parte. 8. infralle parte . . chessi. 10. musscoli . . di ma. n. gore grosseza. 12. afri- 

809. The two drawings given on PI. CVIII no. I 
come between lines 3 and 4. A good and very 
early copy of this drawing without the written text 

exists in the collection of drawings belonging to 
Christ's College Oxford, where it is attributed to 



[8 1 2. 813. 

Infra le parti che dimagrano qual'c 
quella che si fa. 'piu magra? 

IO Degli omini poteti in forze quali muscoli 
son di mag"giore grossezza c piu eleuati? 

l2 Tu ai a figurare nella tua anatomia 
tutti li gradi 'Jdelle mebra dalla creatio 
deU'omo insino alia sua 'morte, e insino 
alia morte dell'osso, e qual parte d'esso 
sprima si cosuma e qual piu si coserua. 

16 E similmente dall' ultima magrezza al- 
1' ultima grassezza. 

Among those which grow lean which is 
that which grows leanest? 

In very strong men which are the mus- 
cles which are thickest and most prominent? 

In your anatomy you must represent all 
the stages of the limbs from man's creation 
to his death, and then till the death of the 
bone; and which part of him is first decayed 
and which is preserved the longest. 

And in the same way of extreme leanness 
and extreme fatness. 

S. K. M. III. 66,.| 




2 1 membri sefnplici sono vndici cioe There are eleven elementary tissues : 

The dm- 3 cartilagine - ossi - nerui vene, * arterie - pan- Cartilage bones ner ves, veins, arteries, fascia, 
"LS the nicoli legamcti e s c orde, cotica e carne e 

ligament and sinews, skin, muscle and fat. 


The divisions of the head are 10, viz. 
5 external and 5 internal, the external are 
the hair, skin, muscle, fascia and the skull; 
the internal are the dura mater, the pia 
mater, [which enclose] the brain. The pia 
mater and the dura mater come again under- 
neath and enclose the brain; then the rete 
mirabile, and the occipital bone, which sup- 
ports the brain from which the nerves spring. 


?Le parti del uaso del capo sono 10: 
cioe 8 5 conteneti e 5 cotenute ; le con- 
teneti ' sono: oapegli cotica carne I0 mu- 
scolosa panniculo grosso e '1 " craneo | 
le contenvte son queste : du 12 ra madre pia 
madre cieruello | diso I3 tto ritorna la pia e 
dura madre che dentro '*a se rinchiudono 
il cieruello-, poi la rete j s mirabile- poi e 
1'osso, fondameto del celabro Ib e donde 
nascono li nerui. 

S. K. M. III. 65*} 

a capelli 
n cotica 

c carne musculosa 
m paniculo grosso 
50 craneo cioe osso 
b dura madre 
d pia madre 
f ciervello 

r-pia madre di sotto 
/ dura madre 
/ rete mirabile 
s ' osso fondameto. 

a. hair 
n. skin 

c muscle 

m. fascia 

o. skull /'. e. bone 

b. dura mater 
d. pia mater 

f. brain 

r. pia mater, below 

/. dura mater 

/. rete mirablile 

s. the occipitul bone. 

gurare. 15. ecqual. 16. essimilmente . . magreza . . graseza. 
8ia. j. hossi. 4. pannichuli . . he. 5. codigahe. 8. he 5 cotenute. 9. codiga. 10. musscolosa. 14. asse ringiugano. 15. ellosso. 

16. nasscie. 
813. 2. codiga. 6. [f cieruello]. 

813. See PL CVIII, No. 3. 

8 1 4. 815.] ANATOMY. 117 

W. An. II. 37 a] 814. 

Causa dell' alitare, 2 causa del moto del Of the cause of breathing, of the cause 

core, 3 causa del uomito, 4 causa del disce- of the motion of the heart, of the cause of 

.,,.,,,, , , vomiting, of the cause of the descent of 

dere 11 s cibo dallo stomaco, causa del f nA f <A, i c ,1 c 

food from the stomach, of the cause of emp- 

votare li Ftestini; ty i ng the intestines. 

8 Causa del moto delle 9superfluita per Of the cause of the movement of the 

le inte I0 stini; superfluous matter through the intestines. 

11 Causa dello inghiottire, I2 causa dello Of the cause of swallowing, of the cause 

tossire, J 3 causa dello sbadigliare, ^ causa of coughing, of the cause of yawning, of the 

dello starnuto, j s causa dell' adormetame l6 to cause of sneezing, of the cause of limbs 

di diuerse mebra; getting asleep. 

17 Causa del perdere il seso l8 ad alcu Of the cause of losing sensibility in any 

mebro; limb. 

*9 Causa del solletico; Of the cause of tickling. 

20 Causa della lussuria e a! 2I tre necessita Of the cause of lust and other appetites 

del corpo, 22 causa delPorinare, 2 3e cosl di of the body, of the cause of urine and also 

tutte le lotioni natu^rali del corpo. of all the natural excretions of the body. 

w. An. m. 230* (-s-)] 815. 

Le lagrime 2 vengono dal 3 core e no The tears come from the heart and not 

dal 4 ceruello. from the brain. 

sDifinisci tutte 6 le parti di che si co- Define all the parts, of which the body 

7 pone il corpo, co 8 minciadosi dalla 9 cute is composed, beginning with the skin with its 

colla sua so I0 praveste, la qual IJ e spesso outer cuticle which is often chapped by the 

spiccata I2 median te il sole. influence of the sun. 

814. 5. dello stomacho. 6. otare le I. 7. testine. 9. super fruita. 10. stine. n. delle ingiottire. 13. isbauiglare. 14. isstarnuto. 
23. tutte lutibni. 

815. 2. vengano. 5 difinisscitute. 6. parte. 8. mincadosi. 9. cutic. . 10. pravessta. n. spicha. 

814. By the side of this text stands the pen and skull with indications of the veins in the fleshy 
ink drawing reproduced on PI. CVIII, No. 4 ; a covering. 




W. An. I. 


The ()IM- 
sion* of the 
.mini il king- 

(816. 817). 

I'onio \ la descritionc dell'oino, nella 
qual si contengono quelli che son 
qua'si di simile spetie come babbuino, 
scimmia e simili che so molti. 

J Leone \ e suoi seguaci come pantieri, 
leonze, tigri, liopardi, lupi, cervie 4 ri, 
gatti di Spagna, gannetti e gatti co- 
mvni c simili. 

s Cdvallo e sua seguaci come mulo, asino 
e simili che anno deti sopra e di sotto. 

6 Toro | e sua seguaci cornvti e sanza 
denti di sopra come bufolo , ceruio, 
daino ^capriolo, pecore, capre, stam- 
becchi, mvcheri, camozze, giraffe. 

Man. The description of man, which in- 
cludes that of such creatures as are of 
almost the same species, as Apes, 
Monkeys and the like, which are many, 

The Lion and its kindred, as Panthers. 
Wildcats (?) Tigers, Leopards, Wolfs, 
Lynxes, Spanish cats, common cats 
and the like. 

T/ie Horse and its kindred, as Mule, Ass and 
the like, with incisor teeth above and below. 

The Bull and its allies with horns and 
without upper incisors as the Buffalo, Stag 
Fallow Deer, Wild Goat, Swine, Goat, 
wild Goats Muskdeers, Chamois, Giraffe. 

W. An. II. 206* (I)] 


Scrivi le varieta 2 delli intestini deMla 
spetie vma 4 na, scimie e sismili; Di poi in 
6 che si uaria la specie leonina, di 8 poi 
la bovina, 9 e vltimo li uccelli, lo e vsa tal 
descrif'tione a uso di 12 discorso. 

Describe the various forms of the intestines 
of the human species, of apes and such like. 
Then, in what way the leonine species differ, 
and then the bovine, and finally birds; and 
arrange this description after the manner of 
a disquisition. 

816. homo la . . contiene . . chesson. 2. essimili. 3. essua seguace . . tigre. 4. gannetti . . essimili. 5. chavallo . 

essimili cano. 6. essanza. 7. pechore . . stanbeche mvcheri 
17. 2. drlli intestini. 4. essi. 7. elonina. 9. ucielli.' 10. discrip. 


816. 3. Lfonta wild cat? "Secondo alcuni, lo stesso che Ltontssa; e secondo altri con //* ffrtnza, lo stesso che 
Panlira." KANFANI, Vocabolario page 858. 


W. A. IV. i53<5] 8l8. 

Fatidarevna secodina delli. 2 vitelliquado Procure the placenta of a calf when it is Misceiiane- 

nascono e nota 3 la figura de' cotiledoni, se born and observe the form of the cotyledons, h e s " t t dy n ( 
riser 4 vano li cotiledoni mas s chi o femminei. if their cotyledons are male or female. (8 Z i8 sfi). 

W. An. IV. i6;] 8ig. 

Scrivi la lingua del picchio 2 e la ma- Describe the tongue of the woodpecker 

scella del cocodrillo. and the jaw of the crocodile. 

G. 64 <5] 820. 

Volare della 4 a spetie 2 di parpaglioni Of the flight of the 4 th kind of butter- 

divo 3 ratori delle formiche alate; 4 delle flies that consume winged ants. Of the 

tre principali situation! s che fanno I'ali delli three principal positions of the wings of birds 

vccielli che discedono. in downward flight. 

M. 67 a] 


Che modo fa la coda del pescie a so- Of trie way in which the tail of a fish 

spin 2 giere il pescie innazi, e cosl 1'anguilla, acts in propelling the fish; as in the eel, 
3 biscia e mignatta. snake and leech. 

W. An. IV. 157,1 (B)] 822. . 


2 Farai poi vn discor 3 so delle mani di Then I will discourse of the hands of Comparative 

ciascu 4 n animale per mostrare 5 in che si each animal to show in what they vary; as?uctnreor 

uariano, come nell'orso che 6 agiugne la in the bear, which has the ligatures f ^"action of 

legatura decile corde de' diti del pie 8 sopra the sinews of the toes joined above the muscles 

il collo d' esso pie. instep. 

W. XXIV (-55-)] 823. 

Dimostratione secoda 2 interposta infra A second demonstration inserted between 

1' anato 3 mia e '1 uiuo. anatomy and [the treatise on] the living being. 

4 Figurerai a questo p s aragone le gambe You will represent here for a comparison, 

de' ra 6 nocchi, le quali anno gran ^simili- tne ^ e g s f a frog; which have a great 

tudine colle ganbe 8 dell'omo si nell'ossa resemblance to the legs of man, both in the 

come 9 ne' suoi muscoli; di poi I0 seguirai bones and in the muscles. Then, in conti- 

le gabe dirieto XI della lepre, le quali son nuation, the hind legs of the hare, which are 

I2 molto muscolose e di I3 muscoli spediti, very muscular, with strong active muscles, 

perche no I4 sono inpedite da grasse'Szza. because they are not encumbered with fat. 

818. i. fatti. 2. nascano. 3. cotilidoni. 4. cotilidoni mass. 5. ci offeminine. 

819. lingha . . pichio. 2. ella masscella. 820. 5. cheffa . . disceda. 

821. i. pesscie assosspl. 2. pesscio . . languila. 3. bisscia e migmaua. 822. 6. agugne la lecatura. 

823. 4. acquessto. 6. nochi. 8. com"e". 9. nu:sscoli. 12. molte. 

820. 4. A passing allusion is all I can here 821. A sketch of a'fish, swimming upwards is in 

permit myself to Leonardo's elaborate researches the original, inserted above this text. Compare 

into the flight of birds. Compare the observations No. 1114. 

on this subject in the Introduction to section XVIII 823. This text is written by the side of a drawing 

and in the Bibliography of Manuscripts at the end in black chalk of a nude male figure, but there is 

of the work. no connection between the sketch and the text. 




Qui fo ricordo 2 di dimostrare la dif- 
3ferentia ch'e dall'o'mo al cauallo, e simil- 
smente delli altri ani 6 mali ; e prima 7 comin- 
cerd alPossa, e proseguiro 8 tutti li muscoli 
che sanza corde na^scono e finiscono nelle 
ossa, I0 e poi di quelli che co corda na- 
"scono e finiscono nell'ossa, e poi di 
quelle "che con una sola corda da v can- 

Here I make a note to demonstrate the 
difference there is between man and the horse 
and in the same way with other animals. 
And first'I will begin with the bones, and then 
will go on to all the muscles which spring 
from the bones without tendons and end in 
them in the same way, and then go on 
to those which start with a single tendon at 
one end. 

E. ,6-] 82 5- 

Nota delle piegatu 2 re delle giutu^re, e Note on the bendings of joints and in 

in che mo 4 do cresce la scarne sopra di what way the flesh grows upon them in 

6 loro nelli 7 lor piegame 8 tio e stendimesti; their flexions or extensions; and of this 

e di questa IO Iportatissima "notitia fa uno most important study write a separate treatise: 

12 particulare '^trattato | nel' 4 la descritione in the description of the movements of ani- 

sde' movimeti l6 delli animali *?di quattro mals with four feet; among which is man, 

pi tl( edi, infra li '^quali e 1'omo 2 "che acora who likewise in his infancy crawls on all 

lui 2I nella infatia 22 va co 4 piedi. fours. 

C. A. 2920; 888 a) 



2 L'andare dell'omo e sempre a uso 
dell' universale andare delli animali di 4 
piedi, imperoche siccome essi 3 movonp i 
loro piedi in croce a vso del trotto del 
cauallo, cosl 1'omo in croce si move le sue 
4 mebra, cioe 4 se caccia Inati il pie destro 
per caminare, egli caccia inazi co quello il 
braccio sinistro, e sempre cosl seguita. 


The walking of man is always after the 
universal manner of walking in animals with 
4 legs, inasmuch as just as they move 
their feet crosswise after the manner of a 
horse in trotting, so man moves his 4 limbs 
crosswise; that is, if he puts forward his 
right foot in walking he puts forward, with 
it, his left arm and vice versa, invariably. 

314. 2. la.di. 4. cssimil. 6. e p"a". 7. epposseguiro. 8. musscoli. 9. scano effiniscano. TO. eppoi. it. scano effinisscano . . 
he poi. 12. [q] che. 

825. i. "nota" delle pieghatu. 4. cressca. 5. charne. 7. pieghame. 8. esstendime. 9. quessta. 12. partichulare. 13. tractato. 
14. lla desscritione. 18. infralli. 19. ellomo. 20. achora. 

826. 2. esaenpre . . inperochessichome. 3. movano illoro . . chauallo . chosi. 4. chaccia . . desstro . . chaminare . . chaccia . 
cho . . sinisstro essepr. 

824. See PI. CVHI, No. 2. 


, i V \ 

_^4~- . H-r* 
Ileliog-. Dujardin. " 

5x0/15 5x0/15 5x0/15 5^0/1) 5^0/15 ,5^0 



W. An. IV. 173 a] 


Ho trovato nella compositione del corpo 
vmano che, come in tutte 2 le composition! 
delli animali, esso e di piv ottusi e grossi 
sentimeti; ^cosl e composto di strumeto 
manco ingegnoso e di lochi maco ^capaci 
a ricevere la uirtu de' sensi ; 6 veduto nella 
spetie Ieoni 5 na il senso dell'odorato auere 
parte della sustantia del celabro, e disce- 
6 dere li narici, capace ricettaculo contro al 
senso dello odorato, 7 il quale entra infra 
gra nvmero di saccoli cartilaginosi con 
assai 8 vie contro all' avenimento del predetto 

9 Li ochi della spetie leonina anno gran 
parte della lor testa per lor I0 ricettacolo, 
e li nerui ottici inmediate congiugnersi col 
celabro; il che al 11 !! omini si uede in con- 
trario, perche le casse delli ochi sono vna 
picco I2 la parte del capo, e li nerui ottici 
sono sottili e lunghi e deboli, e per debo- 
X 3le operatione si uede di loro il dl, e peggio 
la notte, e li predetti animali ^vedono 
in nella notte che '1 giorno; I5 e '1 segno se 
ne vede, perche predano di notte I6 e dor- 
mono il giorno come fano ancora li uccelli 

I have found that in the composition of Comparative 
the human body as compared with the bodies s "r/ans of 
of animals the organs of sense are duller s ^dln^\. 
and coarser. Thus it is composed of less 
ingenious instruments, 'and of spaces less 
capacious for receiving the faculties of sense. . 
I have seen in the Lion tribe that the sense 
of smell is connected with part of the sub- 
stance of the brain which comes down the 
nostrils, which form a spacious recep- 
tacle for the sense of smell, which enters 
by a great number of cartilaginous vesicles 
with several passages leading up to where 
the brain, as before said, comes down. 

The eyes in the Lion tribe have a large 
part of the head for their sockets and the 
optic nerves communicate at once with the 
brain; but the contrary is to be seen in 
man, for the sockets of the eyes are but a 
small part of the head, and the optic nerves 
are very fine and long and weak, and by the 
weakness of their action we see by day but 
badly at night, while these animals can see as 
well at night as by day. The proof that they 
can see is that they prowl for prey at night 
and sleep by day, as nocturnal birds do also. 

87- i. ottrovato . . conpositone . . chome. 3. chosi e conpossto . . mancho . . mancho. 4. chapaci. 5. nel senso . . susstantia 
del celabro disce. 6. ricettachulo. 7. sachuli chartilaginosi. 9. tessta. 10. ricettachulo elli . . ottitti . . congugnersi. 
ii. Hi . . chasse . . picho. 12. elli . . ellunghi. 13. eppeggo . . elli. 14. vegan inela . . gorno. 15. dormano il gorno 
. . fano . . ucelli. 



[828. 829. 


ITutte le cose vedute parrano 2 mag- 
Ad...ue, giori di mezza notte, che di 3 mezzo d) 
, n ,h e .in.c- macc iori di mattina che *di mezzodl.l 

lure of the * llla &5 i \ t Ml 611 

sQuesto accade percho la pupilla del- 
l' ochio minore assai di mezzo Ml- che 
di nessuno altro tenpo. 

Tanto quato & maggiore 1 ochio 
9 over pupilla del gufo a proportione '"dello 

animate, che non 6 quella dell' o" mo , 
tanto piv lume vede di notte che "no fa 

Porno; ode di mezzo -dl no vede ni^ente-, 
selui no diminuisce sua pupil 1 'la -, e simil- 
mete vede di notte le cose mag'Sgiori - 
che di di. 

Every object we see will appear larger 
at midnight than at midday, and larger in 
the morning than at midday. 

This happens because the pupil of the 
eye is much smaller at midday than at any 
other time. 

In proportion as the eye or the pupil of 
the owl is larger in proportion to the animal 
than that of man, so' much the more light 
can it see at night than man can; hence at 
midday it can see nothing if its pupil does 
not diminish ; and, in the same way, at night 
things look larger to it than by day. 

c. 44-1 



*Li ochi di tutti li animali ano le 3 lor 
popille, le quali per loro medesitne cres- 
cono e diminuiscono secodo il mag^giore 
e minore lume del sole o altro 6 chiarore; 
Ma nelli uccelli fa maggio^re differetia, e 
massima nelli nottui^ni, come gufi, barba- 
yianni, e all' ochi ?che son di spetie di 
civetta; a questi cresce I0 la popilla in modo 
che quasi occupa tut 1 'to 1' ochio, e dimi- 
nuisce insino alia gra I2 dezza d'u gra di 
miglio e sempre osser'^va figura circulare; 
Ma la spe M tie leonina come patere, 
pardi, '.Meoze, tigri, lupi, cieruieri, * 
gatti di Spa l6 gnia e altri simili dimi- ^ 
nuiscono '7 la lucie dal perfetto circulo 
18 alia figura biagolare, cioe questa '^e; 
come si dimostra in margine; Ma 1'uo- 
mo 20 per avere piu debole vista 
che nessuno altro a 2I nimale, meno e 
offeso dalla superchia luce, "e 
meta nelli lochi tenebrosi^ ma 
delli detti animali notturni, al 2 <gufo vc- 
ciello cornuto, il quale e '1 2 s massimo nella 
spetie delli vccelli nottur a6 ni : a questo s' au- 
meta tanto la uirtu vi 2 ?siva, che nel minimo 

C t 

me s av- 


The eyes of all animals have their pupils 
adapted to dilate and diminish of their own 
accord in proportion to the greater or less 
light of the sun or other luminary. But in 
birds the variation is much greater; and 
particularly in nocturnal birds, such as hor- 
ned owls, and in the eyes of one species of 
owl ; in these the pupil dilates in such a way 
as to occupy nearly the whole eye , or 
diminishes to the size of a grain of millet, 
and always preserves the circular form. But 
^ in the Lion tribe, as panthers, pards, 
ounces, tigers , lynxes , Spanish cats 
and other similar animals the pupil dimi- 
nishes from the perfect circle to the 
figure of a pointed oval such as is 
shown in the margin. But man having 
a weaker sight than any other animal 
is less hurt by a very strong light and 
his pupil increases but little 'in dark places; 
but in the eyes of these nocturnal animals, the 
horned owl a bird which is the largest of 
all nocturnal birds the power of vision 
increases so much that in the faintest noc- 
turnal light (which we call darkness) it sees 

8*8. i. tucte . le chose. 2. magiori . . meza. 3. mezo . . magiori. 4. mezo. 5. acchade. 6. mezo. 8. he magiore. ix. nocte. 

12. mezo. 13. diminuisscie . . popi. 14. cssimilmcte . . ma. 15. magiore. 
8j) i. dclt[o|i cchi(o]i. 3. popille le quali pe lor. 4. scano e diminvisschano . . il ma. 5. eminore. 6. vcielli. 7. diferetia 

emauime neli. 8. ghufi. 9. chcsson . . qucssti cresscie. 10. ochupa. ti. diminuisscie. 12. essenpre. 13. fighura circulare. 

M lla. 14. chome. 16. diminuiscano. 17. circhulo. 18. fighura biaghola . . quessta. 19. chome si dimosstra . . Mallom"o" 

20. vissu. 21. luci'V. 23. notturniel. 24. ghupo . . chornuto. 25. vcielli. 26. acquessto. 28. quale noc dimadano . . ve 

829. Compare No. 24, lines 8 and fol. 

830. SSL] 



lume notturno (il 28 quale da noi dimadasi 
tenebre) vede assai co 2 9piu vigore che noi 
nello splendore del 3 mezzo giorno, nel 
quale tali vccielli sta s'nascosti in lochi te- 
nebrosi; e se pur 3 2 S 6 costretti u^scire al- 
Pa34ria allumina^sta dal sole, elli' 3& dimi- 
nuiscono 3?tato la lor po' 8 pilla che la 
po 39 tentia visiua 4diminuisce 4?insieme 
colla 4 2 quatita di tale 43l uc i e . 

44 Fa notomia 4 5di vari ochi, ^ e vedi 
quali 47 so li muscoli 48 ch'aprono e 49serrano 
le pre5dette popille s 1 delli ochi dels'li ani- 

with much more distinctness than we do in the 
splendour of noon day, at which time these 
birds remain hidden in dark holes; or if in- 
deed they are compelled to come out into 
the open air lighted up by the sun, they 
contract their pupils so much that their 
power of sight diminishes together with the 
quantity of light admitted. 

Study the anatomy of various eyes and 
see which are the muscles which open and 
close the said pupils of the eyes of animals. 

Br. M. 64 <J] 


a b n e il .coperchio di sotto che chi- 
ude 2 Pochio di sotto in su con coperchio 
oppaco, *c n b chiude 1'ochio dinanzi 
idirieto 4 con coperchio transparete. 

sQiiudesi sotto in su 6 perche da 
alto discie"7de. 

8 Quando 1'ochio delli uccelli si 
chiude ^colle sue due copriture, 
esso chiu I0 de prima la secondina 
la qual "chiude dal lagrimatoio 
alia co I2 da d'esso ochio, e la prima 
si chi I3 vde da basso in alto, e que- 
I4 sti due moti intersegati occupano 
prima dal lacrimatoio, perche gia abbiamo 
veduto che l6 dinanzi e di sotto si sono 
assicurati, e sol serba I7 no la parte di 
sopra per li pericoli delli uccielli ra l8 paci 
che discendono di sopra e dirieto; e sco- 
"^prano prima il pannicolo di verso la coda, 
20 perche se '1 nemico viene dirieto, egli 
a la como 2I dita| del fugire innazi, e an- 
cora tiene 22 il pannicolo detto secondino 
e traspa*3rente , perche se non avesse tale 
scudo, e' no 2 4potrebbe tener li ochi 
aperti cotro al 2 Sveto che percuote 1'ochio 
nel furo 26 re del suo velocie volare; 'E 
la sua 2 7popilla crescie e discrescie nel 
uedere 28 minore o maggiore lume cioe 

s in and 

a b n is the membrane which closes the 
eye from below, upwards, with an opaque 
film, c n b encloses the eye in front and 
behind with a transparent membrane. 

It closes from below, upwards, be- 
cause it [the. eye] comes downwards. 
When the eye of a bird closes 
with its two lids, the first to close is 
\ the nictitating membrane which closes 
from the lacrymal duct over to the 
outer corner of the eye; and the 
outer lid closes from below upwards, 
these two intersecting motions begin 
first from the lacrymatory duct, because we 
have already seen that in front and below 
birds are protected and use only the upper 
portion of the eye from fear of birds of 
prey which come down from above and 
behind; and they uncover first the membrane 
from the outer corner, because if the enemy 
comes from behind, they have the power of 
escaping to the front; and again the muscle 
called the nictitating membrane is transparent, 
because, if the eye had not such a screen, 
they could not keep it open against the 
wind which strikes against the eye in the 
rush of their rapid flight. And the pupil of 
the eye dilates and contracts as it sees a 
less or greater light, that is to say intense 

H.3 6i] 831. 

UL' ochio che di notte s'interporra in- If at night your eye is placed between 

fra '1 lume e 1'ochio 2 della gatta, vedra the light and the eye of a cat, it will see 
esso occhio parere di foco.1 the eye look like fire. 

assai cho. 29. vighore. 31. nasscosti inochi . . esseppur. 32. cosstretti vs. 33. allalla. 36. diminuisca. 38. chella. 40. di- 
minuissie. 41. cholla. 47. musscoli. 48. aprano es. 

830. 2. socto . . oppacho. 4. chon choperchio transsparete. 6. discie. 7. da. 8. vcielli. 9. cholle . . chopriture. 12. ella. 13. di 
basso . . ecque. 14. interseghati ochupano. 15. dalacrimatoio . . giaa ueduto. 16. assichurati.J 17. pericholi. 18. dissciendono 
. . diriecto essco. 19. panitolo . . choda. 20. nemicho . . diriecto. 22. trasspa. 23. auessi.' 25. perchuote. 26. Ella. 
27. cresscie e disscresscie. 28. magiore. 

831. i. ellochio. 2. vedera . . focho. 



[832 834. 

W. A.. IV. 184* (;)J 

La lingua e trouata auere 24 
oomuscoli li quali rispondono alii 
gan. ^ musco li di che 6 2 conposta la 
quatita della lingua che si move 
per la bocca. 

3 E quando a o v si pronutiano 
con intelligibile e spedita pronu- 
tia, egli snecessario che nella 
continua lor 6 pronutiatione sanza 
intermissio di tepo, che 'I'apritura 
de' labri si uadi al cotinuo restri- 
gnendo, cio larghi sarano nel 
dire a, pi 9 u stretti nel dire o, 
e assai piv stretti nel pr'onun- 
tiare v. 

"Prouasi come tutte le uo- 
"cali son pronQtiate colla 'Jparte 
ultima del pala'no mobile, il quale 
copre Pe'Spiglotta. 

w. xxij 






















f' a 




f' u . 












































The tongue is found to have 
24 muscles which correspond to 
the six muscles which compose 
the portion of the tongue which 
moves in the mouth. 

And when a o u are spoken 
with a clear and rapid pronunciation, 
it is necessary, in order to pronounce 
continuously, without any pause be- 
tween, that the opening of the lips 
should close by degrees; that is, 
they are wide apart in saying a, 
closer in saying o, and much closer 
still to pronounce u. 

It may be shown how all the 
vowels are pronounced with the 
farthest portion of the false palate 
which is above the epiglottis. 


Se tirerai il fiato pel na'so e lo vorrai 
madar fori ^per la bocca, tu sentirai il 
sono 4 che fa il tramezzo cioe il Spanicolo 
in . . 

If you draw in breath by the nose and 
send it out by the mouth you will hear the 
sound made by the division that is the 
membrane in [5] . . . 

C. A. 89*; 2580] 



2 Dico jl uedere essere operate da tutti 
On the con- li animali mediate la luce; e se alcuno 

ditions of 11 i i j n- 

light cotra questo ^allegnera jl uedere delli 
animali notturni, dir6 questo medesima- 
mete essere sottoposto a simile .-' natura; 
Jperoche chiaro si coprede -, j sensi 
ricievedo le similitudini delle cose no ma- 
dano fori di loro alcuna virtu ; s a nzi me- 
diate 1'aria, che si trova ifra 1'obietto e '1 
seso -, jncorpora J se le spetie delle cose , 
e per lo cotatto, 6 che a col seso, le porgie 
a quello ; se li obietti o per sono o per 
odore madano le potetie spirituali all' orechio 
7 o al naso , qui non e neciessario ne si 
adopera la luce ; le forme delli obietti non 


I say that sight is exercised by all ani- 
mals, by the medium of light; and if any. 
one adduces, as against this, the sight of 
nocturnal animals, I must .say that this in 
the same way is subject to the very same 
natural laws. For it will easily be under- 
stood that the senses which receive the 
images of things do not project from them- 
selves any visual virtue [4]. On the contrary 
the atmospheric medium which exists be- 
tween the object and the sense incorpo- 
rates in itself the figure of things, and by 
its contact with the sense transmits the ob- 
ject to it. If the object whether by sound 
or by odour presents its spiritual force 
to the ear or the nose, then light is not 
required and does not act. The forms of 
objects do not send their images into 

831. i. musscole . . rospondano . . musscoli. t. conposta . . boccha. 3. chessi perbocha. 4. Essecquando . . cho. 

4. csspedita. 7. dellabri . . resstri. 8. coe. 12. chali. 13. lla. 15. piglotto. 
833. i. ettirarai. a. ello. 3. bocha tusscutirai. 4. cheffa il tramazzo. 5. panicholo. 

8*. i. operate [raediitc la In) dattutti . . ette. 3. alegera . . sotto . posti . aasimile. 4. cSpIede . . similitudine . . alchuna. 

5. iou . . chessi . . jnthorpora . . chotatto. 6. chol . . acquelo . . per [romore] "sono" per . . mSda . per la. 7. nessi 

833- 5- The text here breaks off. 834. 4. Compare No. 68. 8. See No. 58-67. 

835- 836.] 



etrano per similitudine jfra 1'aria, 8 se quelli 
no sono Ivminosi ; essedo cosl 1'ochio no 
la puo ricievere da quell' aria che no 1'a e 
che tocca la sua superfitie; 9 se tu volessi 
dire di molti animali j quali predano di 
notte , dico che quando in questi manca 
la poca luce I0 che basta alia natura de' 
loro ochi , che questi s' aivtano colla po- 
tetia dello udito e dello odorato, IJ i quali 
no sono Ipediti dalle tenebre , e de' quali 
avazano di gra luga-1'omo-; Se porrai 
mete a una gatta I2 di giorno sal tare Ifra 
molte vasellameti -, vedrai quelli^ rimanere 
salui, e se farai questo medesimo I3 di notte, 
ronpera ne assai ; li vccelli notturni no 
volano , se no lucie tutta o I parte la luna, 
azi si pasco^no Jfra il coricare del sole 
e la itera oscurita della notte ; 

'sNessuno corpo si puo coprendere 
saza lume e obra; lume e obra sono cau- 
sate dalla luce. 

the air if they are not illuminated [8]; and 
the eye being thus constituted cannot receive 
that from the air, which the air does not 
possess, although it touches its surface. If 
you choose to say that there are many ani- 
mals that prey at night, I answer that when 
the little light which suffices the nature of 
their eyes is wanting, they direct themselves 
by their strong sense of hearing and of smell, 
which are not impeded "by the darkness, and 
in which they are very far superior to man. 
If you make a cat leap, by daylight, among 
a quantity of jars and crocks you will see 
them remain unbroken, but if you do the 
same at night, many will be broken. Night 
birds do not fly about unless the moon shines 
full or in part; rather do they feed between 
sun-down and the total darkness of the night. 
No body can be apprehended without 
light and shade, and light and shade are 
caused by light. 

G. 90 a] 



3 II uedere e meglio discosto che da 
pres*so in quelli omini, li quali s'attepano, 
Sperche vna medesima cosa 6 mada di se 
minore inpressione nell'oc 7 chio, essendo 
remota che quado li e vi 8 cina. 


Sight is better from a distance than near 
in those men who are advancing in age, 
because the same object transmits a smaller 
impression of itself to the eye when it is 
distant than when it is near. 

C. At. 893; 2580] 


II seso corhune e quello che givdica le 
cose a lui date dalli altri sensi ; 2 Li an- 
tichi speculatori ano cocluso che quella 
parte del giuditio che e data all'omo, 
sia causata 3 da vno strumeto , al quale 
referiscono li altri 5 mediate la ipressiva, 
e a detto strumeto ano posto nome seso 
comvne, 4 e dicono questo seso essere 
situate in mezzo il capo jfra la ipres- 
siva e la memoria; E questo nome di 
seso s comvne dicono solamete , perche e 

The Common Sense, is that which judges The seat of 
of things offered to it by the other senses. the s c e mon 
The ancient speculators have concluded that 
that part of man which constitutes his judg- 
ment is caused by a central organ to which the 
other five senses refer everything by means of 
impressibility; and to this centre they have 
given the name Common Sense. And they 
say that this Sense is situated in the centre 
of the head between Sensation and Me- 
mory. And this name of Common Sense 

lalluce. 8. nolla po . . dacquell . . aria'"ce nola e" che tocha. 9. che qua["do" I . . mancha la pocha. 10. allandatura 
chola . . delo . a[v]uldito. n. porai mete . i '. gatta. 12. vedera . . esse. 13. vcielli . . pasca. 14. corichare . . ella. 
15. po . chopledere . . e chausata. 

835. 2. disscosto. 3. disscossto. 5. chosa. 

836. i. givdiCha . le chose allui . . dali. 2. [j nosstri] li antich[e]i spechulatori . . choncluso checquella . . guditio . . chausata 
3. referischano . . 5 . "mediate la Ipresine" e a . . ano. 4. e dichano . . essere [situato] imezo [il chapo j fralla Ipresiua 
ella . . Ecquesto. 5. dicano . . choravne . . deli . . vldire tochare. 6. Ipresiua . . imezo . . inpresiua. 7. similitudine . . 


comvne -judice- delli altri 5 sesi, cioe 
dere udire toccare gustare e odorare; 
6 II senso comvne si move mediate la 
Ipressiva ch'e posta-I mezzo jfra lui e i 
sesi; la inpressiua si move 7 mediate le si- 
militudini delle cose a lei date dalli stru- 
meti superfitiali cioe sesi, i quali sono posti 
I mezzo 'jfra le cose esteriori e la Ipres- 
siva , e similmete i sesi si movono mediate 
li obietti; 9 le circostanti cose madano le 
loro similitudini ai sesi ; e i sensi le tras- 
feriscono alia Ipressiva; I0 la Ipressiva le 
mada al seso comvne , e da quello sono 
stabilite nella memoria -, e 11 sono piv 
o meno "retenute secodo la Iportatia o 
potetia della cosa data ; Quello senso . 
e piv veloce nel suo I2 ofitio, jl quale e 
piv uicino alia impressiva , e 1'ochio 
superiore- pricipe delli altri , '3 del quale 

solo tratteremo e li altri lascieremo per 
no ci allugare dalla nostra materia ; dice 
la sperieza '*che 1'ochio s'astede J 10 
varie nature d' obietti cio luce e tenebre, 

1'una-cagione dell'altre 9 -, e 1'altra priva- 
tione: 'Scolore e corpo figura e sito 
remotione e proplquita moto e quiete. 

is given to it solely because it is the com- 
mon judge of all the other five senses i.e. 
Seeing, Hearing, Touch, Taste and Smell. 
This Common Sense is acted upon by means 
of Sensation which is placed as a medium 
between it and the senses. Sensation is ac- 
ted upon by means of the images of things 
presented to it by the external instruments, 
that is to say the senses which are the 
medium between external things and Sen- 
sation. In the same way the senses are 
acted upon by objects. Surrounding things 
transmit their images to the senses and 
the senses transfer them to the Sen- 
sation. Sensation sends them to the Com- 
mon Sense, and by it they are stamped 
upon the memory and are there more or 
less retained according to the importance 
or force of the impression. That sense is 
most rapid in its function which is "nearest 
to the sensitive medium and the eye, being 
the highest is the chief of the others. Of 
this then only we will speak, and the 
others we will leave in order not to make 
our matter too long. Experience tells us that 
the eye apprehends ten different natures of 
things, that is: Light and Darkness, one 
being the cause of the perception of the 
nine others, and the other its absence: 
Colour and substance, form and place, dis- 
tance and nearness, motion and stillness [15]. 

W. An. IV. 184,. (7)) 


Ancorache lo ingiegnio 2 vmano faccia 
OB the ori-Iuetioni va^rie, rispodedo co uari ^strumeti 
tin of the a Q medesimo sfine, mai esso trove 6 ra 
inuentione piu ? Delia, ne piu facile, ne 8 piu 
brieue della natu 9 ra, perche nelle sue in- 
I0 venzioni nulla ma :i ca e nullo e superflu- 
I2 o, e non va co contra 1 ^pesi, quado essa 
fa le '*mebra atti al moto nel'sli corpi delli 
animali; l6 Ma ui mette dentro I'a^nima 
d'esso corpo copo I(< nitore, cioe 1'anima 
del' 9 la madre che prima 20 conpone nella 
ma 2 'trice la figura dell' o 22 mo; e al tenpo 
debito * 3 desta 1* anima, che di quel 24 deve 
essere abitatore, 2 Ma qual prima restau 26 a 
dormetata e in tutela J 7 dell' anima della 

Though human ingenuity may make va- 
rious inventions which, by the help of va- 
rious machines answering the same end, it 
will never devise any inventions more beau- 
tiful, nor more simple, nor more to the pur- 
pose than Nature does; because in her in- 
ventions nothing is wanting, and nothing is 
superfluous, and she needs no counterpoise 
when she makes limbs proper for motion in 
the bodies of animals. But she puts into 
them the soul of the body, which forms them 
that is the soul of the mother which first 
constructs in the womb the form of the man 
and in due time awakens the soul that is 
to inhabit it. And this at first lies dormant 

chose . . dali . . scsiggugali . . mezo. 8. Infrallc . . istcriori ella Ipressiua essimilemete . . movano . . obietti le similitu- 

dine. o.. delle circhuitanti chose . . similitudine a sesic sensi . . trasfcrischano . . Tpresiua. 10. Ipresiua la . . dacquello . . 

elli. n. sechodo. 12. uisino . ala inpresiua . . deli. 13. trattereno e laltri lasciereno . . data. 14. chagne . . ellaltra. 

. 15. chorpo . . cssito . . ecquiete. 

837. i. chello. 2. vmano iniuetioni. 5. trover, n. cha e nulla. 13. fa il. 14. mebr. 16. coe. 23. dessta. 24. debbe. 25. restafui). 

836. 15. Compare No. 23. 

838. J 



madre, 28 la quale la nutrisce e vivifi 2 9ca 
per la vena ombelica3le, con tutti li sua 
me^bri spiritual!, e cosi segu3 2 ira insino 
che tale ombe^lico 11 e giunto colla se.- 
3 4 condina e li cotilido35ni per la quale il 
figlo3 6 lo si unisce colla madre; 3 ?e questi 
son causa che v3 8 na volonta, vn sommo desi 
39derio, vna paura che 4 abbia la madre, 
o altro ^ i dolor metale a poteti 42 a piu nel 
figliolo che ne! 43 la madre, perche spesse 
sono 44 le volte, che il figlio ne per 4 5de la 
vita ecc. 

4 6 Questo discor-^so no ua qui, 48 ma si 
r 49 ichiede 5 nella cos^ositio S 2 delli cor53pi 
anima5 4 ti; E il resto della difinitione 
dell' anima lascio nelssle meti de' frati, 
padri de' popoli, li quali per inspira5 6 tione 
sanno tutti li segreti. 

5 7 Lascio star le lettere incoronate, per- 
che so soma verita. 

and under the tutelage of the soul of the 
mother, who nourishes and vivifies it by the 
umbilical vein, with all its spiritual parts, 
and this happens because this umbilicus is 
joined to the placenta and the cotyledons, by 
which the child is attached to the mother. 
And these are the reason why a wish, a 
strong craving or a fright or any other men- 
tal suffering in the mother, has more influence 
on the child than on the mother; for there 
are many cases when the child loses its life 
from them, &c. 

This discourse is not in its place here, but 
will be wanted for the one on the compo- 
sition of animated bodies and the rest of 
the definition of the soul I leave to the ima- 
ginations of friars, those fathers of the people 
who know all secrets by inspiration. 

[57]! leave alone the sacred books; for 
they are supreme truth. 

W. An. II. 202 a (-B-)] 



2 L' anima pare risedere nella parte 
juditiale, e la parte juditiale pare essere 
3 nel loco doue concorrono tutti i sesi , 
il quale e detto senso comvne, e non e 
tutta 4 per tutto il corpo , come molti 
ano creduto -, anzi tutto in nella parte , 
inpercche sc ella sfusse tutta per tutto e 
tutta in ogni parte , non era necessario 

li stru 6 meti de' sensi fare infra loro uno 
medesimo cocorso a uno solo loco , anzi 

basta?va che 1' ochio operasse 1' ufitio 
del sentimeto sulla sua superfitie e no 
mandare per la uia 8 delli nerui ottici la 
similitudine delle cose vedute al seso , 
che 1' anima alia sopra sdetta ragione le 
poteua compredere in essa superfitie del'o- 

organs of 


The soul seems to reside in the judg- On the reia- 
ment, and the judgment would seem to be ""^ t f th h e e 
seated in that .part where all the senses 
meet; and this is called the Common Sense 
and is not all-pervading throughout the body, 
as many have thought. Rather is it entirely 
in one part. Because, if it were all-pervad- 
ing and the same in every part, there would 
have been no need to make the instruments 
of the senses meet in one centre and in one 
single spot; on the contrary it would have suf- 
ficed that the eye should fulfil the function 
of its sensation on its surface only, and not 
transmit the image of the things seen, to 
the sense, by means of the optic nerves, so 
that the soul for the reason given above 
may perceive it in the surface of the eye. 
In the same way as to the sense of hearing, 
it would have sufficed if the voice had mere- 

28. la qual nutrisscie vivifi. 29. cha . . vnbilica. 30. le sua. 32. chettale vnbi. 33. licho. 34. elli. 36. unisscie colla ma 
37. ecquesti. 38. somo. 42. che ne. 43. spesse so. 45. della uita ecc. 54. dellania lasscio ne. 55. le mete . . ispirita 
56. tatione san. 57. Lascia doubtful . . soma. 

838. 2. ella. 3. locho . . chonchorano . chomvne . . ettuta. 4. chorpo chome . . inela . . ssella. 5. fussi tutta [in ogni] per 
tutto . ettutta . . neciessario . fare li. 6. infralloro .5. . . chochorso a . i . . locho. 7. operassi . . del [suo] sentimeto. 
8. ottiti [il] la . . chose . . chellanima. 9. conpledere.' 10. Essimilmete il . . dellavldito . . risonassi . . chochaue. n. cho- 

^37' 57- lettere incoronate. By this term Leo- 
nardo probably understands not the Bible only, but 

the works of the early Fathers, and all the books 
recognised as sacred by the Roman Church. 




chio ; IO E similmete al seso dell' udito 
bastaua solamete la uoce risonasse nelle 
cocnue porosita "dell' osso petroso che 
sta dcntro all'orechio , e no fare da esso 
osso al seso comune altro "trasito dove 
essa s'abbocca, e abbia a discorrere al 
comune givditio; l *l\ senso dell* odorato 
acora lui si uede essere dalla neciessita 
costretto a cocorrere a detto ^juditio; 
'5 II tatto passa per le corde forate, 
ed e portato a esso seso ; le quali corde 
si uanno I6 spargicdo con ifinita ramifica- 
tione- in nella pelle-che circuda le corporee 
mebra '?e visciere ; l8 Le corde perforate 
portano il comadameto e sentimeto alii 
mebri ofitiali, ''le quali corde e nerui 
infra i muscoli e lacierti 20 comadano a 
quelli il mouimeto ; quelli ubidiscono, e 
tale obedietia si "mette in atto collo sgo- 
fiare , imperoche '1 gofiare raccorta le loro 

lunghezze e tirasi dirieto i nerui, 22 i quali 

si tessono per le particule de' mebri; es- 
sendo infusi nelli stremi de' diti, ^por- 
tano al seso la cagione del loro cotatto ; 

a *I nerui coi loro muscoli servono 
alle corde come i soldati a codottieri , e 
le corde 25 seruono al senso comune come 
i codottieri al capitano ; 26 aduque la givn- 
tura delli ossi obbediscie al neruo -, e ' 1 
neruo al muscolo e '1 muscolo alia corda, 
f 'e la corda al senso comune , e'l seso 
comune e sedia dell' anima , e la memo- 
ria sua 28 munitione e la impress! va 
sua referedaria; 2 9come il senso -serve 
all' anima e no 1* anima al senso , e dove 
maca il senso ofitiale dell' anima 3al- 
1* anima , maca in questa vita -la totalita del- 
1'ufitio -d'esso seso, come appare nel 3'mvto 
e 1' or bo nato. 

ly sounded in the porous cavity of the 
indurated portion of the temporal bone which 
lies within the ear, without making any 
farther transit from this bone to the common 
sense , where the voice confers with and 
discourses to the common judgment. The 
sense of smell, again, is compelled by ne- 
cessity to refer itself to that same judg- 
ment. Feeling passes through the perfo- 
rated cords and is conveyed to this com- 
mon sense. These cords diverge with infi- 
nite ramifications into the skin which encloses 
the members of the body and the viscera. 
The perforated cords convey volition and 
sensation to the subordinate limbs. These 
cords and the nerves direct the motions of 
the muscles and sinews, between which they 
are placed; these obey, and this obedience 
takes effect by reducing their thickness; 
for in swelling, their length is reduced, and 
the nerves shrink which are interwoven among 
the particles of the limbs; being extended to 
the tips of the fingers, they transmit to the 
sense the object which they touch. 

The nerves with their muscles obey the 
tendons as soldiers obey the officers, and the 
tendons obey the Common [central] Sense as 
the officers obey the general. [2 7] Thus the 
joint of the bones obeys the nerve, and the 
nerve the muscle, and the muscle the tendon 
and the tendon the Common Sense. And the 
Common Sense is the seat of the soul [2 8], 
and memory is its ammunition, and the im- 
pressibility is its referendary since the sense 
waits on the soul and not the soul on the sense. 
And where the sense that ministers to the soul 
is not at the service of the soul, all the func- 
tions of that sense are also wanting in that man's 
life, as is seen in those born mute and blind. 

W. An. II. tot 6 (-B-)J 839. 




On invoiun- ^Qucsto chiaramete apparisce , inpero- 


This is most plainly seen; for you will 

. ch& tu vedrai movere ai paraletici e a see palsied and shivering persons move, 

mvne. 12. essaboca . abbia dischorere . al chomune givditio [lodor]. 13. achora . . chostretto a chochorrere. 14. jvditio [il] 
gusto el tatto. 15. II tutto no passa elli per le chorde . . chorde si uano [di]. 16. sprgiedo chon . . ramifichatione inella 
. . circhuda le chorporee. 18. (j nervi] "le corde" . . portano [il sentimento] il chomadameto essentimeto. 19. chorde . . 
musscoli. 20. acquelli . . queli obediscano [chollosco] ettale. 21. chollo schofiare ipero chel . . rachorta . . lungeze ettirasi. 
22. tcssano . partichule. 23. chagione . . chotauo. 24. choi . . mvsscoli . . servno . . chorde chome chodottieri . elle 
chorde. 25. seruano . . chomvne chome i chodoueri al chapitano el seso chomvne serve. 26. [adunque il neruo . serue 
. ai mvsscolo el mvsscoJo). 27. musscholo el mvsscolo . . chorda. 28. ella chorda . . chomvne . . chomvne essedia . . ella 
. . essua. 29. amvnitione . ella inpresiua essua referedaria [e il chore essuoj. 30. chome . . de all . . mlcha. 31. macha 
. . spare. 32. ellorbo. 
39. i. chome. 2. chomadameto. 3. apariiscie inperro . chettu vederai . . fredolleti. 4. chome. 5. chon . . essi . benbri . . 

8^8. The peculiar use of the words nervo, mus- 
ft/a, forda, senso comune, which are here literally ren- 

dered by nerve, muscle cord or tendon and Common 
Sense may be understood from line 27 and 28. 




freddolosi, 4 e assiderati - le loro tremati 
mebra come testa e mani sanza licieza 
dell' anima , la quale 5 anima co tutte - sue 
forze no potra vietare a essi . menbri che 
no tremino; Questo medesimo 6 accade nel 
malcaduco e ne' mebra tagliati come code 
di lucierte ; 7 la idea over imaginatiua e 
timone e briglia de' sensi , imperoche la cosa 
irhaginata 8 move il seso; 9 preimaginare e 
lo imaginare ,le cose che saranno; I0 post- 
imaginare e imaginare le cose passate. 

and their trembling limbs, as their head and 
hands , quake without leave from their soul 
and their soul with all its power cannot prevent 
their members from trembling. The same thing 
happens in falling sickness, or in parts that 
have been cut off, as in the tails of lizards. 
The idea or imagination is the helm and gui- 
ding-rein of the senses, because the thing con- 
ceived of moves the sense. Pre-imagining, is 
imagining the things that are to be. Post-ima- 
gining, is imagining the things that are past. 

Tr. 14. 


4 sono le potentie : memoria e intellet- 
to, lascibili e cocupiscibili, 2 le 2 prime son 
ragionevoli e 1'altre sensuali; 3 I 3 sensi 
vedere, udire, odorato sono di poca pro- 
ibitione , tato e gusto^no ; 1' odorato mena 
con seco il gusto nel cane e altri golosi 

There are four Powers: memory and Misceiiane- 
intellect, desire and covetousness. The two ou i JicaT 10 " 
first are mental and the others sensual. The " 
three senses: sight, hearing and smell cannot 
well be prevented; touch and taste not at 
all. Smell is connected with taste in dogs 
and other gluttonous animals. 

W. A. IV. 


Jo scopro alii omini 1'origine 2 della pri- 
ma o forse secoda cagione del loro essere. 

I reveal to men the origin of the first, 
or perhaps second cause of their existence. 

H.I 32*] 

Lussuria e cavsa della gienera 2 tione. 

3Gola e matenimeto della vita, 
over timore e prolugaSmeto di uita 
6 salvameto \iello strume^to. 


Lust is the cause of generation. 

Appetite is the support of life. Fear 
or timidity is the prolongation of life and 
preservation of its instruments. 

W. An. II. 43,5 (8)] 



II corpo di qualunche cosa la qual si 
nutrica, al continue muore e al continue 
rinasce, perche entrare 5 non puo nutrimeto 
se non in quelli lochi, dove il passato 
6 nutrimeto e spirato, e s'elli e spirato elli 
piu no a 7 V ita, e se tu no li rendi nutri- 
meto equa 8 le al nutrimeto partito, allora 


The body of any thing whatever that The law* of 
takes nourishment constantly dies and is "hTsup^orf 
constantly renewed : because nourishment of Iife 

J J (Q . - Q , 0\ 

can only enter into places where the former 
nourishment has expired, and if it has expired 
it no longer has life. And if you do not 
supply nourishment equal to the nourishment 

trie mino Questo medessi. 6. achade . . mal chaducho . . mebr . . chome chode. 7. e etimone . . inpero chella chosa. 
9. premaginare . . chose . chessaranno. 10. posimaginare . . chose. 

840. i. lascibili e chocupiscibili. 2. ellaltre. 3. de [2] 3 sensi . . vldire . . pocha . . tato. 4. choseco . . chane . . golos. 

841. i. schopro. 2. della loro "prima offorse secodo" sechonda chagione di loro. 
843. i 7 R. I. chausa. 6. delo e saluameto. 

843. i. chorpo . . chontinuo. 2. rinasscie. 3. chosa . . nutricha . . chon. 4. chontinuo rinasscie. 5. senon. 6. esspirato esselli 
he . . no[nuj. 7. [trusscie] vita essectu. 8. mancha. 9. valtudine essettulli . . tuc. 10. ressta desstructa Massettu. n. des- 




la vita manca di su 9 a valetudine, e se tu 
li leui esso nutrimento, la uita in tut'to 
resta distrurta; Ma se tu ne redi tanto 
quanto si "ne distrugge alia giornata, allora 
tanto rinasce di "uita, quanto se ne con- 
suma a similitudine del lume > della can- 
dela col nutrimeto datoli daH'omore ''d'esaa 
candcla, il quale lume ancora lui al con'sti- 
nuo con velocissimo socorso restaura di 
sotto, I6 quato di sopra se ne consuma mo- 
rendo, e di splendi'Ma lucie si convertc 
moredo in tenebroso fumo, la qual I8 morte 
e continua, siccome e cotinuo esso fumo, 
e la c6 I0 tinuit di tal fumo & equale al 
cotinuato nutrimeto, 20 e in instante tutto il 
lume e morto e tutto rigienerato insie 2I me 
col moto del nutrimento suo. 

which is gone, life will fail in vigour, and 
if you take away this nourishment, the life 
is entirely destroyed. But if you restore 
as much is destroyed day by day, then as 
much of the life is renewed as is consumed, 
just as the flame of the candle is fed by 
thi nourishment afforded by the liquid of this 
candle, which flame continually with a rapid 
supply restores to it from below as much as is 
consumed in dying above: and from a brilliant 
light is converted in dying into murky smoke ; and 
this death is continuous, as the smoke is conti- 
nuous;andthe continuance of thesmokeis equal 
to the continuance of the nourishment, and 
in the same instant all the flame is dead and 
all regenerated, simultaneously with the move- 
ment of its own nourishment. 

W. An. III. 241 


TiCome tu ai descritto il re delli ani- 
mali ma io meglio direi dicedo 2 re delle 
bestie essendo tu la maggiore perche non 
li ai uccisi, acci6 che possino poi darti 3]i 
lor figlioli in benifitio della tua gola colla 
quale tu ai te 4 tato farti sepultura di tutti 
li animali, e piu oltre direi, se'l 5 dire il 
uero mi fusse integramete lecito; Ma non 
usciamo 6 delle cose vmane, dicendo vna 
somma scelerata?gine, la qual non accade 
nelli animali terrestri, 8 inperoche in quelli 
no si trovano animali che magino della 
loro 9 S petie se no per macameto di celabro 
(in poche infra loro, e de'ma I0 dri come 
infra li omini, beche no sieno in tato nu- 
mero); "e questo non accade se no nel I2 li 

King of the animals as thou hast de- 
scribed him I should rather say king of 
the beasts, thou being the greatest because 
thou hast spared slaying them, in order that 
they may give thee their children for the 
benefit of the gullet, of which thou hast 
attempted to make a sepulchre for all ani- 
mals ; and I would say still more, if it were 
allowed me to speak the entire truth [5]. But 
we do not go outside human matters in 
telling of one supreme wickedness, which 
does not happen among the animals of the 
earth, inasmuch as among them are found 
none who eat their own kind, unless 
through want of sense (few indeed among 
them, and those being mothers, as with men, 
albeit they be not many in number); and 
this happens only among the rapacious ani- 
mals, as with the leonine species, and leo- 

itruggie . . rinasscie. 12. chonsuma assimilitudine. 13. socto della chandela chol. 14. chandela . . anchora . . chon. 
15. chon velocissimo (vita) "sochorso" . . socto. 16. chonsuma. 17. chonverte . . tenebro. 18. chontinua sichome chon- 
tinno . . ella. 19. chotinuato. 20. e i ni state . . ettutto. 21. chol. 

844. i. isscritto . . ma i . . dirai. 2. bestie "essendo tu la magore" | perche no li ai uticcoche ti possin. 3. figloli . . ai te. 
5. fiuti . . none vsscia. 6. disscendo . . soma issceleratagi. 7. gine . . soma issceleratagi . . achade . . terresri. 8. frova. 
io. numero)e. n. [alcvna volta) ecquesto none achade . . ne. 12. leonina [che sspessa]. 13. si magia che) . . cerveri 

844. We are led to believe that Leonardo him- 
self was a vegetarian from the following interesting 
passage in the first of Andrea Corsali's letters to 
Ginliano de' Medici: Alcuni gentili chiamati Guzzarati 
non si eibano di cosa alcuna cht tenga sangue, ne fra 
esri loro_ comentono che si noccia ad alcuna cosa animata, 
comf il noitro Leonardo da Vinci. 

5 1 8. Amerigo Vespucci, with whom Leonardo 
was personally acquainted, writes in his second 
letter to Pietro Soderini, about the inhabitants of 

the Canary Islands after having stayed there in 1503: 
"Hanno una scelerata liberta di viuere; . ... si eibano 
di carne humana, di maniera che il padre magia il 
figliuolo, et air incontro il figliuolo il padre se^ondo che a 
caso e per sorte auiene. Io viddi vn certo huomo scele- 
ratusimo che si vantaua, et si teneua a non piccola 
gloria di hauer mangialo pA di trecento huomtni. 
Viddi anche vna certa citta, nella quale io dimorai forse 
ventisetle giorni, done le carni humane, hauendole salate, 
eran afficate alii traui, si come noi alii traui di cucina 



animali rapaci, come nella spetie leonina 
X 3e pardi, pardere, cervieri, gatte e simili, 
^liquali alcuna volta si magiano i figlioli; 
ma tu oltre 'Salli figlioli ti magi il padre, 
madre, fratelli e amici, e no l6 ti basta questo, 
che tu vai a caccia per le altrui isole, pi- 
T 7gliando li altri omini e questi mezzo nudi 
il mebro e li testi l8 culi fai ingrassare e te 
li cacci giu per la tua gola; or Z 9non pro- 
duce la natura tati senplici, che tu ti possa 
satia 20 re? e se no ti cotenti de' senplici, 
non puoi tu co la mistio 2I di quelli fare 
infiniti conposti, come scrisse il Platina 22 e 
li altri autori di gola?1 

pards, panthers lynxes, cats and the like, 
who sometimes eat their children; but 
thou, besides thy children devourest father, 
mother, brothers and friends; nor is this 
enough for thee, but thou goest to the chase 
on the islands of others, taking other men 
and these half-naked, the .... and the 
.... thou fattenest, and chasest them down 
thy own throat [i 8]; now does not nature 
produce enough simples, for thee to satisfy 
thyself? and if thou art not content with 
simples, canst thou not by the mixture 
of them make infinite compounds, as Platina 
wrote [21], and other authors on feeding? 

H.2 41 b\ 


Facciamo nostra vita coll' a! 2 trui morte. 

3ln nella cosa morta rima vi^ta dissensata, 
la quale ri s cogiuta alii stomachi de' vi 6 ui 
ripiglia uita sesitiva ?e itellettiva. 

Our life is made by the death of others. 

In dead matter insensible life remains, 
which, reunited to the stomachs of living beings, 
resumes life, both sensual and intellectual. 

s. K. M. m, 


La natura pare qui in moltt 2 o di molti 
animali stata piu pre^sto crudele matrignia 
che ma 4 dre, e d'alcuni no matrignia 5 ma 
pietosa madre. 

Here nature appears with many animals 
to have been rather a cruel stepmother than 
a mother, and with others not a stepmother, 
but a most tender mother. 

C. A. 75 ; 219/5] 


L'omo e li animali sono propi trasito 
e condotto di cibo, sepoltura d' animali 
albergo de' morti, facciedo a se vna 2 del- 
1' altrui morte guaina di corrutione! 

Man and animals are really the passage 
and the conduit of food, the sepulchre of 
animals and resting place of the dead, one 
causing the death of the other, making them- 
selves the covering for the corruption of 
other dead [bodies]. 

chatte essimili. 14. magano i figloli, irattu. 15. figloli. 16. bassta . . chaccia. 17. meznudi. 18. ettelli caccigu. 19. chet- 
tutti. 20. esse no . . poi. 22. elli . . altori. 

845. i 7 R. i. faciano nosstra . . choll. 3. jnella. 4. disensata. 5. stomaci. 7. etellectiva. 

846. i. immolti. 5. piatosa. 

847. i. elli . . propi "trasitoe" chondotto . . morti [animali] faciedo asse. 2. morte [pigliando piacere dellaltri miserie] guaina 
di chorutione. 

appicchiamo le carni di cinghali secche al sole o alfumo, 
et massimamente salsiccie, et altre simil cose: ami si ma- 
rauigliauano grddemete che noi non magiassimo della carne 
de nemici, le quali dicono muouere appetito, et essere di 
maraniglioso sapore, et le lodano come cibi soaui et delicati 
(Leltere due di Amerigo Vespucci Fiorentino drizzate al 

magnifico Pietro Soderini, Gonfaloniere della eccelsa Re- 
publica di Firenze; various editions). 

21. Come scrisse il Platina (Bartolomeo Sacchi, a 
famous humanist). The Italian edition of his trea- 
tise De arte coquinaria, was published under the 
title De la honestra voluptate, e valetudine, Venezia 1487. 




r. .-] 


La morte ne' vecchi sanza febre si causa 
dalle J uene che ua dalla milza alia porta 
del fegaHo e s'ingrossan tanto di pelle 
ch'elle si richiudono e non danno piu 
transito al san*gue che li nutrica. 

6 II continue corso che fa il sangue per 
le sue ?uene fa che tali vene s'ingrossano 
e fanno 8 si callose in tal modo che al 
(4-so)- fine si riserra'no e proibiscono il corso al 

Death in old men, when not from fever, 
is caused by the veins which go from the 
spleen to the valve of the liver, and which 
thicken so much in the walls that they be- 
come closed up and leave no passage for 
the blood that nourishes it. 

[6] The incessant current of the blood 
through the veins makes these veins thicken 
and become callous, so that at last they close 
up and prevent the passage of the blood. 

it t] 


Raggirasi 1'acque con cotinvo moto dal- 
1'infime profondita de' mari alle altissime 
sorhita de' moti, non osseruando 2 la natura 
delle cose graui, e in questo caso fanno 
come il sangue delli animali che sempre si 
Jmoue dal mare del core e scorse alia so- 
mit& delle loro teste, e che quiui roposi le 
uene -, 4 come si uede una vena rotta nel 
naso, che tutto il sangue da basso si leua 
alia altezza della rotta vena; sQ ua ndo 
1'aqua escie dalla rotta vena della terra 
essa osserua la natura delle altre cose piv 
6 gravi che 1'aria, onde senpre cerca i lochi 

The waters return with constant motion 
from the lowest depths of the sea to the 
utmost height of the mountains, not obeying 
the nature of heavier bodies; and in this 
they resemble the blood of animated beings 
which always moves from the sea of the 
heart and flows towards the top of the head; 
and here it may burst a vein , as may be 
seen when a vein bursts in the nose; all the 
blood rises from below to the level of the 
burst vein. When the water rushes out from 
the burst vein in the earth, it obeys the law 
of other bodies that are heavier than the air 
since it always seeks low places. 

W. A. III. 2260 (-M-)l 


Come il sangue che torna indirieto, That the blood which returns when the 

2 quado il core si riapre, non e quel che heart opens again is not the same as that 
^riserra le porte del core. which closes the valves of the heart. 

Bi. M. 147 6] 


Fattevi dare la difinitione e riparo del Make them give you the definition and 

notes casp secondo .... 2 e vedrete che remedies for the case . . . and you will see 

sssT omini son eletti per medici di mala^tie da that men are selected to be doctors for 

loro non conosciute. diseases they do not know. 

848. i. vechi. 2. mua. 3. to singrossan. 4. vdano . . transitu. 5. chelli nutricha. 6. cheffa. 7. chettali . . effan. 8. risera. 
9. proibisscano . . sanghuc. 

849. i. Ragirasi. 2. fa . . animati. 3. move [dal lago] "dal mare" del . . tesste . . echi quiui ropasi. 4. chettutto . . alteza . . 
ve"na". 5. esscie. 6. grave chellaria . cercha. 

830. i. chettorna . . de porte. 

851. i. fatevi . . caso al sco e al. 2. laltro e vedrete. 3. clallor . . conossciute. 

849. From this passage it is quite plain that 
Leonardo had not merely a general suspicion of 
the circulation of the blood but a very clear con- 
ception of it Leonardo's studies on the muscles 
of the heart are to be found in the MS. W. An. III. 
but no information about them has hitherto been 
made public. The limits of my plan in this work 
exclude all purely anatomical writings, therefore 

only a very brief excerpt from this note book can 
be given here. WILLIAM HARVEY (born 1578 and 
Professor of Anatomy at Cambridge from 1615) is 
always considered to have been the discoverer of 
the circulation of the blood. He studied medicine 
at Padua in 1598, and in 1628 brought out his me- 
morable and important work: De motu cordis et 




w. xm<5] 852. 

Medicina da grattature insegniomela 

A remedy for scratches taught me by the 

Paraldo 2 del re di Fracia: oncie 4 ciera Herald to the King of France. 4 ounces of 

nova, ocie 4, 3 pe ce greca, ocie 2 incieso V1 ' r g in wax > 4 ounces of colophony, 2 ounces 

,. f ,. , of incense. Keep each thing separate: and 

e oemi cosa *stia separata, e fondi la ciera, 14 . ,1 j i. f ^ 

& melt the wax, and then put in the incense 

e poi vi metti denstro 1' incieso, e poi la an d then the colophony, make a mixture of 

pece ; fa ne pe 6 verada e metti sopr' al male, it and put it on the sore place. 

Tr. 7] 


H Medicina e ripareggiameto de' disc- Medicine is the restoration of discordant 

quali elemeti; H 2 malattia e discordanza elements; sickness is the discord of the ele- 
d'elemeti ifusi nel uitale corpo. ments infused into the living body. 

Tr. 49] 


A chi da noia il uomito al nauicare 
debba bere sugo 2 d'assetio. 

Those who are annoyed by sickness at 
sea should drink extract of wormwood. 

C. A. 77*5 225*] 55- 

Se vuoi star sano esser a questa nor- To keep in health, this rule is wise: 

ma; 2 no magiar sanza voglia Eat only when you want and relish food. 

3mastica bene; e per quel che niete ritiene, Chew thoroughly that it may do you good. 

4 sia be cotto e di semplice forma; 5 C hi Have it well cooked, unspiced and undis- 

medicina piglia mal s' informa. guised. He who takes medicine is ill advised. 

W. An. Ill, XXV] 


Insegnioti di conse 2 rvare la sanita Ma 
qual cosa tanto 4 piu ti riuscira, s quato piu 
da fisici 6 ti guarder7ai; 8 perche le sue co 
9positioni so I0 di spetie d'al^chimia. 

I teach you to preserve your health; and 
in this you will succed better in proportion as 
you shun physicians, because their medicines 
are the work of alchemists. 

852. 4. sta seperata . . metti\\\\\\. 5. effane. 6. mal. 853. i. riparegiameto. 2. dischordanza. 

854. al womito il nauicare deba. 2. dasentio. 

855. i. uoi strasano. 2. voglia ecci\\\\ ellette. 3. masstica . . ecquel. 4. chotto. 

856. i. e ingegniati. 4. riusscira. 9. positione. 10. spetie dar. 12. ella. 13. qual. 14. noneme. 15. numero. 16. de libri. 
17. che sia dime. 18. dicina. The meaning of these short lines 12 18 is doubtful. 

855. This appears to be a sketch for a poem. 

856. This passage is written on the back of the drawing PI. CVIII. Compare also No. 1184. 



Ever since the publication by Vcnturi in 1797 and Libri in 1840 of some few 
passages of Leonardo's astronomical notes, scientific astronomers have frequently expressed 
the opinion, that they must have been based on very important discoveries, and that the 
great painter also deserved a conspicuous place in the history of this science. In the 
passages here printed, a connected view is given of his astronomical studies as they lie 
scattered through the manuscripts, which have come down to us. Unlike his other pure- 
ly scientific labours, Leonardo devotes here a good deal of attention to the opinions of 
the ancients , though he does not follow the practice universal in his day of relying 
on them as authorities ; he only quotes them., as we shall see, in order to refute 
their arguments. His researches throughout have the stamp of independent thought. 
There is nothing in these writings to lead us to suppose that they were merely an epi- 
tome of the general learning common to the astronomers of the period. As early as 
in the XIV th century tliere were chairs of astronomy in the universities of Padua and 
Bologna, but so late as during the entire XVI th century Astronomy and Astrology were 
still closely allied. 

It is impossible now to decide whether Leonardo, when living in Florence, became 
acquainted in his youth with the doctrines of Paolo Toscanelli the great astronomer 
and mathematician (died 1482), of whose influence and teaching but little is now known, 
beyond the fact that he advised and encouraged Columbus to carry out his project of 
sailing round the world. His name is nowhere mentioned by Leonardo, and from the 
dates of the manuscripts from which the texts on astronomy are taken, it seems higJily 
probable that Leonardo devoted his attention to astronomical studies less in his youth 
than in his later years. It was evidently his purpose to treat of Astronomy in a connected 
form and in a separate work (see the beginning of Nos. 866 and 892; compare also 
No. 1167). It is quite in accordance with his general scientific thoroughness that he should 
propose to write a special treatise on Optics as an introduction to Astronomy (see 
Nos. 867 and 877). Some of the chapters belonging to this Section bear the title 



"Prospettiva" (set Nos. 869 and 870;, this being the tenn universally applied at the 
time to Optics as well as Perspective (see Vol. /, /. 10, note to No. 13, /. iq). 

At the beginning of the XVI* century the Ptolemaic theory of the universe was still 
unh'ersally accepted as the true one, and Leonardo conceives of the earth as fixed, with 
the moon and sun revolving round it, as they are represented in the diagram to No. 897. 
He does not go into any theory' of the motions of the planets; with regard to these and 
ttte fixed stars he only investigates the phenomena of their luminosity. The spherical 
form of the earth he takes for granted as an axiom from the first, and he anticipates 
Newton by pointing out the universality of Gravitation not merely in the earth, but even 
in the moon. Although his acute research into the nature of the moon's light and the 
spots on the moon did not bring to light many results of lasting importance beyond 
making it evident that they were a refutation of the errors of his contemporaries, they 
contain various explanations of facts which modern science need not modify in any 
essential point, and discoveries which history has hitherto assigned to a very muck 
later date. 

The ingenious theory by which he tries to explain the nature of what is known as 
earth shine, the reflection of the surfs rays by tlie earth towards the moon, saying that 
it is a peculiar refraction, originating in the innumerable curved surfaces of the waves 
of the sea may be regarded as absurd; but it must not be forgotten that he had no 
means of detecting the fundamental error on which he based it, namely : the assumption 
that the moon was at a relatively short distance from the earth. So long as the motion 
of the earth round the sun remained unknown, it was of course impossible to form any 
estimate of the moon's distance from the earth by a calculation of its parallax. 

Before the discovery of the telescope accurate astronomical observations were only 
possible to a very limited extent. It would appear however from certain passages in 
the notes here printed for the first time, that Leonardo was in a position to study the 
spots in the moon more closely than he could have done with the unaided eye. So far 
as can be gathered from the mysterious language in which the description of his instru- 
ment is wrapped, he made use of magnifying glasses; these do not however seem to have 
been constructed like a telescope telescopes were first made about 1600. As LIBRI 
Pointed out (Histoire des Sciences mathematiques ITT, 101) Fracastoro of Verona 
( ! 473~ J 553) succeeded in magnifying the moon's face by an arrangement of lenses 
(compare No. 910, note), and this gives probability to Leonardo's invention at a not much 
earlier date. 


Kr. M. 


Linia d'equalita, 2 linia dell'orizzote, 
3 linia giacete, ^linia equigiacete; 

sQueste linie so quelle 6 che con sua 
stremi so 7 equidistant! al ce 8 tro del mondo. 

The equator, the line of the horizon, the The earth's 
ecliptic, the meridian: pl C ri v se he 

These lines are those which in all their parts ( 8 H- 8 s 8 )- 
are equidistant from the centre of the globe. 

F. 41 


Come la terra non e nel mezzo del 
cerchio del 2 sole, ne nel mezzo del modo, 
ma e ben nel mez^zo de' sua elemeti, con- 
pagni e vniti co lei, e chi 4stesse nella luna, 
quad'ella insieme col sole Se sotto a noi, 
questa nostra terra coll' ele 6 mento dell' acqua 
parrebbe e farebbe ofitio tal 7q U al fa la 
luna a noi. 

The earth is not in the centre of the 
Sun's orbit nor at the centre of the universe, 
but in the centre of its companion elements, 
and united with them. And any one standing 
on the moon, when it and the sun are both 
beneath us, would see this our earth and the 
element of water upon it just as we see the 
moon, and the earth would light it as it lights us. 

Br. M. 151 a] 


La forza da carestia o douitia e gie- Force arises from dearth or abundance; The funda- 

nerata; 2 questa e figliola del moto materi- it is the child of physical motion, and^- 6 "^ 1 s ^ 

ale e nepote 3 del moto spirituale , e madre the grand-child of spiritual motion, and system 

e origine del peso; 4 e esso peso e finite the mother and origin of gravity. Gravity 59 ~ 

nell'elemeto dell' acqua e terra, 5 e essa is limited to the elements of water and 

857. 2. dorizote. 6. che cho. 7. nequidistante. 

858. i. mezo. 2. mezo. 4. stessi. 5. essotto annoi . . nosta. 6. acq"a" parebbe effarebe. 7. annoi. 

859. i. odouitia. 2. effigliola . . enepo. 4. chesso . . heffinito . . ettera. 5. chessa . . he. 6. mouerebbe . . potessi. 7. hessa 

859. Only part of this passage belongs, strictly the second paragraph is more directly connected with 
speaking, to this section. The principle laid down in the notes given in the preceding section on Physiology. 



r86o. 86 1. 

forza -e infinita, perche con essa infiniti 
* modi si mouerebbero , se strumeti farsi 
potessero, 7 doue essa forza gienerare si 


8 La forza col moto matenale e 1 peso 
colla percussione 'son le quattro accidetali 
potetie, collequali tuttel'opere lo de' mor- 
tali anno loro essere e lor morte; 

11 La forza dal moto spirituale a ori- 
gine; il quale moto, "scorredo per le mebra 
degli animali sensibili , ingrossa 3j muscoh 
di quelli-, onde ingrossati essi muscoh si 
ue'^gono a raccortare e trarsi dirieto i nervi 
die con essi 'Sso cogiunti , e di qui si causa 
la forza per le mebra umane. 

16 La qualita e quatita delle forze d'uno 
uomo potra ^partorire- altra forza-, la quale 
sara proportio l8 nevolmete tanto maggiore 
quato essa sara di piv ^lugo moto, 1'una 
che 1'altra. 

earth; but this force is unlimited, and 
by it infinite worlds might be moved if 
instruments could be made by which the 
force could be generated. 

Force, with physical motion, and gra- 
vity, with resistance are the four exter- 
nal powers on which all actions of mortals 

Force has its origin in spiritual motion; 
and this motion, flowing through the limbs 
of sentient animals, enlarges their muscles. 
Being enlarged by this current the muscles 
are shrunk in length and contract the tendons 
which are connected with them, and this is 
the cause of the force of the limbs in man. 

The quality and quantity of the force 
of a man are able to give birth to other 
forces, which will be proportionally greater 
as the motions produced by them last 

Br. M. 1750) 


H peso o perche non resta nel suo 
sitor 2 non resta perche non a rcsistetia; 
e do^de si movera? Moverassi inverse il 
centre; e perche no per altre linie? per- 
che 5 il peso, che non a resistentia, discien- 
dcra 6 in basso per la uia piv brieve, e '1 
piu bas?so sito e il cietro del mondo; e 
perche lo sa 8 cosl tal peso trovarlo con 
tanta breuita? 9 perche non va come insen- 
sibile prima I0 vagando per diverse linie. 

Why does not the weight o remain in its 
place? It does not remain because it has no 
resistance. Where will it move to? It will 
move towards the centre [of gravity]. And 
why by no other line? Because a weight 
which has no |support falls by the shortest 
road to the lowest point which is the centre 
of the world. And why does the weight know 
how to find it by so short a line? Because it 
is not independant and does not move about 
in various directions. 

K. 2*1] 


Movasi la terra da che parte voglia, 
2 mai la superfitie dell'acqua uscira fori 
della ^sua spera, ma senpre 
sara equidistante al ^centro del 
mondo ; 

slDato che la terra -si ri- 
movessi dal centro 6 del mon- 
do, che farebbe l'acqua?1 

7 Resterebbe intorno a esso 
centro 8 con equal grossezza, 
ma minore diami r) tro, che 
quando ella auea la terra in 

Let the earth turn on which side it may 
the surface of the waters will never move 
from its spherical form, but will 
always remain equidistant from 
the centre of the globe. 

Granting that the earth might 
be removed from the centre of 
the globe, what would happen 
to the water? 

It would remain in a sphere 
round that centre equally thick, 
but the sphere would have a 
smaller diameter than when it 
enclosed the earth. 

. . poUrssi. 9. quatro. 10. ellor. 12. scoredo. 13. musscoli di quelle . . musscoli. 14. gano aracortare. 16. ecquatila 

. . homo. 18. magiorc. 19. luna ccllaltra. 

860. 4. cientro he. 8. chon. 9. perche nonva come [in gi] insensibilc prima. 10. vagando per diuerse linie. 
Ml. a. acq"a" Ylcira. 5. chella. 6. cheffarebbe. 

860. This text and the sketch belonging to it, 
are reproduced on PL CXXI. 

861. Compare No. 896, lines 48 64; and 
No. 936. 




F. ii &\ 862. 

Se la terra delli antipodi che sostiene 
2 Poceano s'inalzasse' e si scoprisse assai 

Supposing the earth at our antipodes 
which supports the ocean were to rise and 

3fori d'esso mare, essendo quasi pia*na, in stand unc vered, far out of the sea, but 

che modo sarebbe poi eol tepo 
li moti e le valli. 

6 E li sassi di diuerse falde? 


remaining almost level,, by what means 

afterwards, in the course of time, would 
mountains and vallies be formed? 

And the rocks with their various strata? 

Tr. 28] 


Ogni omo senpre si troua nel mezzo 
del modo e sotto il mezzo 2 del suo emi- 
sperio, e sopra il cietro d'esso modo. 

Each man is always in the middle of the 
surface of the earth and under the zenith of 
his own hemisphere, and over the centre of 
the earth. 

Leic. i a] 


Ricordo come io ho in prima a dimo- 
2 strare la distantia del sole dalla terra, 3 e con 
u de' sua razzi passati per ispi 4 racolo in loco 
oscuro ritrovare Ma sua quatita vera, e oltre 
a 6 di questo per lo mezzo della spera del 
7 P acqua ritrovare la gradezza della terra. 1 

8 Qui si dimostra come, quasdo il sole 
e nel mezzo del nostro I0 emisperio, che li 
antipodi IX oriental! cogli occidentaliue I2 dono 
in un medesimo tenpo cias I3 cun per se 
spechiare il sole nelle ^loro acque, e '1 
simile quelli del po is lo artico col antartico, 
se abi l6 tatori ui sono. 

Mem.: That I must first show the distance 
of the sun from the earth; and, by means 
of a ray passing through a small hole into 
a dark chamber, detect its real size; and 
besides this, by means of the aqueous sphere 
calculate the size of the globe . . . 

Here it will be shown, that when the sun 
is in the meridian of our hemisphere [io], the 
antipodes to the East and to the West, alike, 
and at the same time, see the sun mirrored in 
their waters; and the same is equally true of 
the arctic and antarctic poles, if indeed they 
are inhabited. 

C. A. 

5; 345^1 

Come la terra e una stella. 

F. 56 a] 

86 5 . 


That the earth is a star. 

How to 

prove that 

the earth is 

a planet 


Tu nel tuo discorso ai a cocludere 2 la In your discourse you must prove that the 

terra essere vna stella quasi simile alia earth is a star much like the moon, and the 

luna, 4 e la nobilta del nostro modo; glory of our universe; and then you must 

sE cosl farai vn discorso delle gra 6 dezze treat of the size of various stars, according 

di molte stelle, secodo li autori. to the authors. 

862. i. sella. 2. sinalzassi . . scoprissi essi. 5. elle. 6. elli. 863. i. mezo . . essotto il mezo. 

864. i. chome . . in p"a" a dimo. 2. disstantia. 3. razi. 4. rachulo illocho osscuro. 6. mezo. 7. gradeza. 8. dimosstra chome. 
9. mezo . . nosstro. io. emissperio chelli antipodi di. n. horientali. 12. gano nun. 13. scun. 14. acque . . quelgli. 
15. articho chol antarticho. 

865. R. 866. i. tutto tuo discorsa a co cludere. 3. luna [e cosi proverra], 6. altori. 

864. io. II. Antipodi orientali cogli ocddentali, is used as meaning men living at a distance of 90 

The word Antipodes does not here bear its literal degrees from the zenith of the rational horizon of 

sense, but as we may infer from the simultaneous each observer, 
reference to inhabitants of the North and South 





Jlnprima definisci Fochio, poi mostra 
come il battere d'alcuna stella viene dal- 
1'ochio, e perche il battere sd'esse stelle e 
piu nell'una che nell'altra, e come li 6 razzi 
delle stelle nascono dall'ochio, e di, che 
se '1 batte?re delle stelle fusse come pare 
nelle stelle, che tal baftimeto mostra d'essere 
di tanta dilatatione, quat'e <>il corpo di 
tale stella; essendo aduque maggiore della 
ter'ra che tal moto fatto in istante sarebbe 
troppo veloce "a raddoppiare la gradezza 
di tale stella; Di poi pro l2 va come la super- 
fitie dell'aria ne' co- 
fini del foco, e ^la 
superfitie del foco nel 
suo termine e quel I4 la, 
nella qual penetrado 
li razzi solari portano 
la '5 similitudine di corpi 
celesti grade nel lor 
Ieua l6 re, e pero e pic- 
cola, essendo esse nel mezzo del celo ; 
'7 sia la terra a \ n d m sia l8 la superfitie 
dell'aria che ^confina colla spera del 
20 foco; h f g sia il corso 2I della luna o 
vuoi del sole; "dicoche quado il sole ap- 
pari 2 3sce al'orizzote g, che 11 sono ueduti 
24 li sua razzi passare per la superfitie 
*s dell'aria infra agoli inequali cioe o m, 
il che non e in d k, e acora 26 passa per 
maggiore grossezza d'aria; tutto e m e 
aria piu spessa. 



First describe the eye; then show how 
the twinkling of a star is really in the eye 
and why one star should twinkle more than 
another, and how the rays from the stars 
originate in the eye; and add, that if the 
twinkling of the stars were really in the stars 
as it seems to be that this twinkling appears 
to be an extension as great as the diameter 
of the body of the star; therefore, the star 
being larger than the earth, this motion 
effected in an instant would be a rapid 
doubling of the size of the star. Then 
prove that the surface 
of the air where it lies 
contiguous to fire, and the 
surface of the fire where 
it ends are those into 
which the solar rays 
penetrate, and transmit 
the images of the heav- 
enly bodies, large when 
they rise, and small, when they are on 
the meridian. Let a be the earth and n d m 
the surface of the air in contact with the 
sphere of fire ; h f g is the orbit of the 
moon or, if you please, of the sun; then I 
say that when the sun appears on the hori- 
zon g, its rays are seen passing through the 
surface of the air at a slanting angle, that 
is o m; this is not the case at d k. And 
so it passes through a greater mass of air; 
all of e m is a denser atmosphere. 


Infra 'I sole e noi e tenebre, e 
The pnn- F aria pare azzurra. 

ciples of 


pero Beyond the sun and us there is darkness 

and so the air appears blue. 





2 Possibile e fare che Fochio no uedra 
3 le cose remote molto diminuite, come fa 

It is possible to find means by which 
the eye shall not see remote objects as much 

867. 3. difinissci. 4. picne . . il bat. 6. razi . . nassca . . e di chessel bate. 7. fussi . . tal ba. 9. magor. 10. istante sare trovo 
veloce. n. radopiare la gradeza. 12. foco el. 15. Ha superfitie . . focho . . ecquel. 14. razi . . portata. 16. eppero e 
pichole . . mezo. 20. foco. 21. della nuna ouoi. 22. apari. 23. orizote g chele veduto. 24. raii. 25. coe o m il ce non 
. . acora. 26. magore grosseza. 

868. ellenchrt . . azura. 

869. i. proupytiva. 2. he fare chellochio . . uedera. 3. chome ffa. 4. presspcttiva naturale |le spe] le. 5. le dimin;iisschano. 

868. Compare Vol. I, No. 301. 




4 la prospettiva naturale, le quali sdiminui- 
scono mediante la curuita del 6 Pochio, che 
e costretto a tagliare sopra di ^ se le pira- 
midi di qualunche spetie che viene al 8 ochio 
infra angoli retti sperici; Ma ^I'arte, che 
io insegnio qui in margine, ta I0 glia 
esse piramidi con angoli ret xi ti vi- 
cino alia superfitie di tal popilla; 
Ma I2 la convessa popilla dell'occhio 
piglia sopra r ^di se tutto il nostro 
emisperio, e que I4 sta mostrera solo 
una stella; ma doue I5 molte pic- 
cole stelle si ricevono per similitu l6 dine 
nella superfitie della popilla, ^le quali 
stelle son minime, questa di l8 mostrera vna 
sola stella, ma fia grade; ^E cosl la luna 
di maggiore gradezza, e le su 20 e macule 
di piu nota figura; A questo 2I nostro ochio 
si debbe fare v uetro pieno di 22 quell' acqua 
di che si fa metione 2 3nel 4 del libro 113 
delle cose naturali, 24 la quale acqua fa 
parere spogliate di 2 5vetro quelle cose 
che son congielate ne! 26 le palle del uetro 


28 Infra li corpi minori della popilla del- 
P ochio 2 9quella fia manco nota a essa po- 
pilla, 3 la quale le sara piu vicina || E con 
questa ^sperietia ci si e fatto noto che la 
virtu visiva no 3 2 si riducie in puto perche 
se la ecc. ; 

33Leggi I margine. 

3 4 Quella cosa si ^dimostra maggi 36 ore, 
che uiene 37 all' ochio co piu 38 grosso angolo. 

39 Ma le spetie delli ob 4 bietti, che co- 
cor 4I rono alia popilla 42 dell' ochio, si con- 
paH^tono sopra tal popi 44 lla nel medesimo 
4 5modo, ch'elle son c6 46 partite infra 1'aria; 
4 ?e la prova di ques 48 to e in se 4 9guito; 
quado noi 5riguardiamo il 51 cielo stellate 
5 2 sanza por la ui53sta piu a una stella 
che all'altra, ss c he allora ci si mo5 6 stra il 
cielo semina57to di stelle, e so pro s8 portio- 
nate nell' ochio 59 S iccome lo sono in 6o cielo, 
e cosl li loro 6l spati fanno il simile. 

diminished as in natural perspective, which 
diminishes them by reason of the convexity 
of the eye which necessarily intersects, 
at its surface, the pyramid of every image 
conveyed to the eye at a right angle on its 
spherical surface. But by the method 
I here teach in the margin [9] these 
pyramids are intersected at right 
angles close to the surface of the 
pupil. The convex pupil of the eye 
can take in the whole of our hemi- 
sphere, while this will show only a 
single star; but where many small stars trans- 
mit their images to the surface of the pupil 
those stars are extremely small; here only 
one star is seen but it will be large. And 
so the moon will be seen larger and its 
spots of a more denned form [20]. You must 
place close to the eye a glass filled with the 
water of which mention is made in number 
4 of Book 113 "On natural substances" [2 3]; 
for this water makes objects which are en- 
closed in balls of crystalline glass appear 
free from the glass. 


Among the smaller objects presented to 
the pupil of the eye, that which is closest to 
it, will be least appreciable to the eye. And 
at the same time, the experiments here made 
with the power of sight, show that it is not 
reduced to speck if the &c.[32]. 

Read in the margin. 

[34] Those objects are seen largest which 
come to the eye at the largest angles. 

But the images of the objects conveyed 
to the pupil of the eye are distributed to 
the pupil exactly as they are distributed in 
the air: and the proof of this is in what 
follows; that when we look at the starry sky, 
without gazing more fixedly at one star than 
another, the sky appears all strewn with stars; 
and their proportions to the eye are the same 
as in the sky and likewise the spaces between 
them [6 1 ]. 

6. chosstretta attagliare. 7. piramide . . spetie viene. 8. llochio . . angholi. io. Ha [le] esse piramide chon angholi. 
12. delloccio pigli. 13. mostro omissperio ecques. 14. mossterra. 15. pichole . . riciev. 16. popille [qir]. 17. stielle . . 
quista e di. 18. mossterra . . maffia. 19. chosi . . magiore gradeza elle. 20. machule. 22. acqua [che] di . . metione [de], 
23. chose. 24. aqua. 25. chose chesson. 26. crisstallino. 28. Infralli chorpi. 29. mancho. 29. a essa [ochu] popilla. 
30. chon questa [no]. 31. ci se . . chella. 32. sella. 33. [Quella u]. 34. chosa. 35. dimosstra magi. 37. cho. 38. grosse 
anghole. 39. Malle setie. 40. biecto che chochor. 41. rano. 42. chonpa"r". 43. tano. 45. cho. 46. infrallari"a". 47. ella. 
48. sto [cm] cie inse. 49. quasa quado. 50. righuardiamo. 52. la ui. 53. ta. 58. ochi"o". 59. si chomelle. 60. chosi. 

869. 9. 32. in margine: lines 34 6 1 are, in the 
original, written on th'e margin and above them is 
the diagram to which Leonardo seems to refer 

20 and fol. Telescopes were not in use till a 
century later. Compare No. 910 arid page 136. 

23. libro 113. This is perhaps the number of a 
book in some library catalogue. But it may refer, 
on the other hand, to one of the 120 Books men- 
tioned in No. 796. 1. 84. 

32. Compare with this the passage in Vol. I, 
No. 52, written about twenty years earlier. 




F. 6o*| 



'Delle cose remosse dall'ochio con e- 
quale di'stantia, quella parra esser me di- 
min'vita che prima era piu. 

s Delle cose remosse dall'ochio con 
equal distantia dal lor prime sito quella 
me diminuisce ?che prima era piu distante 
da esso ochio; E tal 8 fia la proportione 
della diminuitione, qual fu ?la proportione 
delle distantie ch' esse avea da 10 !' ochio auanti 

11 loro moto. 

"Come dire il corpo / e '1 corpo c e 

12 che la proportio delle lor distantie dal- 
l'ochio a I:J 6 qultupla; io rimovo ciascu 
dal suo sito I4 e lo fo piu distante dal- 


Among objects moved from the eye at 
equal distance, that undergoes least .dimi- 
nution which at first was most remote. 

When various objects are removed at equal 
distances farther from their original position, 
that which was at first the farthest from the eye 
will diminish least. And the proportion of the 
diminution will be in proportion to the 
relative distance of the objects from the eye 
before they were removed. 

That is to say in the object / and the objects 
the proportion of their distances fromtheeyeais 
quintuple. I remove each from its place and set 
it farther from the eye by one of the 5 parts 

1' ochio vno d'essi 5' in che e 'sdiuisa la 
propositione; accade duque che il piu vicino 
l6 all' ochio avra doppiata la distantia, e per 
la penulti'^ma di questo esso e diminuto 
la meta del suo tutto, I8 e '1 corpo e per 
lo medesimo moto e diminuito l / 5 ^d'esso 
suo tutto; aduque per la, detta penultima 
20 & vero quel che in questa vltima s'e pro- 
posto; 2I e questo dico per li moti de' corpi 
celesti "in 3500 miglia di distatia che piv 
esse 2 3do in oriete che sopra di noi, non 
crescono o diminuiscono 2 *con sensibile 

into which the proposition is divided. Hence 
it happens that the nearest to the eye has 
doubled the distance and according to the 
last proposition but one of this, is diminished 
by the half of its whole size; and the body 
e, by the same motion, is diminished T /s of 
its whole size. Therefore, by that same 
last proposition but one, that which is said 
in this last proposition is true; and this I 
say of the motions of the celestial bodies 
which are more distant by 3500 miles when 
setting than when overhead, and yet do not 
increase or diminish in any sensible degree. 

Br. M. 174*1 

8 7 I. 

a b k lo spiraculo donde 2 passa il sole, 
e se tu poHessi misurare la grossezza de' 
*razzi solari in n m, tu poHresti por bene 
le uere linie 6 del concorso d'essi razzi solari, 
7 stante lo spechio in a b, e 8 poi fare i 

a b is the aperture through which the 
sun passes, and if you could measure the 
size of the solar rays at n m, you could 
accurately trace the real lines of the conver- 
gence of the solar rays, the mirror being at 
a b, and then show the reflected rays at 

870. i. prespcctiva. 2. remosse "dallochio" (dellor sito cone] quala di. 4. che p"a"era . . 5. chon . . dis. 6. p"o"sito qualla 
. . diminuissce. 7. che p"a" . . Ettal. io. iloro. n. corpo e che e. 12. chella. 13. ciasscu del. 14. ellolofo . . inche. 
>5- ' a P r "ne" achade . . che piu. 16. ara dopiato. 20. preposto. 21. ecquesto . . celestiche. 22. [1500 in] 3500 . . 
dutati.i cheli a piv. 23. crescano o diminuiscano. 

871. i. ellotspirnculo. 2. esettu. 3. grossezza. 4. razi. 6. razi. 7. lo-spcchio. 8. rai-i refressi. io. chettu uoli poi torre 

872. 873-J 



razzi reflessi infra a9goli equali 
inuerso n m I0 ma poi che tu 
vuoi torre in ". m togli den- 
tro allo spiracu I2 lo in c d che 
si possan misura I3 re nella per- 
cussione del razzo solare, ^e 
poi poni il tuo spechio nella 
dista^tia a b , e 11 fa cadere i 
razzi d b, c a; poi l6 risaltare 
infra angoli equali in uer I7 so 
c d- e questo e il uero modo; 
18 ma ti bisognia operare tale 
spe^chio nel medesimo mese 
e medesi 20 mo dl e ora e puto, 
e fara meglio 2I che di nessu 
tempo, perche in tal distantia 
22 di sole si causp tal pi- 

equal angles to n m; but, as 
you want to have them at n m, 
take them at the inner side of the 
aperture at cd, where they maybe 
measured at the spot where the 
solar rays fall. Then place your 
mirror at the distance a b, making 
the rays d b } c a fall and then 
be reflected at equal angles to- 
wards c d] and this is the best 
method, but you must use this 
mirror always in the same 
month, and the same day, and 
hour and instant, and this will 
be better than at no fixed time 
because when the sun is at a 
certain distance it produces a 
certain pyramid of rays. 


a parte del corpo 6 2 broso n vede 
la pa'rte dell' emisferio b c d e f 4 e 
vede parte alcuna sdella oscurita 
terra; 6 e '1 simile accade nel 
punto o; adunque lo spatio a 
e 7 tutto d' una medesima 
chiarezza, in s vede sol 4 gra- 
8 di delF emisperio d e f g Ji-, 
e vi vede tutta la terra ^s k 
che la fa piu oscura quato 
dara la calculatione. 


no ui 


a, the side of the body in light and 
shade ;/, faces the whole portion of the 
hemisphere be d e f, and does not face any 
part of the darkness of the earth. 
And the same occurs at the 
point o', therefore the space a 
o is throughout of one and the 
same brightness, and s faces 
a only four degrees of the hemi- 
sphere d e f g A, and also the 
whole of the earth .$ h, which 
will render it darker; and how much must 
be demonstrated by calculation. 

A. 64 6} 



3 Alcuni matematici dimostrano il sole 
cresciere nel ponete , perche 1' ochio sepre 
lo uede per aria di maggiore grossezza, 
4 allegado che le cose uiste nella- nebbia e 
nel acqua pajono maggiori: ai quali io 
rispodo di no, inperoche le cose viste Ifra la 


Some mathematicians explain that the sun 
looks larger as it sets, because the eye always 
sees it through a denser atmosphere, alleging 
that objects seen through mist or through 
water appear larger. To these I reply: No; 
because objects seen through a mist are 

xi. allosspiracu. 12. chessi. 13.' razo. 15. elli . . razi; in the margin: "d b" c a. 17. ecquesto. 18. matti. 20. eflfara. 

872. i. in a. 5. asscurita. 6. achade . . losspatio a . o . ed. 9. chella . . osscura. 

873. i. dellacresscimeto. 2. inel ocidete. 3. raria . . magiore grosseza. 4. alegado chelle chose . . nebia | "e nel acq*" paro 

872. This passage, which has perhaps a doubt- 
ful right to its place in this connection, stands in 

the Manuscript between those given in Vol. I as 
No. 117 and No. 427. 



[8 74 . 8 75 . 

nebbia so simiMi per colorc alle lotane , e 
non cssendo siniili per diminvitione appari- 
scono di maggiore gradezza; Ancora nes- 
suna cosa crescie-in acqua-piana, e la 
pruova ne farai a lucidare vn asse niczza 
sotta Pacqua; Ma la ragione che '1 sol 
7crescie-si e che | Ogni corpo luminoso 
quato piv s'allotana, piv pare grade. 

II libro mio s'astede a mostrarc, 2 come 

On the 1'ocea colli altri mari ifa mediate il sole 

o'f'i^i^nhsplede're il nostro modo a modo sdi luna 

in the uni- e a p j u rc moti pa"re stclla e questo 

venal (pace 

(874-878). provo; 

?Dimostra prima come ogni lume 
remote da'll'ochio fa razzi, li quali pare 
che accrescino la figu^ra di tal corpo 
luminoso e di questo ne segui I0 ta 
che 2 

"Luna frigida I2 e vmida. 

'^L'acqua e frigi I4 da e vmida; '5 tale 
influeti' 6 a da il nostro '7 mare alia Iu l8 na 
qual la luna ' 9 a noi. 

similar in colour to those at a distance; but 
not being similarly diminished they appear 
larger. Again, nothing increases in size in 
smooth water; and the proof of this may be 
seen by throwing a light on a board placed half 
under water. But the reason why the sun looks 
larger is that every luminous body appears 
larger in proportion as it is more remote. 

In my book I propose to show, how the 
ocean and the other seas must, by means of 
the sun, make our world shine with the appear- 
ance of a moon, and to the remoter worlds 
it looks like a star; and this I shall prove. 
Show, first that every light at a di- 
stance from the eye throws out rays 
which appear to increase the size of the 
luminous body; and from this it follows 
that 2 . .[10]. 

[n]The moon is cold and moist. 
Water is cold and moist. Thus our 
seas must appear to the moon as the moon 
does to us. 

Br.'M. 25 a] 875. 

L'onde dell'acqua crescono il simulacro 
della cosa che 2 in lor si specchia. 

J a sia il sole, n 
m sia 1'acqua in 6- 
data, b e '1 simula- 
cro 4 del sole, quan- 
do 1'acqua no fusse 
inondata ; f sia 1' o- 
chio s che uede esso 
simulacro in tutte 
1'onde che si rin- 
chiudo 6 no nella basa 
del triangolo c e f; 
adunque il sole 7 che 
nella superfitie sanza 
onde occupava 1'ac- 
qua c d, ora 8 nella superfitie inondata occupa 
tutta 1'acqua c e (come 'prouato nel 4 

The waves in water magnify the image 
of an object reflected in it. 

Let a be the sun, 
and n m the ruffled 
water, b the image 
of the sun when the 
water is smooth. Let 
f be the eye which 
sees the image in all 
the waves included 
within the base of 
the triangle c e f. 
Now the sun reflec- 
ted in the unruffled 
surface occupied the 
space c d, while in 

the ruffled surface it covers all the watery 
space c e (as is proved in the 4 th of my 

magiorc . . llcchose . . nebia. 5. le per cholore ale . . esendo simile . . aparischano . . magiore gradeza Anchora ncsuna 
chosa. 6. acq"a" . . meza . . lacq"a" Malta. 7. cresscie . . chorpo. 

874. i. libro mio (il is Aianting). 5. e "a" pill. 6. ecquesto. 7.0111 lume. 8. razi . . acresscino. u.fregida. 13. Lacq"a". 15. infrueti. 

875. i. aq"a" crcsscano. 2, sisspechia. 3. lacq"a". 4. lacq"a" . . fussi. 5. chessi rinchiuda. 7. ocupava lacq"a" . . or"a". 

873. Lines 5 and 6 are thus rendered by M. 
RAVAISSON in his edition of MS. A. "De memt, au- 
cune chose ne croit dans I'tau plane, et tu en /eras 
^experience en calquant un ais sous 1'eau." Compare 
the diagrams in Vol. I, p. 114. 

874. 10. Here the text breaks off; lines n and 
fol. are written in the margin. 

875. In the original sketch, inside the circle in 

the first diagram, is written Sole (sun), and to the 
right of it luna (moon). Thus either of these 
heavenly bodies may be supposed to fill that space. 
Within the lower circle is written simulacro (image). 
In the two next diagrams at the spot here marked 
L the word Luna is written, and in the last sole is 
written in the top circle at a. 




della mia prospettiva), e tanto piu occupe- 
I0 rebbe d' acqua quanto esso simulacro fusse 
piu distate dal'ochio. 

"Ill simulacro del sole si dimostrera 
piv lucido nell'onde mi I2 nute che nelle onde 
grandill; E questo accade perche le simili- 
^tudini over simulacri del sole sono piu 
spesse nell'onde minute I4 che nelle grandi, 
e li piu spessi splendori rendono maggiore 
I5 lume che li splendori piu rari. 

16 L' onde intersegate a uso di scorza di 
pigna rendono il si^mulacro del sole di 
grandissimo splendore, l8 e questo accade 
perche tanto son li simulacri quanto son 
li gio T 9ghi del' onde vedute dal sole, e 

"Perspective") [9] and it will cover more of 
the water in proportion as the reflected image 
is remote from the eye[io]. 

The image of the sun will be more 
brightly shown in small waves than in large 
ones and this is because the reflections or 
images of the sun are more numerous in the 
small waves than in large ones, and the more 
numerous reflections of its radiance give a 
larger light than the fewer. 

Waves which intersect like the scales of 
a fir cone reflect the image of the sun with 
the greatest splendour; and this is the case 
because the images are as many as the 
ridges of the waves on which the sun 


1' onbre che infra esse onde s' inter 20 pongono 
son piccole e di poca oscurita, e li splen- 
dori di tanti 2I simulacri insieme s'infondono 
nelle similitudini che di lor 22 viene alPochio, 
in modo tale che esse obre sono insen- 
sibili ; H 

2 3Q.uel simulacro del sole occupera 
2 *piu lochi nella superfitie dell' acqua, che 
2 Ssara piu distante dall'ochio che lo uede; 

26 a sia il sole, p q e il simulacro d'esso 
27 sole, a b e la superfitie dell' acqua doue 
il sol 28 si spechia, r sia 1'ochio che uede 
esso si 29 mulacro nella superfitie dell' acqua 
occupare 3\o spatio m; c e I'occhio 
piu remoto 3 'da essa superfitie dell' acqua, 
e cosl dal simulacro, onde esso simulacro 
32 occupa maggiore spatio d' acqua, quato 
e lo spatio n <?. 

shines, and the shadows between these waves 
are small and not very dark; and the radiance 
of so many reflections together becomes 
united in the image which is transmitted to 
the eye, so that these shadows are imper- 

That reflection of the sun will cover most 
space on the surface of the water which is 
most remote from the eye which sees it. 

Let a be the sun, / q the reflection of 
the sun; a b is the surface of the water, in 
which the sun is mirrored, and r the eye 
which sees this reflection on the surface of 
the water occupying the space o m. c is the 
eye at a greater distance from the surface 
of the water and also from the reflection; 
hence this reflection covers a larger space of 
water, by the distance between n and o. 

8. ochupa. 9. prosspectiva) ettanto . . ochupe. 10. dacq"a" . . fussi. n. dimosterra. 12. achade chelle. 13. tudine. 
14. elli . . rendan magore. 15. chelli. 16. disscorsa di pina rendano [loss] il si. 17. plendore [e chiareza]. 18. ecquesto 
achade. 19. ellonbre. 20. pongono . . pichole . . pocha osscurita elli. 21. sinfondano . . similitudine. 23.. sole [se] 
ochupera. 25. chel uede. 27. ella. 28. sisspechia. 29. acq"a" ocupare. 30. Losspatio . . elloccio. 32. ochupa magore 
. . elio. 

9. Nel quarto della mia prospettiva. If this reference 

is to the diagrams accompanying the text as is 

usual with Leonardo and not to some particular 

work, the largest of the diagrams here given 

VOL. 11. 

must be meant. It is the lowest and actually the 
fifth, but he would have called it the fourth, for the 
text here given is preceded on the same page of 
the manuscript by a passage on whirlpools, with 





Br. M. <! 

jpossibile e 'che tanHo quato il sole 
allumina dello spechio sperico, state 
d'esso spechio ab 6 bia a risplendere, ?se gia 
esso spechio *non fusse odate o globulc^to; 

10 Vedi qui il so'Me allumina 12 re la luna, 
s'Jpecchio spcri^co, e tan'Ho quato es l6 so 
sole ne I7 uede, tato ne l8 fa spledere; 

Qui si concludera che cio che della 
luna "'splende e acqua simile a quella deg- 
2I li nostri mari, e cosl inodata, cio "che 
di lei non splende sone isole e ter^ra 


It is impossible that the side of a sphe- 
rical mirror, illuminated by the sun, should 
reflect its radiance unless this mirror were 
undulating or filled with bubbles. 

You see here the sun which lights up the 
moon, a spherical mirror, and all of its surface, 
which faces the sun is rendered radiant. 

Whence it may be concluded that what 
shines in the moon is water like that of our 
seas, and in waves as that is; and that 
portion which does not shine consists of is- 
lands and terra firma. 

2 Questa dimostratione di tanti corpi 
sperici interposti infra 1'ochio 2 Se '1 sole e 
fatta per mostrare che, siccome in ciascuno 
d'essi 26 corpi si uede il simulacro del sole, 
cosl si puo vedere esso simulacro in cia- 
2 ?scuna globosita dell'onde del mare; come 
in molti di questi sperici si 28 uedono molti 
soli, cosl in molte onde si uedono molti 
lustri, li quali in molta 2 9distanzia, ciascu 
lustro per se, si fanno gradi all' ochio e, cosl 
faciedo ciascu^ na onda, si uengono a con- 

This diagram, of several spherical bodies 
interposed between the eye and the sun, is 
given to show that, just as the reflection of the 
sun is seen in each of these bodies, in the 
same way that image may be seen in each 
curve of the waves of the sea ; and as in 
these many spheres many reflections of the 
sun are seen, so in many waves there are 
many images, each of which at a great distance 
is much magnified to the eye. And, as 
this happens with each wave, the spaces 

876. i. he [chcllol spechio]. 2. consperico possa] chettan. 4. spericho ta. 6. rissplendere. 7. ga. 8. fussi odate o globbule. 
ij. echio. 14. cho ettan. 19. che co che. 20. acqui . . acquella de. 21. ecco. 22. etter. 24. sperichi. 25. sole [no] 
efiatta per mosstrarc [come] che si come in ciasscuno. 26. po . . in ca. 27. globbosita . . mare c . me. 28. uede . . uede 
lusstri. 29. ciasscu lusstro . . fa grande . . ciasscu. 30. lesspati . . infrallonde. 31. cagone. 32. elle pane onbro. 33. che- 
ttale . . none e . . in esc. 

the diagram belonging to it also reproduced here. 
The words della mia prospettiva may therefore indi- 
cate that the diagram to the preceding chapter 
treating on a heterogeneal subject is to be excluded. 
It is a further difficulty that this diagram belongs 
properly to lines 9 10 and not to the preceding 

sentence. The reflection of the sun in water is 
also discussed in the Theoretical part of the Book 
on Painting; see Vol. I, No. 206, 207. 

876. In the original, at letter A in the dia- 
gram "Sole" (the sun) is written, and at o 
(the eye). 

8;;. 878.] 



sumare gli spati interposti infra 1' onde, 3* e 
per questa tal cagione e' pare tutto vn 
sole continuato nelli molti soli s^spechiati 
nelle molte onde, e le parti onbrose miste 
colle spetie luminose 33 fan che tale splen- 
dore non e lucido come quel del sole in 
esse ode spechia^to. 

interposed between the waves are concealed; 
and, for this reason, it looks as though the 
many suns mirrored in the many waves were 
but one continuous sun; ' and the shadows, 
mixed up with the luminous images, render 
this radiance less brilliant than that of the 
sun mirrored in these waves. 

F. 77 6] 


Questa avra inazi a se il trattato de 
2 onbra e lumi. 

3 Li stremi della luna 
sara piu alluminati e si 
dimostre 4 ran piu lumino- 
si, perche in quelli non 
appare se no le so- 
Smita dell' ode delle sue 

This will have before it the treatise on 
light and shade. 

The edges in the 
moon will be most strong- 
ly lighted and reflect most 
light, because, there, no- 
thing will be visible but 
the tops of the waves of 
the water [5]. 

W. X] 

II sole parira 
maggiore nell' ac- 
qua movente e 
odeggiate 2 che nel- 
la ferma: esemplo 
del lume visto so- 
pra le corde 3 del 


The sun will ap- 
pear larger in mov- 
ing water or on 
waves than in still 
water; an example 
is the light reflected 
on the strings of a 

877. i. ara . . asse. 2. ellumi. 3. dimoste. 4. apare. 

878. r. magiore . . odegiato. 2. essenplo . . chorde. 

877. 5. I have thought it unnecessary to re- reflection on waves contained in the passage which 
produce the detailed explanation of the theory of follows this. 






2 Se guarderai le stelle sanza razzi (come 

The question si fa a vedcr^lc per un piccolo foro fatto 

aL^of'Ihe c N a strema P ata da ^ a sottile aguglia, 

apparent e questo posto quasi a toccare 1'ochio), 

""suL' 1 * 6 5 tu uedrai esse stelle essere tanto minime 

(879-884). c j ie nu i6i a cosa p are essere minore, e uera- 

mete la luga di 7 statia le fa ragionevol- 

mente diminuire, ancorache 8 moltevisono 

che son moltissime volte maggiori che la 

'Stella cioe la terra coll' acqua ; ora pensa 

quel che par I0 rebbe essa nostra stella in 

tata distantia, e conside"ra poi, quate stelle 

si metterebbero e per longitudine e la I2 ti- 

tudine infra esse stelle, le quali sono semi- 

na'^te per esso spatio tenebroso; mai no 

posso fare z +ch'io non biasimi molti di 

quelli antichi, li quali disse'Sro che '1 sole 

non avea altra gradezza che quella che 

l6 mostra, Tfra quali fu Epicure, e credo 

che caua'^si tale ragione da vn lume posto 

in questa nostra a l8 ria, equidistate al cetro; 

chi lo uede, non lo uede mai di^minuito 

di gradezza in nessuna distatia; e le ragi- 


If you look at the stars, cutting off the rays 
(as may be done by looking through a very 
small hole made with the extreme point of 
a very fine needle, placed so as almost to 
touch the eye), you will see those stars so 
minute that it would seem as though nothing 
could be smaller; it is in fact their great 
distance which is the reason of their dimi- 
nution, for many of them are very many 
times larger than the star which is the earth 
with water. Now reflect what this our star must 
look like at such a distance, and then con- 
sider how many stars might be added both 
in longitude and latitude between those stars 
which are scattered over the darkened sky. 
But I cannot forbear to condemn many of the 
ancients, who said that the sun was no larger 
than it appears; among these was Epicurus, 
and I believe that he founded his reason on the 
effects of a light placed in our atmosphere 
equidistant from the centre of the earth. 
Any one looking at it never sees it dimini- 
shed in size at whatever distance; and the rea- 

879. i. lalde. 2. ra/i. 3. picholo. 4. acuchia ecque posto . . attocare. 6. lugha dis. 7. statin dnlloro ragionevolc diminuire 
nc anchora che. 8. magore chella. 9. coe . . aq"a" . . che pa. n. metterebbe e per . . clla. 14. quali disc. 15. no 
chel sole . . gradeza. 16. mostra [alia] Ifra. 18. noluede. 19. minuto . . gradeza inessuna . . elle. 

879882. What Leonardo says of Epicurus lestial phenomena , he probably derived from Book 

who according to LEWIS, The Astronomy of the X of Diogenes Laertius, whose Vitae Philosofhorum 

ancients, and MADLER, Gcschichte der Himmelskunde, was not printed in Greek till 1533, but the Latin 

did not devote much attention to the study of ce- translation appeared in 1475. 

88o. 88 1.] 





oni della sua grandezza e virtu le riser uo 
nel Z 4 libro; ma be mi maraviglio che 
Socrate biasi^masse questo tal corpo, e che 
dicesse quello esse 4 re a similitudine di pie- 
tra infocata, e certo, chi si' oppose di tal 
errore poco pecco; Ma io vorrei 6 avere 
vocabuli che mi seruissero a biasimare quel- 
?li che vogliono laudare piu lo adorare li 
omini che 8 tal sole, no uededo nell' uniuerso 
corpo 9di maggiore magnitudine e virtu di 
quello; e '1 I0 suo lume allumina tutti li corpi 
celesti che per l'u lj ni verso si copartono; 
tutte 1'anime discedono da lui, I2 perch e il 
caldo ch' e in nelli animali viui vie dall' ani- 
J 3 me, e nessuno altro caldo ne lume e 
nelP u I4 niverso, come mostrero nel 4 libro, 
e cier^to costoro che anno voluto adorare 
uomimi per i dei l6 come Giove Saturno 
Marte e simili anno fatto gra^dissimo errore, 
vededo che ancorache 1' omo fus l8 se grande 
quato il nostro modo, che parrebbe simple 
a vna minima stella, la qual pare vn puto 
nell' uni 20 verso, e ancora vedendo essi omini 
mortali e 2I putridi e corruttibili nelle lor 

22 Luspera(?) 23 e Marcello 2 *lauda co 
m 25 olti altri 26 esso sole. 

sons of its size and power I shall reserve 
for Book 4. But I wonder greatly that Socra- 
tes [2] should have depreciated that solar bo- 
dy, saying that it was of the nature of incan- 
descent stone, and the one who opposed him 
as to that error was not far wrong. But I only 
wish I had words to serve me to blame those 
who are fain to extol the worship of men more 
than that of the sun; for in the whole universe 
there is nowhere to be seen a body of greater 
magnitude and power than the sun. Its light 
gives light to all the celestial bodies which are 
distributed throughout the universe; and from 
it descends all vital force, for the heat that is in 
living beings comes from the soul [vital spark] ; 
and there is no other centre of heat and light 
in the universe as will be shown in Book 4 ; and 
certainly those who have chosen to worship 
men as gods as Jove, Saturn, Mars and the 
like have fallen into the gravest error, seeing 
that even if a man were as large as our earth, 
he would look no bigger than a little star 
which appears but as a speck in the universe; 
and seeing again that these men are mortal, 
and putrid and corrupt in their sepulchres. 
Marcellus [23] and many others praise 
the sun. 



Forse Epicuro vide le obre delle colonne 
ripercosse nelli an 2 tiposti muri essere equali 
al diametro della colona ^donde si parti a 

Epicurus perhaps saw the shadows cast by 
columns on the walls in front of them equal 
in diameter to the columns from which the 

880. i. grandeza. 3. massi. .dicessi. 4. assimilitudine. 5. loponi . . erore . . pecho. 6. seruissino abbiasimare que. 7. che vollo 
laldare. 9. magore. n. copartano . . disceda dallui. 12. inelli. 13. nellume enellu. 14. mosterro. 15. che an . . ho- 
mini . . iddei. 16. gove saturno marte essimili an. 17. che anchorachellomo fu. 18. si grande . . parebe. 19. stela. 
21. pitridi e curuttibili. Lines 22 26 are written on the -margin. 22. luspera (?). 24. lalda. 

881. i. ripercose. 2. diametro. 3. esendo . . paralella. 5. gudicare. 6. fussi. 8. colona . . sauide. n. fussi . ..lesstelle. 12. sarebo. 

880. 2. Socrates; I have little light to throw on 
this reference. Plato's Socrates himself declares on 
more than one occasion that in his youth he had 
turned his mind to the study of celestial pheno- 
mena (MeT^wpa) but not in his later years (see G. 
C. LEWIS, The Astronomy of the ancients, page 109; 
MADLER, Geschichte der Hintmelskunde, page 41). 
Here and there in Plato's writings we find inci- 
dental notes on the sun and other heavenly bodies. 
Leonardo may very well have known of these, since 
the Latin version by Ficinus was printed as early 
as 1491; indeed an undated edition exists which 
may very likely have appeared between 1480 90. 

There is but one passage in Plato, Epinomis 
(p. 983) where he speaks of the physical properties 
of the sun and says that it is larger than the earth. 

Aristotle who goes very fully into the subject 
says the same. A complete edition of Aristotele's 
works was first printed in Venice 1495 9^> but a 
Latin version of the Books De Coelo et Mundo and 
De Physica had been printed in Venice as early as 
in 1483 (H. MULLER-STRUBING). 

23. I have no means of identifying Marcello who 
is named in the margin. It may be Nonius Mar- 
cellus, an obscure Roman Grammarian of uncertain 
date (between the II nd and V th centuries A. C.) the 
author of the treatise De compendiosa doctrina per 
litteras ad filium in which he treats de rebus omni- 
bus et quibusdam aliis. This was much read in the 
middle ages. The editio princeps is dated 1470 (H. 

881. In the original the writing is across the diagram. 




talc obra ; essendo adunque il coco'rso del- 
1'obre paralello dall'suo nascimeto al suo 
fine, Mi parue da giudicare che '1 sole an- 
6 cora lui fusse frote di tal paralePlo, e per 
cosegueza non essere piv gros 8 so di tal 
colonna, e no s'avvidc che tal 'diminuitione 

shadows were cast; and the breadth of the 
shadows being parallel from beginning to 
end, he thought he might infer that the sun 
also was directly opposite to this parallel 
and that consequently its breadth was not 
greater than that of the column; not perceiv- 
ing that the diminution in the shadow was 

d'obra era insesibile I0 per la lunga distan- 
tia del sole; "se '1 sole fusse minore della 
terra, le stelle I2 di gra parte del nostro 
emisperio sarebbero sa'^za lume; cotro a 
Epicure che dice, tato e ^grade il sole, 
quato e'pare. 

insensibly slight by reason of the remoteness 
of the sun. If the sun were smaller than 
the earth, the stars on a great portion of our 
hemisphere would have no light, which is 
evidence against Epicurus who says the sun 
is only as large as it appears. 



Dice Epicure il sole essere tato quato 
esso si dimostra; a 2 dunque e'pare essere 
vn pie, e cosl 1'abbiamo a tenere; ^segui- 
rebbe che la luna quad'ella fa oscurare il 
sole, il so 4 le non 1'avazerebbe di gradezza 
come e' fa, onde, sendo s la luna minor del 
sole, essa luna sarebbe meno d'un piede, 
6 e per consegueza quando il nostro modo 
fa oscurare la lu?na, sarebbe minore a un 
dito del piedi, concio sia se '1 so 8 le e un 
piede, e la nostra terra fa onbra piramidale 
in^verso la luna, egli e necessario che sia 
maggiore il lumi I0 noso, causa della pira- 
mide obrosa, che 1'opaco, causa d' essa "pi- 

Epicurus says the sun is the size it looks. 
Hence as it looks about a foot across we 
must consider that to be its size; it would 
follow that when the moon eclipses the sun, 
the sun ought not to appear the larger, as 
it does. Then, the moon being smaller than 
' the sun, the moon must be less than a foot, 
and consequently when our world eclipses 
the moon, it must be less than a foot by a 
finger's breadth ; inasmuch as if the sun is a foot 
across, and our earth casts a conical shadow 
on the moon, it is inevitable that the lumi- 
nous cause of the cone of shadow must be 
larger than the opaque body which casts the 
cone of shadow. 

88a. 2. labia r,o attcnere. 3. seguirebe chella. 4. nollauazerebbe . . gradeza chome. 5. medun piedi. 6. chonsequeza . . osscurar. 
\ 7. concosia. 8. piedi ella. 9. luna "la" egli . . magore. 10. caua della. 



F. 10 6} 

88 3 . 

; nel 

Misura quati soli si metterebbero 
corso suo di 24 ore. 

3 Fa vn circulo e voltalo a mezzodl, 
come so ^H orilogi da sole, e metti vna 
-bacchetta in s mezzo, in modo che la sua 
lughezza si di 6 rizzi al cetro di tal cerchio, e 
nota I'on7bra che fa il sole d'essa bacchetta 
sopra la 8 circuferentia di tale cerchio, che 
sara 9l' O nbra larga, diciamo tutto a n; ora 
I0 misura quante volte tale obra entra in 
11 tale circuferetia di cerchio, e tate vol I2 te 
fia il numero che '1 corpo solare 
entrera nel ^corso suo in 24 ore; 
e qui si potra J +vedere, se Epi- 
curo disse, che '1 sole era ^tanto 
grande quato esso parea | che, pa- 
I6 rendo il diametro del sole vna misura 
X 7pedale, e che esso sole entrasse mille 
18 volte nel suo corso di 24 ore, egli avre- 
J 9bbe corso mille piedi, cioe 300 'braccia 
che 20 e vn sesto di miglio; ora ecco che 
'1 cor 21 so del sole infra dl e notte sarebbe 
22 la sesta parte d' u miglio , 2 3 e questa 
venerabile lumaca del s6le av 2 -*rebbe cami- 
nato 25 braccia per ora. 

To measure how many times the diameter 
of the sun will go into its course in 24 hours. 
Make a circle and place it to face the south, 
after the manner of a sundial, and place a 
rod in the middle in such a way as that its 
length points to the centre of this circle, 
and mark the s.hadow cast in the sunshine 
by this rod on the circumference of the 
circle, and this shadow will be let us say 
as broad as from a to n. Now measure 
how many times this shadow will go into 
this circumference of a circle, and 
that will give you the number of 
times that the solar body will go 
into its orbit in 24 hours. Thus 
you may see whether Epicurus was 
[right in] saying that the sun was only as large 
as it looked; for, as the apparent diameter 
of the sun is about a foot, and as that sun 
would go a thousand times into the length of 
its course in 24 hours, it would have gone a 
thousand feet, that is 300 braccia, which is the 
sixth of a mile. Whence it would follow that 
the course of the sun during the day would be 
the sixth part of a mile and that this venerable 
snail, the sun will have travelled 25 braccia 
an hour. 

F. o"] 


Possidonius copose libri della gradezza Posidonius composed books on the size 

del sole. of the sun. 

G. 34 ] 885. 



3 Che '1 sol sia in se caldo per natura 
e no per vir*tu, si dimostra manifestamete 

That the heat of the sun resides in its f the nature 

, -,, r j t f Sunlight. 

nature and not in its virtue [or mode of 

883. i. metterebbe. 3. mezodi. 4. dassole . . bnchetta. 5. mezo . . chella. 5. lugeza. 6- rizi. 7. cheffa. 8. cercio chessara. 

9. largha. n. ettate. 12. il n"o" chel . . entera. 13. ecqui. 16. diamitro. 17. entrassi. 18. egliare. 19. coe 300 br . 

che. 20. miglo ora e che chel corso. 21. serebbela. 22. minato la sesta. 23. che questa . . lumacha del sole a. 24. rebe 

. . 25. br per. 
885. i 47 R. i. gradeza. 4. manifestameti. 5. sprendore. 6. po. 8. razi refre. 9. delli. n. eldore chellochio nol possa 

884. Poseidonius of Apamea, commonly called 
the Rhodian, because he taught in Rhodes, was a 
Stoic philosopher, a contemporary and friend of 
Cicero's, and the author of numerous works on 
natural science, among them: Ouotxoi; Xoyo;, 
Trepl x.oay.ou, Tispl jxeTscupoav. 

Strabo quotes no doubt from one of his works, 
when he says that Poseidonius explained how it 
was that the sun looked larger when it was rising 
or setting than during the rest of its course (III, p. 135). 

Kleomedes, a later Greek Naturalist also mentions 
this observation of Poseidonius' without naming the 
title of his work; however, as Kleomedes' Cyclia 
Theorica was not printed till 1535, Leonardo must 
have derived his quotation from Strabo. He pro- 
bably wrote this note in 1508, and as the original 
Greek was first printed in Venice in 1516, we must 
suppose him to quote here from the translation by 
Guarinus Veronensis, which was printed as early as 
1471, also at Venice (H. MULLER-STRUBING). 



[886. 887. 

per Mo splendore del corpo solare, nel 
*qual no si pud fermare 1'ochio vmano, 
?e oltre a di questo manifestissima 8 mcte 
lo dimostrano li sua razzi refte'ssi dalli 
spechi concavi, li quali, qua'do la lor per- 
cussione sara di tato sp"lendore, che 
1'occhio non lo possa soppo I2 rtare, allora 
cssa percussione '^avra splendore simile al 
sole nel 'suo propio sito; e che sia vero, 
pro'Svo che se tale spechio a la sua ^co- 
ca vita tal qual si richiede alia ^generatione 
di tale razzo, allora l8 nessuna cosa creata 
reggera I9 alla caldezza di tale percussione 
zo di razzo reflesso d'alcuno spechio; 2I e se 
tu dirai che lo spechio anco 22 ra lui e freddo 
e gitta i razzi caldi, io 2 Jti rispondo, che 
'1 razzo vie dal sole ed e 2 *il razzo 2 sdello 
spec a6 chio conca 2 ?vo, passa z8 to 2 ?a traver- 
3so della J'finestra. 

action] is abundantly proved by the radiance 
of the solar body on which the human eye 
cannot dwell and besides this no less 
manifestly by the rays reflected from a con- 
cave mirror, which when they strike the eye 
with such splendour that the eye cannot bear 
them have a brilliancy equal to the sun in 
its own place. And that this is true I prove 
by the fact that if the mirror has its con- 
cavity formed exactly as is requisite for the 
collecting and reflecting of these jrays, no 
created being could endure the heat that 
strikes from the reflected rays of such a 
mirror. And if you argue that the mirror 
itself is cold and yet send forth hot rays, 
I should reply that those rays come really 
from the sun and that it is the ray of the 
concave mirror after having passed through 
the window. 

tions as lo 
the size of 
the sun 


W. L. 132*] 

II sole no si move. 

Ash. I. 190] 



The sun does not move. 




4 Se il sole adopera il suo splendore col 
suo cietro 5 a fortificare la potetia di tutto 
il corpo, e ne 6 ciessario che i 
sua razzi, quato piv s' alontanano 
da lui, piv si uadino 7 apredo :' se 
cosl e, tu che sei col ochio presso 
all'acqua che spechia il sole, 
8 vedi una minima parte de' razzi 
del sole portare sulla superfitie 
9 del'acqua la forma d'esso sole 
spechiato , e se tu sarai presso 
al sole, I0 come sarebbe quado 
il sole e I mezzodl e '1 mare 
sia per ponete, ved"rai il sole 
spechiarsi su detto mare di gradis- 

[4] If it is from the centre that the sun em- 
ploys its radiance to intensify the power of its 
whole mass, it is evident that the 
farther its rays extend, the more 
widely they will be divided; and 
this being so, you, whose eye is 
near the water that mirrors the sun, 
see but a small portion of the rays 
of the sun strike the surface of 
the water, and reflecting the form 
of the sun. But if you were near to 
the sun as would be the case 
when the sun is on the meridian 
and the sea to the westward you 
would see the sun, mirrored in the 

sopo. 12. percussione ar. 13. ara. 15. va chesse tale . . alia. 17. razo. 18. regiera. 20. refresso. 21. essettu . . chello. 

22. fredo . . razi. 23. razo. 24. razo. 28. to [per il fo]. Lines 32 47 are much effaced and some words remain doubtful: 

32. delle stan (?). 33. cedove. 34. so tundu (?). 35. si\\\\\\\\\\. 36. non aqst ( aguistera >). 37. caldeza ne. 38. an- 

cora \\U\\\\. 39. passado per la. 40. spera del co. 41. simulacro. 42. alia su. 43. a cavsa e. 44. passi per ele. 45. meto 
(?) pa. 46. tar si TO. 47. glia. 

M6. El sol. 

8*7. . razi . . para magiore. 4. splendre. 5. a forzifichato dala . . chorpo. 6. razi. 7. che se chol . . preso. 8. vedi i . 

parte (del sole] de razi . . sula. 9. esse tussarai. io. sarebe . . mezodi . . vede. 12. razi. 13. perco . . magiore 

886. This sentence occurs incidentally among mathematical notes, and is written in unusually large letters. 

887. Lines 4 and fol. Compare Vol. I, Nos. 130, 131. 




sima forma, perche, I2 essedo tu piu presso 
al sole-, 1'ochio tuo, pigliado i razzi presso 
al puto, I3 ne piglia piv, e percio ne resulta 
maggiore spledore, e per questa ca^gione 
si potrebbe provare la luna essere mare 
che spe I5 chia il sole , e quello che no ri- 
splede fia terra. 

sea, of a very great size; because, as 
you are nearer to the sun, your eye taking in 
the rays nearer to the point of radiation 
takes more of them in, and a great splendour 
is the result. And in this way it can be 
proved that the moon must have seas which 
reflect the sun, and that the parts which do 
not shine are land. 

Br. M. 7 8i] 888. 

Togli la misura 2 del sole in solstitio Take the measure of the sun at the sol- 

3 a mezzo giugnio. stice in mid- June. 

A. 64 a] 



3(3gni corpo ch'e 
visto per curvo mezzo 
4apparisce di maggiore 
forma, che non e. 

C. A. 234-5; 704*] 890. 

Perche 1'ochio e piccolo, esso non puo 
vedere 2 il sole in simvlacro, se no piccolo ; 
^Se 1'occhio fusse equale al sole, esso 
vedrebbe ^nell'acque, dato che le fussi 





Every object seen 
through a curved me- 
dium seems to be of lar- 
ger size than it is. 

Because the eye is small it can only see 
the image of the sun as of a small size. If 
the eye were as large as the sun it would 
see the image of the sun in water of the 

Spiane, il simulacro del sole equa 6 le al same size as the real body of the sun, so 

uero corpo del sole. 

Tr. 12] 


2 Tolli vna carta 
e falle busi con una 
agucchia, e per es^si 
busi riguarda il sole. 

long as the water is smooth. 


Take a piece of pa- 
per and pierce holes in 
it with a needle, and 
look at the sun through 
these holes. 



4. potrebe. 15. ecquella. 

. to la. 2. sostitio. 3. [a me] stitio a mezo gugnio. 

magiore. 2. megogorno checepresso. 3. chorpo .. . churvo mezo. 4. aparisscie di magiore. 
. picholo . . po. 2. dere il . . picholo. 3. Sellochio fussi. 4. aque . . chelle. 
. da vedere. 2. charta . . chon aguchia epere. 

889. At A is written sole (the sun), at B terra (the earth). 




Br. M. 94 



2 Volendo io trattare della essentia della 
On the l u na e neciessario in prima 3 descriuere la 

luminosity . .... .... 

of the moon prospcttiva delli spechi piani, cocaui e co- 

(8oa-ooi). r f , , . 

uessi ; ' e pnma che cosa e razzo lummoso, 
e come si piega per varie nature $di mezzi; 
Dipoi dove il razzo riflesso e piu potete, 


As I propose to treat of the nature of 
the moon, it is necessary that first I should 
describe the perspective of mirrors, whether 
plane, concave or convex; and first what 
is meant by a luminous ray, and how it is 
refracted by various kinds of media; then, 
when a reflected ray is most powerful, whether 

o nell'esser 1'angolo 6 della incidentia acuto 
retto o ottuso, o nelle couessita o piano o 
7 c6cavita, o da corpo deso e trasparete; 
Oltre a-questo, 8 come li razzi solari, che 
percuotono 1'onde marine, si dimostrano al 

when the angle of incidence is acute, right, 
or obtuse, or from a convex, a plane, or a 
concave surface; or from an opaque or a 
transparent body. Besides this, how it is that 
the solar rays which fall on the waves of 
the sea, are seen by the eye of the same 

899. 2. tr.ict.ire. 3. desscriuere . . presspectiva . . cochaui e chouissi [e che]. 4. chosa errazzo . . chotne . . piegha. 5. mezi 
. . refresso cppitt potete o nell esser lato. 6. achuta retta o hottusa ho . . pioni ho. 7. chochavita adda chorpo . . ettras- 
parete . . addiquesto. 8. (home li razi . . perchotano. 9. llochio . . largheza . . aghol . . soma. io. orizote . . macha 
chettalc. ti. frcsso . . fighura . . chosseghuc. 12. disstatia . . largheza achora. 13. nosstro . . dimosstri parallel.!. 15. he 

892. In the diagram Leonardo wrote sole at the place marked A. 




9 1'ochio in tanta larghezza nell'agolo dell'o- 
chio quanto nell' ultima somma I0 dell' ode 
all'orizzote, e per questo no maca che 
tale splendore solare ri^flesso dall'ode ma- 
rittirne no sia di figura piramidale e per 
consegue I2 za in ogni grado di distatia non 
acquisti gradi di larghezza acorache I3 in- 
quato al nostro vedere si dimostri pa- 

^i a 1Nessu lievissimo ^e opaco;! 

l6 2 a 1fNessu piu lieve sta X 7sotto al me 
lieve ; 1 

l8 3 a liSe la luna a sito ^in mezzo ai 
sua ele 20 meti o no; 

21 e s'ella non a sito 22 particulare co- 
23 me la terra nelli sua 2 4elemeti, per- 
che no ca 2 sde al cientro de' nostri 26 ele- 

2 ?E se la luna non e 28 in mezzo alii 
sua eleme 2 9ti e no discede, 3 aduque ella 
e piu 3 1 lieve che altro eleme" 32 to; 

33 E se la luna e piu Iie 34 ve che altro 
elemeto, per 3 Sche e solida e no traspare. 

36 lDelle cose di varie gradezze che, 
poste in varie distatie, 37 si mostrano e- 
quali, tal proportione fia da distatia a 
dista 38 tia, qual fia da magnitudine a mag- 
nitudine. II 

width at the angle nearest to the eye, as at 
the highest line of the waves on the horizon; 
but notwithstanding this the solar rays re- 
flected from the waves of the sea assume the 
pyramidal form and consequently, at each 
degree of distance increase proportionally in 
size, although to our sight, they appear as 

i st . Nothing that has very little weight is 

2 dly . Nothing that is excessively weight 
can remain beneath that which is heavier. 

3 dly . As to whether the moon is situated 
in the centre of its elements or not. 

And, if it has no proper place of its 
own, like the earth, in the midst of its ele- 
ments, why does it not fall to the centre of 
our elements [2 6] ? 

And, if the moon is not in the centre 
of its own elements and yet does not fall, it 
must then be lighter than any other element. 

And, if the moon is lighter than the other 
elements why is it opaque and not transparent? 

When objects of various sizes , being 
placed at various distances, look of equal 
size, there must be the same relative proportion 
in the distances as in the magnitudes of the 

F. 93 a] 



2 II simulacro del sole in lei e potete- 
men 3 te luminoso ed e in piccola parte della 
su*a superfitie; E la prova vedrai a torSre 
vna palla d'oro brunito, posta ne! 6 le tene- 
bre, con vn lume da lei remoto, ?il quale 
ancorache esso allumini circa 8 la meta d' essa 
palla, 1'ochio non lo uede, se no 9 in piccola 
parte della sua superfitie, e tut I0 to il resto 
di tal superfitie spechia le tenebre "che 
la circudano, e per questo in lei solo appa- 
I2 risce il simulacro del lume e tutto il re I3 sto 
rimane invisibile, stando 1'ochio remo^to 
da tal palla; Questo medesimo interue- 
"Srrebbe nella superfitie della luna, essendo 
po l6 lita, lustra e densa, come son corpi 
che spe T 7chiano; 


The image of the sun in the moon is 
powerfully luminous, and is only on a small 
portion of its surface. And the proof may 
be seen by taking a ball of burnished gold 
and placing it in the dark with a light at 
some distance from it; and then, although 
it will illuminate about half of the ball, the 
eye will perceive its reflection only in a small 
part of its surface, and all the rest of the surface 
reflects the darkness which surrounds it; so 
that it is only in that spot that the image of the 
light is seen, and all the rest remains invisible, 
the eye being at a distance from the ball. The 
same thing would happen on the surface of the 
moon if it were polished, lustrous and opa- 
que, like all bodies with a reflecting surface. 

oppacho. 18. sella . . assito. 20. onno. 21. essella. 22. partichulare cho. 24. cha. 25. nosstri. 27. essella. 28. imezzo. 
29. dissciede. 30. eppiu. 33. essella . . eppiu. 35. solita . . trasspare. 36. delle chose . . gradezze [chessendo] posste. 
37. disstatia adissta. 

893. i. esselle. 2. illei. 3. picliola. 4. attor. 6. dallei. 8. noluede. 9. pichola . . ettu. n. chella circuda . . illei . . apa. 
12. ettutto. 14. dattal. 15. rebe. 16. lusstra . . chesspe. 19. settu. 21. ini. 24. pa. 27. cheffa. 30. col inel si. 34. po. 

26. The problem here propounded by Leonardo formulated the law of universal attraction and gravi- 
was not satisfactorily answered till Newton in 1682 tation. Compare No. 902, lines 5 15. 

I 5 6 


[8 94 . 895. 

18 Prova tu ''come, se tu *stessi nella 
"luna oin una "Stella, *Ma nostra a nerra 
ti jjar'Jra far Pu' 6 fitio col so 2 ?le che fa la 

a E prova Jcome in nel si^'mulacro 
J'del sole nel "mare no 34p U 6 parere ^ 5 vn 
sole co- 6 me pare in u^no spechio pi3 8 ano. 

Show how, if you were standing on the 
moon or on a star, our earth would seem to 
reflect the sun as the moon does. 

And show that the image of the sun in 
the sea cannot appear one and undivided, 
as it appears in a perfectly plane mirror. 

Ath. I. io<) 


Come 1'onbre si cofondono per iQnga 
distatia, * si prvova nel' obra della luna che 
in.ii Jsi vede. 

How shadows are lost at great distances, 
as is shown by the shadow side of the 
moon which is never seen. 

Br. M. 280] 


O la luna a lume da se 2 o no; s'ell' a 
lume da se, per^che non risplende sanza 
Paiuto del sole? 
e s'ella s n on a 
lume da se, ne- 
cies 6 sita la fa spe- 
chio sperico; ?e 
se ella e spechio, 
non e prova 8 to 
in prospettiua 
Hche '1 sinVula- 
cro d'unoobbiet- 
to Iumi 10 noso no 
sara mai equale 
alia "parte di 
quello specchio 
che da esso lu- 
minoso e ' ^illu- 
minate ?He secosl 
e, come 'Jmostra 
qui la figura in r 
s, do'^de uie 
tanta quantita di 
splendo'Sre che a 
il plenilunio, che 
noi ve l6 diamo 
nella quinta deci- 
ma della '7 luna? 

Either the moon has intrinsic luminosity 
or not. If it has, why does it not shine without 

the aid of the sun? 
But if it has not 
any light in itself 
it must of neces- 
sity be a spherical 
mirror ; and if it 
is a mirror, is it 
not proved in Per- 
spective that the 
image of a lumi- 
nous object will 
never be equal to 
the extent of sur- 
face of the reflec- 
ting body that it 
illuminates ? And if 
it be thus [13], as 
is here shown at 
r s in the figure, 
whence comes so 
great an extent of 
radiance as that 
of the full moon 
as we see it, at the 
fifteenth day of 
the moon? 

J5. vn sole. 36. pare nti 37. no spechio. 38. anano. 

894. i. chofondono. 2. dela. 

895. i. Olla . . allume dasse. 2. onno. 3. risplde. 4. essella. 6. dasse. 8. essello spechio. 9. prosspecdva. 13. parte "di 
quello spechio" che . . he. 13. esse. 

894. Compare also Vol. I, Nos. 175 179. 

95- 13- At A, in the diagram, Leonardo wrote "sole" (the sun), and at B "luna o noi terra" (the moon 
or our earth). Compare also the text of No. 876. 




Br. M. 




2 La luna non a lume da se, se no 
quato ne vede il sole tanto 1'allumina, 
3 della qual luminosita tanto ne vediamo 
quato e quella che vede noi; ^E la sua 
notte ricieve tanto di spledore, quato e 
quello che li preSstano le nostre acque nel 
refletterli il simulacro del sole , che in 
6 tutte quelle che vedono il sole e la luna, 
si spechia; 1 La pelle over superfitie del- 
1' acqua, di che si copone il mare della luna 
e il 8 mare della nostra terra, e senpre 
rugoso, 9o poco o assai, o piu, o meno, e 
tale rugosita e cavsa di dila I0 tare 1'innu- 
merabili simulacri del sole, che nei colli e 
cocavita e la 1 Hi e froti delle innumerabili 
rughe si spechiano, cioe in tati vari siti di 
ciascuna 12 ruga quato son vari li siti che 
anno li ochi che le vedono, jl che ac^ca- 
dere no potrebbe, se la spera dell' acqua, 
che I gra parte di se veste la ^luna fusse 
d'uniforme spericita, perche allora il simu- 
lacro del I5 sole sarebbe uno a ciascuno 
occhio, e la sua reflessione sarebbe particu- 
I6 lare e senpre sarebbe spledore sperico, 
come manifestame 1 7te ci assegnano le palle 
dorate, poste nelle sommita delli alti edi- 
fiti; Ma l8 se tali palle dorate fussino rugose 
o globuleti come son le mo^re, frutti neri 
conposti di minute globosita rotonde, allora 
ciascuna delle parti d'essa 20 globosita, ve- 
dute dal sole e dall'ochio, mostrera a esso 
ochio il lustro 2I gienerato dal simulacro 
d'esso sole, e cosl in u medesimo corpo si 
ue 22 drebbero molti minimi soli, li quali 
spesse so le volte che per lunga distatia 
2 3si uniscono e paiono cotinuati; E !1 lustro 
della lunanuova e piu lucido e piu 24 potete 
che quado e in plenilunio, e questo si ca- 
2 s vsa perche 1' angolo della incidetia e molto 
piu ottuso nella luna nuo 26 va che nella 
vecchia, doue tali angoli sono acutissimi; 
e 1'onde della 2 ?luna spechiano il sole cosl 
nelle lor ualli come nelli colli, e li lati 
28 restano oscuri ; ma ne' lati della luna li 
fondi dell'onde non 2 9 vedono il sole, ma 

The moon has no light in itself; but so 
much of it as faces, the sun is illuminated, and 
of that illumined portion we see so much 
as faces the earth. And the moon's night 
receives just as much light as is lent it by our 
waters as they reflect the image of the sun, 
which is mirrored in all those waters which 
are on the side towards the sun. The out- 
side or surface of the waters forming the 
seas of the moon and of the seas of our 
globe is always ruffled little or much, 
or more or less and this roughness causes 
an extension of the numberless images of 
the sun which are repeated in the ridges and 
hollows, the sides and fronts of the innu- 
merable waves; that is to say in as many 
different spots on each wave as our eyes 
find different positions to view them from. 
This could not happen, if the aqueous sphere 
which covers a great part of the moon were 
uniformly spherical, for then the images of 
the sun would be one to each spectator, 
and its reflections would be separate and 
independent and its radiance would always 
appear circular; as is plainly to be seen in 
the gilt balls placed on the tops of high 
buildings. But if those gilt balls were rugged 
or composed of several little balls, like mul- 
berries, which are a black fruit composed of 
minute round globules, then each portion of 
these little balls, when seen in the sun, 
would display to the eye the lustre resulting 
from the reflection of the sun, and thus, in 
one and the same body many tiny suns 
would be seen; and these often combine at a 
long distance and appear as one. The lustre of 
the new moon is brighter and stronger, than 
when the moon is full; and the reason of 
this is that the angle of incidence is more 
obtuse in the new than in the full moon, in 
which the angles [of incidence and reflection] 
are highly acute. The waves of the moon 
therefore mirror the sun in the hollows of 
the waves as well as on the ridges, and the 
sides remain in shadow. But at the sides 

896. 2. dasse, 3. vedano . . ecquella . . vede. 4. Ella . . chelli pres. 5. nosstre acque . . refretterli. 6. vedano . . elluna si 
sspechia. 7. dichessi . . luna edel. 8. [la nostra luna] mare . . nosstra . . essenpre rughoso. 9. oppocho . . oppiu omeno 
ettale rughosita e chausa. 10. ine cholli e chochavita ellati. n. ti effrote "delle inumerabili" rughe sisspechiano . . cias- 
scuna. 12. rugha . . che ali . . chelle vedano. 13. chadere . . sella . . achq"a" . , vesste. 14. luno fussi. 15. uno "accias 
cuno ochio" ella . . refressione . . partichu. 16. essenpre . . spericho chome. 17. asegnia. 18. ssettali . . rughose o 
globbuleti chome. 19. "neri" chonposti . . "rotonde" allora ciasscuna "delle parte". 20. globbosita . . mossterra. 2i.chosi 
nun . . chorpo. 22. derebbe . . lungha disstatia. 23. vnisschono eppaiano chotinuati . . eppiu cido epiu. 24. pleniunnio 
ecquesto . . cha. 25. langholo. 26. vechia . . tale angholi . . achutissimi ellonde. 27. chosi . . chome . . cholli elli. 
28. resstano osschuri. 29. vedano . . massolo vede . . quessto. 30. choll . . ettal. 31. elluminose chosi . . infussi venghano. 

1 5 8 



solo uedono le cime d'esse ode, e per 
questo li simuHacri son piu ran e piu 
misti coll'onbre delle valli, e tal mistiorie 
J'delle spetie obrose e luminose, cosl in- 
sieme infuse, vengono all'oJ'chio co poco 
spledore, e nelli stremi sara piv oscure per 
essere ^la curuita de' lati di tale ode in- 
suffitiete a riflettere all'ochio li riJ'cievuti 
razzi; La luna nova per natura riflette li 
3Srazzi solari piu inverse 1'ochio per tali 

of the moon the hollows of the waves do 
not catch the sunlight, but only their crests; 
and thus the images are fewer and more 
mixed up with the shadows in the hollows; 
and this intermingling of the shaded and 
illuminated spots comes to the eye with a 
mitigated splendour, so that the edges will 
be darker, because the curves of the sides 
of the waves are insufficient to reflect to the 
eye the rays that fall upon them. Now 
the new moon naturally reflects the solar 
rays more directly towards the eye from the 

ode streme, ^ 6 che per nessuno altro loco, 
come mostra la figura delta luna che 
37percuotedo con razzi a nell'onda b riflette 
in b d, dou' e situa^to 1'ochio d\ E questo 
accadere no puo nel plenilunio dove ^ 9 il 
razzo solare, stando all'occidete, percuote 
1'onde streme della *luna alPoriete dal n 
in in, e non riflette inverso 1'oc^'chio occi- 
detale, ma risalta aU'oriete, poco piegado 
la rettitu* 2 dine d'esso razzo solare, e cosi 
1' angolo della incidetia e grossissimo. 

La luna e corpo 
opa 44 co e solido, e se 
per lo a^Sversario ella 
fusse traspa* 6 rente, ella 
no ricieverebbe 47 il lume 
del sole. 

* 8 I1 rossume over tu- 
orlo dell'o^vo sta sin 
mezzo al suo als'bume 
sanza discedere S2 d'alcuna 
partc, ed 6 is^v lieve o 

crests of the waves than from any other part, 
as is shown by the form of the moon, whose 
rays a strike the waves b and are "reflected 
in the line b d, the eye being situated at d. 
This cannot happen at the full moon, when 
the solar rays, being in the west, fall on the 
extreme waters of the moon to the East 
from n to m, and are not reflected to the 
eye in the West, but are thrown back east- 
wards, with but slight deflection from the 
straight course of the solar ray; and 

thus the 

angle of incidence is very wide 

piu grave o equale d' esso 54 albume ; e s' elli e 
piu lisseve egli doverebbe surgie5 6 re sopra 
tutto I' albume e "fermarsi in cotatto del- 

The moon is an opa- 
que and solid body and 
if, on the contrary, it 
were transparent, it would 
not receive the light of 
the sun. 

The yellow or yolk 
of an egg remains in the 
middle of. the albumen, 
without moving on either 
side ; now it is either lighter 
or heavier than this albumen, or equal to it; if 
it is lighter, it ought to rise above all the 
albumen and stop in contact with the shell 

32. cho pocho . . osschure. 3;. churuita . . arefrettere. 34. razza da qual chosa la luna . . refrette. 35. razi . . tale. 
36. locho . . mosstra la fighura. 37. pcrcho tendo cho razi b e refrette. 38. Ecquesto achadere . . dove j| o. 39. razo 
solare [que] perchote stando allocidete perchote lonte. 40. refrette. 41. pocho pieghado. 42. chosi langholo. 43. chorpo. 
44. cho cssolido esse. 45. e fussi. 46. cno. 49. sta [in in a! piu delle). 50. [volte] in. 51. dissciedere. .52. dalchuna. 
53. grcve "o equale" desso. 54. essclli. 55. eve edovere vwirgie. 57. chotratto. 58. la [sua scho] scho'rza. 59. hovo 

896. 48-64. Compare No. 861. 




s 8 la scorza d'es 59 so uovo, e s'elli e piu 
60 grave doverebbe di 6l sciedere, e s'egli e 
equa 62 le cosl potrebbe stare 6 3nell'v delli 
stremi, co 64 me in mezzo o disotto; 

6 5L'mvmerabili simulacri 66 che dalle in- 
numerabili onde del ma 6 ?re reflettono li 
Sola 68 ri razzi, in esse onde percos 6 9si, son 
causa di re7dere cotinuato e larghissi 7I mo 
spledore sopra la superfitie ? 2 del mare. 

of the egg; and if it is heavier, it ought to sink, 
and if it is equal, it might just as well be 
at one of the ends, as in the middle or 
below [54]. 

The innumerable images of the solar rays 
reflected from the innumerable waves of the 
sea, as they fall upon those waves, are what 
cause us to see the very broad and continuous 
radiance on the surface of the sea. 

Br. M. 104 a] 

8 97 . 

[Come no si puo spechiare il sole nel That the sun could not be mirrored in the 

corpo 2 della luna, essendo spechio colmo, body of the moon, which is a convex mirror, 

esselli. 60. dis. 61. esselli. 62. chosi. 63. cho. 64. dissotto. 66. cheddalle. 67. refrettano dalli. 68. razi . . perchos. 
69. se son quelli chausa. 70. chotinuato ellarghissi. } 

897. i. po. 3. chettanto . . nalumina. 4. nesspechi. 5. avessi la superfitie che atta asspechiare. 6. cheffussi. 7. emmosso dal- 

897. In the original diagrams sole is written at the place marked A; luna at C, and terra at the 
two spots marked B. 



[8 9 8. 

in moJdo che tanto quanto esso sol ne 
allumina, tanto essa luna ne specchia, se 
g& tal luna snon avesse la superfitie alta 
a specchiare, 6 che fusse rugosa, a vso di 
superfitie di mare, ?quando in parte e 
mossa dal uento]- 

'[L'onde dell' acqua crescono 9 il simu- 
lacro della cosa I0 in lei specchiata]. 

11 Quest' onde fanno per o I2 gni linia a 
similitu'^dine della spoglia del' 4 la pina. 

sQueste son 2 figure sicche l6 faraile 
Tuna di versa dall' altra, '7 coll' acqua 
>8 ondeggiante e coll' acqua piana. 

'InpossibiPe 20 che per alcuna distantia 
il "simulacro del sple, "fatto nella super- 
fitie a -*del corpo sperico, occupi 24 la meta 
d'esso sperico; 

2 s Qui tu ai a provare, come la terra fa 
tutti 26 questi medesimi ofiti inverse la luna 
che 27 la luna inverse la terra; 

28 No luce la luna col suo lume riflesso 
come 2 9fa il sole, perche il lume della luna 
non piglia *i\ lume del sole continue in 
nel^'la superfitie, ma in su colmi e cayi 
del^le onde delle acque, e per esser tal 
sole nella 33 luna cofusamente spechiato per 
le mi^stioni delle onbre, che sono infra 
J5 1' onde che lustrano, percio non e 3 6 il suo 
lume lucido e chiaro 37 CO m'e '1 sole. 

3 8 Terra infra la luna in qulta decima e 
il sole; &Qm [\ so le e nel levante e la luna 
in ponente in qulta decima; 4 luna infra 
la terra in qulta decima e il sole; 4I Qui e 
la luna che a il sole per ponete e la terra 
per levate. 

in such a way as that so much of its surface 
as is illuminated by the sun, should re- 
flect the sun unless the moon had a sur- 
face adapted to reflect it in waves and 
ridges 4 like the surface of the sea when its sur- 
face is moved by the wind. 

The waves in water multiply the image 
of the object reflected in it. 

These waves reflect light , each by its own 
line, as the surface of the fir cone does [14]. 

These are 2 figures one different from 
the other; one with undulating water and the 
other with smooth water. 

It is impossible that at any distance the 
image of the sun cast on the surface of a 
spherical body should occupy the half of 
the sphere. 

Here you must prove that the earth pro- 
duces all the same effects with regard to the 
moon, as the moon with regard to the earth. 

The moon, with its reflected light, does 
not shine like the sun, because the light of 
the moon is not a continuous reflection of 
that of the sun on its whole surface, but 
only on the crests and hollows of the waves 
of its waters; and thus the sun being con- 
fusedly reflected, from the admixture of the 
shadows that lie between the lustrous waves, 
its light is not pure and clear as the sun is. 

[3 8] The earth between the moon on the 
fifteenth day and the sun . [3 9] Here the 
sun is in the East and the moon on the 
fifteenth day in the West. [40] The moon 
on the fifteenth [day] between the earth and 
the sun. [41] Here it is the moon which has 
the sun to the West and the earth to the East. 

A. 64 a] 




2 La luna non e luminosa per se , ma 
bene atta a ricievere la natura della 
luce -J a similitudine dello spechio e del- 
1* acqua o altro corpo lucido , e crescie nel- 
Poriete 4 e occidete come il sole e gli altri 
pianeti ; E la ragione si e che ogni corpo 

The moon is not of itself luminous, but 
is highly fitted to assimilate the character of 
light after the manner of a mirror, or of 
water, or of any other reflecting body; and it 
grows larger in the East and in the West, 
like the sun and the other planets. And 
the reason is that every luminous body looks 

ucncto. 8. acq"a" cresscano. xo. illei. 12. assimilitu. 13. spoglia de siche. 16. fara le luna disspersi. 17. acqua [ondosa] 

18. ondegiante dallacq"a". ax. siimularcro. 23. ochupi. 28. refresso. 32. acq"e". 34. chessono. 35. lusstrano pero. 

38. infralla . . decima il tole. 39. Ogni el . . "po"nente ella luna illeuante. 40. infralla . . decima il sole. 41. ella per- 
Icufuc ella terra per ponete. 

898. i. choia ella. 2. none. 3. assimilitudine . . acq"a" . . cho'Vpo . . ecresscie. 4. chome . . chorpo. 5. cresscie Chiaro . . 

14. See the diagram p. 145. 

38. This refers to the small diagram placed be- 
tween B and B. 39. See the diagram below the 
one referred to in the preceding note. 

40. 41. Refers to the diagram below the others. 
898. This text has already been published by 
LlBRl: Histoire des Sciences, III, pp. 224, 225. 

8 9 9-] 



luminoso s quato piv . s' allon- 
tana piv cresce ; Chiaro si 
puo copredere che ogni pia- 
neta e ste! 6 la e piv lontano 
da noi nel ponete . che quado- 
ci e sopra capo , circa 3 500, per 
la pruova se 7 gniata da parte , 
e se uedi spechiare- il sole o la 
luna nelF acqua che ti sia vicina, 
8 paratti in detta 

acqua della gra- 
dezza che ti pare 

in cielo; E se 
t'allontanera i- vno 
9 miglio parra 
maggiore i oo vol- 
te, e se lo vedrai 
spechiare I mare 

10 nel tramotare il sole spechia- 
to-ti- parra grade- piv di 10 
miglia, per^che occupera in det- 
ta spechiatione piv di 10 miglia 

di marina , e se tu fussi I2 dov'e 
la luna parrebbe ti esso sole 
spechiarsi in tato mare quato 
egli^n'allumina alia giornata , e 
la terra parrebbe infra detta 
aqua come pajono le ^macchie 
scure che sono in nella luna , 
la quale stado in terra si dimo- 
stra ta'sle agli omini, qual 
farebbe agli omini che abitassi- 
no nella luna il nostro l6 mon- 
do apputo. 

larger in proportion as it is re- 
mote. It is easy to understand 
that every planet and star is 
farther from us when in the 
West than when it is overhead, 
by about 3500 miles, as is pro- 
ved on the margin [7], and if you 
see the sun or moon mirrored in 
the water near to you, it looks 
to you of the same 
size in the water 
as in the sky. But 
if you recede tothe 
distance of a mile, 
it will look 100 
times larger; and 
if you see the sun 
reflected in the sea 
at sunset, its image would look 
to you more than 10 miles long; 
because that reflected image ex- 
tends over more than 10 miles 
of sea. And if you could stand 
where the moon is, the sun would 
look to you, as if it were reflec- 
ted from all the sea that it illumi- 
nates by day; and the land amid 
the water would appear just like 
the dark spots that are on the 
moon, which, when looked at 
from our earth, appears to men 
the same as our earth would- ap- 
pear to any men who might dwell 
in the moon. 


18 La luna quado e tutta lu- 
minata al nostro vedere, noi ve- 
diamo tutto il suo ^giorno, e 
allora per riflessione de' razzi 
del sole, percossi in lei e risal- 
tati a noi, 20 l'ocieano suo ci 
gitta meno vmidita, e quato me 
e luce piv noce. 

When the moon is entirely light- 
ed up to our sight, we see its 
full daylight; and at that time, 
owing to the reflection of the so- 
lar rays which fall on it and are 
thrown off towards us, its ocean 
casts off less moisture towards us ; 
and the less light it gives the 
more injurious it is. 

Leic. 30 a] 




2 Dico che non avendo la lu- 
na lume da se, essendo lumino- 
sa, egl' e necessario che tale 
lume 3 sia causato da altri. 

I say that as the moon has no 
light in itself and yet is luminous, 
it is inevitable but that its light 
is caused by some other body. 

chopledere . . esste. 6. da "ndi" . . chapo '. circha. 7. esse . . oluna . . chetti. 8. acq"a" . . gradeza chetti . . Essettalonta- 
nera. 9. parira magiore . . essello vederai . . mare [il sole]. 10. [spe] nel . . para. n. ochopera . . essettu. 12. parebbeti 
. . inquato. 13. nalumina . . ellatera parebe . . achva chome pare. 14. mache schure chessono inella . . qual. 15. farebe 
alia. 16. acputo. 19. refressione razi . . perchossi illei. 8gg. 2. dicho . . dasse . . chettale. 3. sie chausato. 

Line 7 refers to the first diagram. A = sole (the sun), B = terra (the earth), C = luna (the moon). 
VOL. 11. X 








Tutte le cotradizioni dell' auersario a 
dir che nella luna non e acqua. 

All my opponent's arguments to say that 
there is no water in the moon. 



Risposta a maestro Andrea da Imola, 
che disse come H razzi solari riflessi dal 
corpo dello spechio convesso si confondono 
2 e si consumano in brieue spatio, e che per 
questo si negaua al tutto la parte luminosa 
della luna non essere di natu'ra di spechio, 
e per consequenza non essere nato tale 
lume dalla innvmenabile moltitudine del- 
1'onde di quel 4 mare, il quale io proponeuo 
essere quella parte della luna che s' allumi- 
nava per li razzi solari; 

s o p sia il corpo del sole, ens sia la 
luna, b sia 1'ochio, che in su la basa c n 
del cateto c n m vede spechia 6 re il corpo 
del sole infra li equali angoli c //, e ' 1 simile 
fa remouendosi 1'ochio da b in a. 

Answer to Maestro Andrea da Imola, who 
said that the solar rays reflected from a 
convex mirror are mingled and lost at a short 
distance; whereby it is altogether denied that 
the luminous side of the moon is of the 
nature of a mirror, and that consequently 
the light is not produced by the innumer- 
able multitude of the waves of that sea, 
which I declared to be the portion of the 
moon which is illuminated by the solar 

Let op be the body of the sun, en s the 
moon, and b the eye which, above the base 
c n of the cathetus c n tn, sees the body 
of the sun reflected at equal angles en; and 
the same again on moving the eye from b to a. 

Leic. 2 a] 



H'Nessun denso e piv lieue che 1'aria. 

^Avendo noi provato come la parte 

della luna che risplende e acqua, che 

Explanation spechia il corpo del sole, 4 la quale ci rif- 

of the lumen i . i i j j i r^ 

cinereum in lette Io splendore da lui ncevuto ; h. come, 
the moon. se { a | e ac q ua f u sse sanza ode, ch' ella 5 pic- 
cola si dimostrerebbe, ma di splendore 
quasi simile al sole; Al presente bisognia 
provare, se essa luna e corpo grave o lieve, 
inperoche se fusse grave, confessando che 
dalla terra in su in ogni grado d'altez?za 
s'acquista gradi di leuita, cociosiache 
P acqua e piu lieue che la terra, e Paria 
che 1' acqua, c'l foco che 1'aria, e cosl 
8 seguitando successiuamete, e'parrebbe che, 
se la luna auesse densita com' ella a, ch' ella 
auesse gravita, e avedo 9 gravita che Io 


No solid body is less heavy than the at- 

Having proved that the part of the moon 
that shines consists of water, which mirrors 
the body of the sun and reflects the radiance 
it receives from it; and that, if these waters 
were devoid of waves, it would appear 
small, but of a radiance almost like the sun ; 
[5] It must now be shown whether the 
moon is a heavy or a light body: for, if it 
were a heavy body admitting that at every 
grade of distance from the earth greater 
levity must prevail, so that water is lighter 
than the earth, and air than water, and fire 
than air and so on successively it would seem 
that if the moon had density as it really has, 
it would have weight, and having weight, 
that it could not be sustained in the space 

2. essi. 3. disspechio e per chonsegucnza . . inumerabile. 4. chessa- 

900. 2. acqu"a". 

901. i. raii . . refressi . . chonvesso . . confondeano. 
luminava . . razi . . lochio di. 

got. 2. chcllaria. 3. chome . . rissplcndc. 4. refrette . . dallui ricevuti . . ssettale acq"a" fussi . . chel. 5. pichola . . dimoster- 
"r"ebe. 6. ollicve . . fussi . . dalte. 7. concosiachellacq"a" . . piv . . chella . . chellacq"a" . . focho chellaria. 8. eparebe 
chcssella auessi . . chomclla cfiella auessi . . avdo. 9. chello . . ouessa . . nolla potessi sosstenere . . chon . . auessi a disscendere. 

900. The objections are very minutely noted 
down in the manuscript, but they hardly seem to 
have a place here. 

901. The large diagram on the margin of page 
161 belongs to this chapter. 

902. i! On the margin are the words tola ro~ 
mantina, tola - ferro stagnato (tinned iron); romantina 
is some special kind of sheet-iron no longer known 
by that name. 




spatio, ove essa si troua, non la 
potesse sostenere, e per conse- 
gueza avessea discendere I0 in- 
verso il centre dell' universe, 
e congiugnersi colla terra, e 
se no lei, al maco le sue 
acque aues zi sino a cadere e 
spogliarla di se e cadere in- 
verse il cetro e lasciar di se 
la luna spogliata e sanza lu- 
I2 stro; ode, no seguitando 
quel che di lei la ragione ci 
promette, egli e manifesto 
segno che tal luna e vestita 
de'sua ^ elemeti, cioe acqua, 
aria e foco, e cosi in se, per 
se si sostenga in quello spatio 
come fa la nostra ter^ra coi 
sua elemeti in quest' altro spa- 
tio, e che tale ofitio faccino 
le cose gravi ne' sua eleme- 
x s ti, qual fanno 1' altre cose 
gravi nelli elemeti nostri. 

16 Quando 1' ochio in oriete 
vede la luna in occidente vi- 
ciria al tramotato sole, esso 
la vede J 7 colla sua parte on- 
brosa circundata da parte lu- 
minosa, del quale lume la parte 
laterale l8 e superiore deriua 
dal sole, e la parte inferiore 
deriva dallo oceano occiden- 
tale, il qual ^ancora lui riceue 
li razzi solari e li riflette nelli 
inferior! mari della luna, e an- 
cora per 20 tutta la parte 
obrosa della luna da tanto 
di splendore, qual'e quel che 
da la luna alia terra nella 
mez 2I zanotte, e percio no 
resta integralmete scura, e di 
qui a alcuno creduto, che la 
"luna abbia in parte lume 
da se oltre a quel che gli e 
dato dal sole, il quale lume 
diriua dalla ati 2 ^detta causa 
delli nostri mari alluminati 
dal sole. 

2 *Ancora si potrebbe dire 
che'l cerchio dello splendore 

where it is, and consequently 
that it would fall towards the 
centre of the universe and be- 
come united to the earth; or 
if not the moon itself, at least 

its waters would fall away and 
be lost from it, and descend 
towards the centre , leaving 
the moon without any and so 
devoid of lustre. But as this 
does not happen, as might in 
reason be expected, it is a 
manifest sign that the moon is 
surrounded by its own elements: 
that is to say water, air and 
fire; and thus is, of itself and 
by itself, suspended in that 
part of space, as our earth 
with its element is in this part 
of space; and that heavy bo- 
dies act in the midst of its 
elements just as other heavy 
bodies do in ours [15]. 

When the eye is in the 
East and sees the moon in 
the West near to the setting 
sun, it sees it with its shaded 
portion surrounded by luminous 
portions ; and the lateral and 
upper portion of this light is 
derived from the sun, and the 
lower portion from the ocean 
in the West, which receives 
the solar rays and reflects them 
on the lower waters of the 
moon, and indeed affords the 
part of the moon that is in 
shadow as much radiance as 
the moon gives the earth at mid- 
night. Therefore it is not to- 
tally dark, and. hence some 
have believed that the moon 
must in parts have a light of its 
own besides that which is given 
it by the sun ; and this light is due, 
as has been said, to the above- 
mentioned cause, that our seas 
are illuminated by the sun. 

Again, it might be said 
that the circle of radiance 

spoglata essanza lus. 12. ragon . . "segno" chettal. 13. cc 

esse . . macho, n. chadere . . ellasscia . . 

15. This passage would certainly seem to establish discoverer of the cause of the ashy colour of the 
Leonardo's claim to be regarded as the original new moon (lumen dnereum). His observations 




la quale 

che fa la luna, quand'el'e col sole in 'Socci- 
dente, dirivassc dal sole integralmente , 
quando essa col sole e coll' ochio e situata 
nel a6 modo che qui disopra si dimostra. 

2 ?Alcuni potrebbero dire che 
1'aria, elemcto della luna, pi- 
gliando il lume del sole, come 
fa la no a8 stra spera dell' aria, 
fusse quella che finisce il cer- 
chio luminoso al corpo della 

'Alcuni an creduto che la 
luna abbia alquanto di lume da 
se, la quale ope3nione e falsa, 
perche 1'anno fondata sopra quel 
chiarore che si uede in mezzo ali 
3'corni quando la luna e nova 
alii confini dello splcndore pare oscura, 
3*e al confine della oscurita del campo 
pare si chiara, che molti credono essere 
33 vn cerchio di nouo splendore, che finisca 
di circundare, doue le punte de' corni 34 a l- 
luminati dal sole terminano il loro splen- 
dore; e questa varieta di campo nasce 
35 perche quella parte d'esso campo, che 
termina colla parte luminosa della luna, 
per tal 3^paragoHe di splendore si dimon- 
stra piv oscura che non e, e quella parte di 
sopra, doue 3 7 pare vn pezzo di cerchio 
luminoso d'uniforme larghezza, nasce che 
quiui la luna, essendo piu chiara che 
3 8 il mezzo over il campo, oue essa si troua; 
pel parago di tale oscurita si dimostra in 
tale confine piv lu^minosa che non e, la 
qual luminosita in tal tenpo nasce dal 
nostro oceano colli altri mediterrani 4 che 
in quel tepo e alluminato dal sole che gia 
e tramotato, in modo che il mare allora fa 
tale ofitio alia 4I parte oscura della luna, 
qual fa la luna in qulta decima a noi, 

shown by the moon when it and the sun 
are both in the West is wholly borrowed 
from the sun, when it, and the sun, and 
the eye are situated as is shown above. 

Some might say that the air 
surrounding the moon as an ele- 
ment, catches the light of the 
sun as our atmosphere does, and 
that it is this which completes 
the luminous circle on the body 
of the moon. 

Some have thought that the 
moon has a light of its own, but 
this opinion is false, because they 
have founded it on that dim light 
seen between the homes of the 
new moon, which looks dark where it is close 
to the bright part, while against the darkness 
of the background it looks so light that many 
have taken it to be a ring of new' radiance 
completing the circle where the tips of the 
horns illuminated by the sun cease to shine [3 4]. 
And this difference of background arises from 
the fact that the portion of that background 
which is conterminous with the bright part 
of the moon, by comparison with that bright- 
ness looks darker than it is; while at the 
upper part, where a portion of the luminous 
circle is to be seen of uniform width, the re- 
sult is that the moon, being brighter there 
than the medium or background on which it 
is seen by comparison with that darkness it 
looks more luminous at that edge than it is. 
And that brightness at such a time itself is de- 
rived from our ocean and other inland-seas. 
These are, at that time, illuminated by the 
sun which is already setting in such a way as 
that the sea then fulfils the same function 
to the dark side of the moon as the moon 
at its fifteenth day does to us when the 

chuni potrebono . . chellaria . . piglando ilume. 28. fussi . . finissi. 29. alchuni . . chella . . dasse. 30. effalsa . . fondato 
. . chessi . . mezo. 31. quandella . . il quale alii . . osscuro. 32. osscurita . . molte credano . . 33. finissca di circhundare. 
34. ecquesta . . canpo nassce. 35. chettermina. 36. hosscura . . nonne ecquella. 37. pezo . . largeza nassce. 38. mezo over 
chanpo. 39. nassce . . occcano coli . . mediterani. 40. ga. 41. osscura . . annoi qnadel . . ettal. 42. dacqucl pocho . . 

however, having hitherto remained unknown to 
astronomers, Moestlin and Kepler have been credited 
with the discoveries which they made independently 
a century later. 

Some disconnected notes treat of the same sub- 
ject in MS. C. A. 239 b ; 7igb an d 7i 9 b : "Perche la 
luna cinta della parte alluminata dal sole in ponente, 
tra maggior- splendore in mezzo a tal cerchio, che quando 
essa eclissava il sole. Questo accade perche <//' eclissare 
il sole ella ombrava il nostro oceano, il qual caso non 
Of cade essendo in ponente, quando il sole alluma esso 
oceano. n The editors of the "Saggio" who first pub- 
lished this passage (page 12) add another short 

one about the seasons in the moon which I con- 
fess not to have seen in the original manuscript: 
"La luna ha ogni niese un verno e una state, e ha 
maggiori freddi e maggiori caldi, e i- suoi equinozii son 
piu freddi de' nostri" 

23. 24. The larger of the two diagrams reproduced 
above stands between these two lines, and the smaller 
one is sketched in the margin. At the spot marked A 
Leonardo wrote corpo solare (solar body) in the larger 
diagram and Sole (sun) in the smaller one. At C 
luna (moon) is written and at B terra (the earth). 
34. See PI. CVIII, No. 5. 

903. 904-] 


I6 5 

quando il sol'e tramotato, e tal propor- 
}2 tione e da quel poco lume che a la parte 
oscura della luna alia chiarezza della parte 
alluminata, qual e dalla . . . 

43 Se uoi vedere 44qiianto la parte 45 on- 
brosa della luna ^ 6 sia piu chiara che'l 
4?canpo, ove tal luna si ^truova, occupa 
col49la mano, o con altro sobietto piu di- 
state s all'ocbio, la parte luS 2 minosa della 

sun is set. And the small amount of light 
which the dark side of the moon receives 
bears the same proportion to the light of 
that side which is illuminated, as that . . . [42]. 
If you want to see how much brighter 
the shaded portion of the moon is than the 
background on which it is seen, conceal the 
luminous portion of the moon with your 
hand or with some other more distant ob- 

F. 84 a] 



2 Alcuni dissero leuarsi da essa vapori 
a modo di ^nugoli e interporrsi infra la 
luna e li ochi no^stri; il che, se cosl fusse, 
mai tali macule saresbbero stabili ne di 
siti ne di figura, e vedendo la 6 luna in 
diuersi aspetti, ancor che tal macule 7 no 
fossero variate, esse muterebbero figura 
come 8 fa quella cosa che si vede per piu 


Some have said that vapours rise from On the 
the moon, after the manner of clouds and ^L 
are interposed between the moon and our 
eyes. But, if this were the case, these spots 
would never be permanent, either as to 
position or form; and, seeing the moon 
from various aspects, even if these spots did 
not move they would change in form, as ob- 
jects do which are seen from different sides. 


F. 84 1>\ 



2 Altri dissero che la luna era conposta 
di parti piu $o me transparent}, come se 
una parte fusse a modo 4 d' alabastro , e 
alcuna altra a modo di cristallo o vetro, 
5 che ne seguirebbe che '1 sole, feredo colli 
sua razzi 6 nella parte me transparete, il 
lume rimarrebbe in 7superfitie, e cosl la 
parte piu densa resterebbe allu 8 minata, e 
la parte transparete mostrerebbe le 9onbre 
delle profondita sue oscure, e cosl si copo- 
10 ne la qualita della luna; e questa opini- 
one e "piaciuta a molti filosofi, e massime 
a Aristotele, e I2 pure ella e falsa opinione, 
perche ne' di^versi aspetti, che si trovano 
spesso la luna e il so^le alii nostri occhi, 
noi vedremmo variare tal ma^cule, e quando 


Others say that the moon is composed 
of more or less transparent parts; as though 
one part were something like alabaster and 
others like crystal or glass. It would 
follow from this that the sun casting its rays 
on the less transparent portions, the light 
would remain on the surface, and so the 
denser part would be illuminated, and the 
transparent portions would display the shadow 
of their darker depths; and this is their 
account of the structure and nature of the 
moon. And this opinion has found favour 
with many philosophers, and particularly with 
Aristotle, and yet it is a false view for, in 
the various phases and frequent changes of 
the moon and sun to our eyes, we should 
see these spots vary, at one time looking 
dark and at another light: they would be 
dark when the sun is in the West and the 

alia . . osscura . . ciareza. 48. ochupi. 49. chon. 50. distate ochu. 51. pi all. 

903. 2. disse. 3. interprsi infralla . . elli . . nos. 4. fussi . . tal. 5. bon stabili. 6. chettal. 7. fusi variate . . muterebo. 

8. chessi. 

904. 2. chella . . parte. 3. transsparenti . . fussi. 5. cene . . coli. 6. rimarebbe. 7. resterrebbe. 8. ella . . mosterrebbe. 

9. osscure. 10. ecquesto openione. n. piacuta . . massime aristotie e. 12. puere . . oppennione perche inne de. 13. asspetti 
trauano . . esso. 14. vederem. 15. ecquando . . farebono osscure ecquando. 16. in o. 17. ella . . mezo. 18. transparete 

42. Here the text breaks off; lines 43 52 are written on the margin. 




si farebbono oscure, e quado chi l6 are; scure 
si farebbono, quado il sole e in oc^cidete 
e la luna nel mezzo del celo, che allora le 
l8 cocauita transparcti piglicrebbono 1'onbre 
in"sino alle sommita de' labbri di tal co- 
cauita tras 20 pareti, perche il sole no potrebbe 
l>enetrare li "sua razzi dentro alle boche 
di tali cocauita, "le quali parrebbono chiare 
nel plenilunio, 2 Jdoue la luna in oriete 
guarda il sole alPoccidc'He; allora il sole 
alluminerebbe insino ne' f6 2 sdi di tali trans- 
paretie, e cosl, no generadosi 26 onbre, la 
luna non ci mostrerebbe in tal tenpo 2 ?le 
predette machie, e cosl ora piv ora meno, 
2 *secondo le mutatio del sol dalla luna e 
della Iu 2() na dai lochi nostri, come di sopra 

moon in the middle of the sky; for then the 
transparent hollows would be in shadow as 
far as the tops of the edges of those trans- 
parent hollows, because the sun could not 
then fling his rays into the mouth of the 
hollows," which however, at full moon, 
would be seen in bright light, at which time 
the moon is in the East and faces the sun 
in the West; then the sun would illuminate 
even the lowest depths of these transparent 
places and thus, as there would be no 
shadows cast, the moon at these times 
would not show us the spots in question; 
and so it would be, now more and now 
less, according to the changes in the position 
of the sun to the moon, and of the moon 
to our eyes, as I have said above. 

F. 85 ] 



2 Si e detto che le macule della luna 
son create in essa luna, 3 da essere in se 
di uaria rarita e desita, il che se cosl fusse, 
*nell'eclissi della luna i razzi solan pene- 
trebbono per s a lcuna parte della predetta 
rarita, e, no si ueden 6 do tale efifetto, detta 
opinione e falsa; 

7 Altri dicono che la superfitie della luna, 
esscndo tersa 8 e pulita, che essa, a simili- 
tudine di spechio, riceue in 9 S e la simili- 
tudine della terra; Questa openione I0 e 
falsa, conciosiache la terra, scoperta dal- 
1'acqua, per diuer"si aspetti a diuerse 
figure; adunque, quando la luna I2 e al- 
1' oriete, essa specchierebbe altre machie, 
che quando essa ci e di sopra, o quado 
essa e in occidete; pero I4 le machie della 
luna, come si uede nel pleni- 
lunio, J 5mai si uariano nel 
moto da lei fatto nel nostro 
emi' 6 sperio ; 2 a ragione e, che 
la cosa specchia^ta nella con- 
vessita piglia piccola parte d' 
es l8 so spechio, com'e provato 
in prospettiua; 3 a ragione ^li e, che nel 
plenilunio la luna vede solo il mezzo 20 della 


It has been asserted, that the spots on the 
moon result from the moon being of varying 
thinness or density ; but if this were so, when 
there is an eclipse of the moon the solar 
rays would pierce through the portions which 
were thin as is alleged [5]. But as we do 
not see this effect the opinion must be false. 
Others say that the surface of the moon 
is smooth and polished and that, like a mirror, 
it reflects in itself the image of our earth. 
This view is also false, inasmuch as the 
land, where it is not covered with water, 
presents various aspects and forms. Hence 
when the moon is in the East it would 
reflect different spots from those it would 
show when it is above us or in the West; 
now the spots on the moon, as they are 
seen at full moon, never vary 
in the course of its motion over 
our hemisphere. A second reason 
is that an object reflected in a 
convex body takes up but a small 
portion of that body, as is pro- 
ved in perspective [i 8]. The 
third reason is that when the moon is full, 
it only faces half the hemisphere of the 

piglierebcno. 19. somita dclabri. 21. razi. 22. parebono. 23. ocide. 24. alora. 26. mosterebbe. 28. ella lu. 
905. 2. Esii detto chclle. 3. rareu . . chosi fussi. 4. razi . . peneterrebono. 5. rareta il ce no. 6. to tale . . oppenione effalsa. 
7. dicano chella. 8. assimilitudine disspechio. 10. concosiache . . acq"a". n. asspecti. 12. spechierebe. 13. ocquado oci- 
dete il che. 14. plenilunio che. 16. he chella . . spechi. 17. pichola . . de. 18. ragone. 19. mezo. 21. locean . . rsplen- 

9<>5- 3 5- Edissi. This word, as it seems to 
me, here means eclipses of the sun; and the sense 
of the passage, as 1 understand it, is that by the 
foregoing hypothesis tUe modn, when it comes be- 

tween the sun and the earth must appear as if 
pierced, we may say like a sieve. 

18. come e pravato. This alludes to the accom- 
panying diagram. 




spera della terra alluminata, nella quale 
2I l'oceano colle altre acque risplendono, e 
la terra 22 fa macule in esso splendore, e 
cosl si uedrebbe 23 la meta della nostra 
terra cinta dallo splendo 2 ^re del mare allu- 
minato dal sole, e nella luna tal 2 s simili- 
tudine sarebbe minima parte d'essa luna; 
26 4 a e che la cosa splendida non si spechia 
nell'aP'tra splendida; adunque il mare, 
pigliando splendo 28 re dal sole, siccome 
fa la luna, e' no si potrebbe in lei spe- 
2 9chiare tal terra, che ancora specchiar 
non vi si vedesse 3 particularmete il corpo 
del sole e di ciascuna ste! 3I la a lei op- 

illuminated earth, on which only the ocean 
and other waters reflect bright light, while 
the land makes spots on that brightness; 
thus half of our earth would be seen girt 
round with the brightness of the sea lighted 
up by the sun, and in the moon this 
reflection would be the .smallest part of that 
moon. Fourthly, a radiant body cannot be 
reflected from another equally radiant; there- 
fore the sea, since it borrows its brightness 
from the sun, as the moon- does , could 
not cause the earth to be reflected in it, nor 
indeed could the body of the sun be seen 
reflected in it, nor indeed any star opposite 
to it. 

Br. M. 19 a] 


Se terrai osseruate le particule delle 
machie della luna, 2 tu troverai in quelle 
spesse uolte gran varieta, e di questo $6 
fatto pruova io ' medesimo disegnadole ; E 
questo nasce da nuvo^li che si leuano dal- 
F acque d'essa luna, li quali s'interpongo- 
Sno infra '1 sole e essa acqua, e colla loro 
onbra tolgo 6 no i razzi del sole a tale acqua, 
onde essa acqua viene a ri^manere oscura, 
per non potere spechiare il corpo solare. 

' If you keep the details of the spots of 
the moon under observation you will often 
find great variation in them, and this I myself 
have proved by drawing them. And this 
is caused by the clouds that rise from the 
waters in the moon, which come between 
the sun and those waters, and by their 
shadow deprive these waters of the sun's rays. 
Thus those waters remain dark, not being 
able to reflect the solar body. 

Leic. 5 a] 


Come le mac 2 chie della luna 3 son va- 
riate da *quel che gia fu s ro, per causa del 
6 corso delle sue 7 acque. 

How the spots on the moon must have 
varied from what they formerly were, by 
reason of the course of its waters. 

C. A. 341(5; 1055*1] 



2 Jo truouo che quelli cierchi , li quali 
par che di notte circudino la luna di uarie 
gradezze e grossezze, 3 sono causati da ua- 
rie qualita di grossezze d' umori, i quali in 
varie altezze infra la luna e li ochi 4nostri 
sono situati ; E quel cierchio maggiore e 
me rosso ed e nella prima parte piu bassa 
di detti s umori, il secondo minore e piv 
alto, e pare piv rosso, perch' e visto per 


I have found, that the circles which at On the 
night seem to surround the moon, of various moons halo> 
sizes, and degrees of density are caused by 
various gradations in the densities of the vapours 
which exist at different altitudes between the 
moon and our eyes. And of these halos the 
largest and least red is caused by the lowest of 
these vapours; the second, smaller one, is 
higher up, and looks redder because it is 

dano elli. 24. aluminato. 25. luna c. 26. 4 * he chella . . splendita no si . . 27. splendita . . piglando. 28. si come fa la 
luna e no . . illei. 29. speciar . . vedessi. 30. sole di ciasscuna. 31. allei opposita. 

906. i. Setterrai. 2. troverrai. 3. offatto . . "disegnadole" Ecquesto nassce da nugho. 4. chessi . . sinterponga. 5. cholla . . 
tolgho. 6. razi . . attale . . arri. 7. osscura. 

907. 4. ga. 

908. 2. circhudino . . gradeze e rosseza. 3. chausati . . grosseze domori . . alteze infralla . . elli. 4. nosstri . . Ecquel . . 



[909. 910. 

2 umori-je cosi quanto 6 piv alti sieno, 
minori c piv rossi apparirano, perche infra 
1'ochio e quello fia piv solidi umori, ?e per 
questo si pruova che doue apparisce mag- 
giore rossore H e piv somma d' umori. 

seen through two vapours. And so on, as 
they are higher they will appear smaller and 
redder, because, between the eye and them, 
there is thicker vapour. Whence it is proved 
that where they are seen to be reddest, the 
vapours are most dense. 

w. xx vn | 

Come tu vuoi prouare, la luna mostrarsi 
2 maggiore che essa non e, giugnendo al- 
1'orizzonte; nu torrai vn ochiale colmo da 
una superfitie e concauo dalla superfitie 
opposita, e ticni 5 1'ochio dal concavo, e 
guarda 1'obbietto fori 6 della superfitie con- 
uessa, e cosl ?avrai fatto vn vero simile 
8 ah" aria, che si include in^fra la spera del 
foco e de^'lla acqua, la quale aria e II concaua 
diuerso la terra e I2 conuessa diuerso il foco. 


If you want to prove why the moon 
appears larger than it is, when it reaches 
the horizon; take a lens which is highly 
convex on one surface and concave on the 
opposite, and place the concave side next 
the eye, and look at the object beyond the 
convex surface; by this means you will have 
produced an exact imitation of the atmosphere 
included beneath the sphere of fire and out- 
side that of water; for this atmosphere is 
concave on the side next the earth, and 
convex towards the fire. 

C. A. 187*; 561 a] 9 JO 

Fa ochiali da vedere 2 la luna grande. 

Construct glasses to see the moon mag- 

magiore . . edella prima. 5. omori . . sechondo . . vissto . . omori e chosi. 6. infrallochio ecquello . . solidomori. 7. apa- 
riscie magiore . . domori. 

909. i. volli . . mosstrare. 2. magore . . gngnendo. 4. conchauo . . ettieni. 6. chonuessa e chosi. 7. arai. 8. chessi. 
9. fralla . . focho chede. 12. focho. 

910. See the Introduction, p. 136, Fracastoro quaedam specilla ocularia fiunt tantae dtnsitatis, ut si per 

ays in his work Homocentres: "Per dua spirilla ea quis out lunam, aut aliud siderum spectel , adeo pro- 

ocularia si yuis perspiciat, alteri altero superposito, ma- pinqua ilia iudicet, ut ne turres ifsas excedanl" (sect. II 

jora multo et propinquiora videbil omnia. Quin imo c. 8 and sect. Ill, c. 23). 




Veggonsi le stelle di notte e no di di, 
per esser noi sotto 2 la grossezza dell' aria, 
la quale e piena d' infinite particu3le d'umi- 
dita, le quali, ciascuna per se quado e per- 
cossa ^dalli razzi del sole, rendono splen- 
dore, e cosl 1'inSnvmerabili spledori occupano 
esse stelle, e se 6 tale aria no fusse, il celo 
senpre ci mostrerebbe 7 le stelle nelle sua 


The stars are visible by night and not by o n the light 
day, because we are beneath the dense L t ! le _ 
atmosphere, which is full of innumerable 
particles of moisture, each of which inde- 
pendently, when the rays of the sun fall upon 
it, reflects a radiance, and so these number- 
less bright particles conceal the stars; and if 
it were not for this atmosphere the sky would 
always display the stars against its darkness. 




2 Dicono di auere il lume da se, alle- 
gando 3che se Venere e Mercuric non 
avessino ^il lume da se, quado essa s' inter- 
pone infra spochio nostro e '1 sole, esse 
oscurerebbero tan 6 to d'esso sole, quato 
esse ne coprono al ochio ^ nostro ; E quest' e 
falso, perch' e prouato 8 come 1'onbroso, 
posto nel luminoso, e cinto e coper9to 
tutto da razzi lateral! del rimanete di tal 
lu I0 minoso, e cosl resta inuisibile, come si 


Some say that they shine of themselves, 
alledging that if Venus and Mercury had not 
a light of their own, when they come between 
our eye and the sun' they would darken so 
much of the sun as they could cover from 
our eye. But this is false, for it is proved 
that a dark object against a luminous body 
is enveloped and entirely concealed by the 
lateral rays of the rest of that luminous body 
and so remains invisible. As may be seen 

gix. r. vegasi lesselle. 2. grosseza. 3. ciasscuna . . rende. 4. cossi. 5. ochupano . . esse. 6. fussi . . mosterrebbe. 7. lesstelle. 

QH. i. a lume. 2. dicano di havere . . dasse. 3. uenere e merchurio non auessi. 4. illume dasse . . infral. 5. oscurerebo. 

6. coprano. 9. razi. 12. iluga. 13. ochupano. 15. acade. 16. esieno . . non o. 18. nosstro. Lines 19 and 20 are written 

911. See Vol. I, No. 296, which also refers to 

912. From this and other remarks (see No. 902, 
VOL. 11. 

1. 34 &c.) it is clear that Leonardo was familiar with 
the phenomena of Irradiation. 

i ;o 



di"mostra: quando il sole e veduto per la 
ra"mificatione delle piate sanza foghe in 
luga di'Jstantia, essi rami non occupano 
parte al' 4 cuna d'esso sole alii ochi nostri ; 
jl simile 'accade a' predetti pianeti, li quali 
ancora l6 che da se sieno sanza luce, eglino 
non oc^cupano, com' detto, parte alcuna 
del sole l8 aH'ochio nostro. 


"Dicono le stelle nella notte parere 
lucidissime "quato piu ci so superiori, 
e che, se esse no auessino lume 2 -3 da 
se, che 1'ombra che fa la terra, che 
s'interpone 2 fra loro e '1 sole, ver- 
rebbe a scurarle, non vede'Sdo esse, 
n sedo vedute dal corpo solare; Ma 
* 6 questi non anno considerate, che 
1'onbra piramidale de 2 ?lla terra non 
aggiugne infra troppe stelle, e in 
"quelle ch'ella aggiugne, la piramide 
e tanto dimi 2 9nuita, che poco occupa 
del corpo della stella; e '1 ri3manete e 
alluminato dal sole. 

when the sun is seen through the boughs of 
trees bare of their leaves, at some distance 
the branches do not conceal any portion of 
the sun from our eye. The same thing 
happens with the above mentioned planets 
which, though they have no light of their 
own, do not as has been said conceal any 
part of the sun from our eye[i8]. 


Some say that the stars appear most brilliant 
at night in proportion as they are higher 
up; and that if they had no light of 
their own, the shadow of the earth which 
comes between -them and the sun, would 
darken them, since they would not face 
nor be faced by the solar body. But 
those persons have not considered 
that the conical shadow of the earth 
cannot reach many of the stars; and 
even as to those it does reach, the cone 
is so much diminished that it covers 

very little of the star's mass, and all the 

rest is illuminated by the sun. 

F. 6o*l 913 

Perched li pianeti appariscono maggiori 
2 in oriete che sopra di noi, che dovrebbe 
J essere il contrario, 
essendo 4 35<X) miglia 
p u vicini a noi, essen- 
do 5 nel mezzo del 
celo, che essendo al- 
I'o 6 rizz6te. 

?Tutti li gradi delli 
elemeti, donde passa- 
8 no le spetie de' corpi 
celesti, 9 che vengono 
all'ochio, sono I0 equali, 
e li angoli, "donde li 
penetra "la linia ce- 
trale di tali spetie, so- 
no I 3inequali, e la di-- 
stantia 14 maggiore, 
come mostra 1' eccesso 
a b so is pra a d, e per 
la 9 a del 7 la gran- 
dezza l6 d'essi corpi celesti nell' orizzonte e 

Why the planets appear larger in the 
East than they do overhead, whereas the 
contrary should be the 
case, as they are 3500 
miles nearer to us when 
in mid sky than when 
on the horizon. 

All the degrees of 
the elements , through 
which the images of 
the celestial bodiejs pass 
to reach the eye, are 
equal curves and the 
angles by which the cen- 
tral line of those images 
passes through them, are 
unequal angles [13]; and 
the distance is greater, as 
is shown by the excess of 
a b beyond a d; and 
the enlargement of these 

celestial bodies on the horizon is shown by 
the 9 th of the 7 th . 

on ffu margin. 20. pruoua. at. Dicano. 22. superiore e chesselle no auesino. 23. che obra cheffa . . chessinterpone. 
24. le verebe asscurare. 25. nessedo. 26. nona . . chellonbra. 27. nonagugne . . stelle ege. 28. chellagugnie . . ettanto. 
29. ochu pa. 30. aluminato. 

913. i. aparisca magori. 2. douerebbe. 5. mczo. 6. rizote, 7. gradi | "delli elemeti". 9. vengano. 10. cului elli angoli [della 
luna). ii. (contra le di] donde li. 12. tale. 13. nequali ella. 14. magore . . ecesso. 15. grandeza. 16. orizontc. 

913. 1. 13. inequali, here and elsewhere does not mean unequal in the sense of not being equal to 
each other, but angles which are not right angles. 




Br. M. 279^] 


Per uedere la natura delli pi 2 aneti apri 
il tetto e mo^stra alia basa vn sol pia 4 neta, 
e '1 moto reflesso da stale basa dira la 
comples 6 sione del predetto pianeta, ?ma fa 

To see the real nature of the planets observations 
open the covering and note at the base [4] one " thestars> 
single planet, and the reflected movement of 
this base will show the nature of the said 

che tal basa no ne 8 veda piu d'uno per planet; but arrange that the base may face 


only one at the time. 



Tullius de Diuinatione 2 ait Astrologiam 
fuisse 3adinuenta ante trojanum ^bellu 
Qumgentis septua s ginta milibus anorum. 

Cicero says in [his book] De Divinatione On history 

that Astrol gy has been practised five of no ^y?" 
hundred seventy thousand years before the 
Trojan war. 


Br. M. 173^ (igoi)] 


Benche il tenpo sia annumerato infra 
le continue 2 quatita, esso, per essere inui- 
sibile e sanza corpo, non cade integral- 
mete sotto la 3geometrica potentia, la quale 
lo diuide per figure e corpi d'infinita va- 
rieta, *come continue nelle cose uisibili e 
corporee far si uede; Ma sol co' sua primi 
s principi si couiene , cioe col punto e colla 
linia-; jl punto nel tempo e da 6 essere 
equiparato al suo instante, e la linia a 
similitudine colla Iughez7za d'una quantita 
d'un tempo, e siccome i puti so principio 
e fine della predet 8 ta linia , cosl li instanti 

Although time is included in the class of Of time and 
Continuous Quantities, being indivisible and^^jSj* 
immaterial, it does not come entirely under 
the. head of Geometry, which represents its 
divisions by means of figures and bodies 
of infinite variety, such as are seen to be conti- 
nuous in their visible and material properties. 
But only with its first principles does it agree, 
that is with the Point and the Line ; the point 
may be compared to an instant of time, and the 
line may be likened to the length of a certain 
quantity of time, and just as a line begins and 
terminates in a point, so such a space of time. 

914. 4. refresso. 5. compless. 8. duna. 

916. i. anvmerato infralle 3. geometricha | "potentia" . . diuide . . chorpi difinita. 4. uisibile . . farsi e uede Massol. 5. coe 
. . cholla. 6. Ella . . "a" . . cholla luggez. 7. "duna quantita" dun . . essicome . . effine. 8. instancti . . prcipio . . Esse. 

914. 4. basa. This probably alludes to some in- 
strument, perhaps the Camera obscura. 

915. The statement that CICERO, De Divin. 
ascribes the discovery of astrology to a period 
57000 years before the Trojan war I believe to be 
quite erroneous. According to ERNESTI, Clavis Ci- 
ceroniana, CH. G. SCHULZ (Lexic. Cicer.) and the 
edition of De Divin. by GlESE the word Astrologia 
occurs only twice in CICERO : De Divin. II, 42. Ad Chal- 
dtzoruin monstra veniamus, de quibus Eudoxus, Platonis 
auditor, in astrologia judicio doctissimorum hominum 
facile princeps, sic opinatur (id quod scriptum reliquit): 

Chaldais in prcedictione et in notatione cujusque vita 

ex natali die minime esse credendum." He then quotes 
the condemnatory verdict of other philosophers as 
to the teaching of the Chaldaeans but says nothing 
as to the antiquity and origin of astronomy. CICERO 
further notes De oratore I, 1 6 that Aratus was 
"ignartts astrologies" but that is all. So far as I know 
the word occurs nowhere else in CICERO; and the 
word Astronomia he does not seem to have used at 

916. This passage is repeated word for word on 
page I9o b of the same manuscript and this is ac- 
counted for by the text in Vol. I, No. 4. Compare 
also No. 1216. 




so terminc e principle di qualuche dato 
spatio di tenpo; e se 'la linia e diuisibile 
in Ifinito, lo spatio d'u tenpo di tal diui- 
sione non e alieno, I0 e se le parti diuise 
della linia sono proportionabili infra se, 
ancora le parti del tenpo "sarano propor- 
tionabili infra loro. 

begins and terminates in an instant. And 
whereas a line is infinitely divisible, the 
divisibility of a space of time is of the same 
nature; and as the divisions of the line may 
bear a certain proportion to each other, so 
may the divisions of time. 

Br. M. i;<5-] 


Scriui la qualita del 2 tenpo, separata 
dalla Jgeometrica. 

Describe the nature of Time as distin- 
guished from the Geometrical definitions. 

Br. M. 1910] 9 l8 

Fa che vn ora sia diui'sa in 3000 parti, 
e Jquesto farai coll'oriolo ^alleggeredo o 
aggravado sil cotrapeso. 

Divide an hour into 3000 parts, and this 
you can do with a clock by making the 
pendulum lighter or heavier. 

io. CMelle parte. n. infralloro. 
917. 2. seperata. 3. gcomctricha. 

918. 3. cquesto. 4, allegeredo o agravado. 


Physical Geography. 

Leonardo's researches as to the structure of the earth and sea were made at a 
time, when the extended voyages of the Spaniards and Portuguese had also excited a 
special interest in geographical questions in Italy, and particularly in Tuscany. Still, it 
need scarcely surprise us to find that in deeper questions, as to the structure of the globe, 
the primitive state of the earth's surface, and the like, he was far in advance of 
his time. 

The number of passages which treat of such matters is relatively considerable; 
like almost all Leonardo's scientific notes they deal partly with theoretical and partly 
with practical questions. Some of his theoretical views of the motion of water were 
collected in a copied manuscript volume by an early transcriber, but without any 
acknowledgment of the source whence they were derived. This copy is now in the Library 
of the Barberini palace at Rome and was published under the title: "De moto e mi- 
sura dell' acqua," by FRANCESCO CARDINAL!, Bologna 1828. In this work the texts 
are arranged under the following titles: Libr. I. Delia spera dell' acqua; Libr. It. 
Del moto dell 'acqua; Libr. III. DelPonda dell' acqua; Libr. IV. Dei retrosi d' acqua; 
Libr. V. Dell 'acqua cadente; Libr. VI. Delle rotture fatte dall' acqua; Libr. VII 
Delle cose portate dall 'acqua; Libr. VIII. Dell'oncia dell' acqua e delle canne; Libr. IX. 
De molini e d'altri ordigni d' acqua. 

The large number of isolated observations scattered through the manuscripts, 
accounts for our so frequently finding notes of new schemes for the arrangement of 
those relating to water and its motions, particularly in the Codex Atlanticus: I have 
printed several of these plans as an introduction to the Physical Geography, and I have 
actually arranged the texts in accordance with the clue afforded by one of them which 
is undoubtedly one of the latest notes referring to the subject (No. 920). The text 
given as No. 930 which is also taken from a late note-book of Leonardo's, served as a 
basis for the arrangement of the first of the seven books or sections , bearing the 
title: Of the Nature of Water (Dell'acque in se). 



As I kavt not made it any part of this undertaking to print the passages which 
refer to purely physical principles, it has also been necessary to exclude those practical 
researches which, in accordance ivith indications given in 920, ought to come in as 
Books 13, 14 and 15. / can only incidentally mention here that Leonardo as it seems 
to me, especially in his youth devoted a great deal of attention to the construction of 
mills. This is proved by a number of drawings of very careful and minute execution, 
which are to be found in the Codex Atlanticus. Nor was it possible to include his con- 
siderations on the regulation of rivers, the making of canals and so forth (No. 920, 
Books IO, II and 12); but those passages in which the structure of a canal is directly 
connected with notices of particular places will be found duly inserted under section XVII 
(Topographical notes). In Vol. I, No. 5 the text refers to canal-making in general. 

On one point only can the collection of passages included under the general heading 
of Physical Geography claim to be complete. When comparing and sorting the materials 
for this work I took particular care not to exclude or omit any text in which a geo- 
graphical name was mentioned even incidentally, since in all such researches the chief 
interest, as it appeared to me, attached to the question whether these acute observa- 
tions on the various local characteristics of mountains, rivers or seas, had been made by 
Leonardo himself , and on the spot. It is self-evident that the ftw general and somewhat 
superficial observations on the Rhine and the Danube, on England and Flanders, must 
have been obtained from maps or from some informants, and in the case of Flanders 
Leonardo himself acknowledges this (see No. 1008)+ But that most of the other and more 
exact observations were made, on the spot, by Leonardo himself, may be safely assumed 
from their method and the style in which he writes of them; and we should bear it in 
mind that in all investigations, of whatever kind, experience is always spoken of as the 
only basis on which he relies. Incidentally, as in No. 984, lie thinks it necessary to 
allude to the total absence of all recorded observations. 


Leic. 5 a] 


Quest! libri contegono in ne' primi 2 della These books contain in the beginning : schemes for 

natura dell' acqua in se ne' 3 S ua moti, li Of the nature of water itself in its motions : the arrange- 

111 r i ' 11 /-i r ' ment ot the 

111 r i ' 

altn contegono delle 4 cose tatte dai sua 
corsi, 5 che mv 6 tano il mondo di centre e 
di figura. 

11 /-i r ' 

the others treat of the effects of its currents, materials 
which change the world in its centre and 
its shape. 

Leic. 156] 



Libro p delFacque in se, 

libro 2 del mare, 

libro 3 delle uene, 
5 libro 4 de' fiumi; 

libro 5 delle nature de' fodi, 

libro 6 delli obbietti, 

libro 7 delle ghiaje, 

libro 8 della superfitie del' acqua, 
10 libro 9 delle cose che in quella 
son messe; 

libro 10 de' ripari de' fiumi, 

libro 11 delli condotti, 

libro 12 de' canali, 

libro 13 delli strumeti volti dalF acqua, 
j s libro 14 del far motare 1'acque, 

libro 15 delle cose cosumate dalFacque. 


1 of water in itself. 

2 of the sea. 

3 of subterranean rivers. 

4 of rivers. 

5 of the nature of the abyss. 

6 of the obstacles. 

7 of gravels. 

8 of the surface of water. 

9 of the things placed 

Book 10 of the repairing of rivers. 

Book ii of conduits. 

Book 12 of canals. 

Book 13 of machines turned by water. 

Book 14 of raising water. 

Book 15 of matters worn away by water. 

919 .1. cotegano. 3 cotegano. 4. dae sua. 

gso. 8. giare. 9. delle . . acq"a". 10. quella. 16. dell cose . . acq"e". 



Ute. 9-1 


Farai prima un libro 2 che tratti de' First you shall make a book treating of 

lochi Joccupati dall'acque 'dolci, e '1 2 places occupied by fresh waters, and the se- 

dalM' acque salse, e '1 6 3 come, per la par- cond by salt waters, and the third, how by the 

?tita di quelle,' queste 8 nostre parti son disappearance of these, our parts of the 

'fatte piv lieui, e I0 per consequeza piv world were made lighter and in consequence 

"remosse dal cen"tro del modo. more remote from the centre of the world. 

r- Ml 


Descriui in prima tuttal'acquainciascuno 
suo moto, di poi * descriui tutti li sua fondi 
e le lor materie, senpre aMegando le pro- 
positioni delle predette acque, e fia bu'ono 
ordine, che altrimeti 1' opera sarebbe co- 

s Descriui tutte le figure che fa 1'acqua 
dalla sua 6 maggiore alia sua minore onda 
e le lor cause. 

First write of all water, in each of its 
motions; then describe all its bottoms and 
their various materials, always referring to 
the propositions concerning the said waters; 
and let the order be good, for otherwise the 
work will be confused. 

Describe all the forms taken by water 
from its greatest to its smallest wave, and 
their causes. 

F. Ma] 

Libro 9 de' surgimenti accidentali del- 
T acqua. 

Book 9, of accidental risings of water. 

F. 90*] 




2 Poni nel principio ci6 che pu6 fare vn Place at the beginning what a river 

fiume. can effect. 

Br. M. 35*] 9 

Libro d'abbattere li eserciti col' impeto 
de' diluui fatti dall'acque disgorgate, 

2 Libro che 1' acque coducino a salua- 
mento li legniami tagliati ne' moti, 

3 Libro delle barche condotte contro al- 
1'inpeto de' fiumi, 

* Libro dell' alzare li gran ponti col sen- 
plice accrescimeto dell' acque, 

5 Libro del riparare all'inpeto de' fiumi 
che le citta da quelli no sie percosse. 

A book of driving back armies by the 
force of a flood made by releasing waters. 

A book showing how the waters safely 
bring down timber cut in the mountains. 

A book of boats driven against the impetus 
of rivers. 

A book of raising large bridges higher. 
Simply by the swelling of the waters. 

A book of guarding against the impetus 
of rivers so that towns may not be damaged 
by them. 

gai. i. p"a" vn libr. 3. ochupati. 7. quele. 8. parte. 

939. i. scriui in p"a" . . lacq"a" . . ciasscuno. 2. dcsscriui . . elle. 4. altremeti. 5. cheffa lacq"a". 6. magore . . elle. 
913. acq"". 
924. 2. co che po. 

9S. The head of tack lint it marked by tht litter d which u crosted out. i. d.ibatter . . chol inpito . . dilumi . . dellacq'V 
discorghatc. 2. chellacquc . . assaluamento. 4. acresscimeto. 5. chelle cita dacquelli . . percossi. 


926. 927-J 



Br. M. 35 3] 


Libro della dispositio de' fiumi a co- 
seruatio dell'argine sue, 

2 Libro delli monti, che si spiccherano, 
e fia la terra sotto il nostro emisperio 
scoperta dall'acqua, 

3 Libro del terreno portato dal'acqua a 
riepiere la gra profondita de' pelaghi, 

4 Libro de' modi che la fortuna per se 
netti li riepiuti porti del mare, 

s Libro dell'argine de' fiumi e lor per- 

6 Libro del fare che li fiumi con lor corso 
tegin netti li fondi loro per le citta dode 

7 Libro del fare o rifondare li ponti sopra 
li fiumi, 

8 Libro di ripari che farsi debbo alii 
muri e argini de' fiumi percossi dall'ac- 

9 Libro del generare li colli dalP arena 
o ghiaja sopra le gran profondita dell' acque. 

A book of the ordering of rivers so as to 
preserve their banks. 

A book of the mountains, which would 
stand forth and become land, if our hemi- 
sphere were to be uncovered by. the water. 

A book of the earth carried down by the 
waters to fill up the great abyss of the seas. 

A book of the ways in which a tempest may 
of itself clear out filled up sea-ports. 

A book of the shores of rivers and of 
their permanency. 

A book of how to deal with rivers, so 
that they may keep their bottom scoured by 
their own flow near the cities they pass. 

A book of how to make or to repair 
the foundations for bridges over the rivers. 

A book of the repairs which ought to 
be made in walls and banks of rivers where 
the water strikes them. 

A book of the formation of hills of sand 
or gravel at great depths in water. 

Br. M. 122 a] 


L'acqua da principio al moto suo, 

2 Libro liuellamenti d' acque per diuersi 

3 Libro del discostare li fiumi dai lochi 
da loro offesi, 

4 Libro del dirizzar li fiumi che occu- 
pano superchio terreno, 

5 Libro del diuidere li fiumi in molti 
rami e farli guadabili, 

6 Libro dell' acque che co diuersi moti 
passa pe' pelaghi loro, 

7 Libro del profondare li letti alii fiumi 
co uari corsi d' acque, 

8 Libro di disporre li fiumi I modo che 
li piccoli pricipj de' sua danni non accre- 

9 Libro de' uari moti dell' acque che 
passan per diuerse figure di canali, 

10 Libro del fare che li piccoli fiumi non 
pieghino il maggiore percosso dalle loro 

"Libro della maggior bassezza che 
trouar si possa nella correte della super- 
fitie de' fiumi, 

Water gives the first impetus to its 

A book of the levelling of waters by 
various means. 

A book of diverting rivers from places 
where they do mischief. 

A book of guiding rivers which occupy 
too much ground. 

A book of parting rivers into several 
branches and making them fordable. 

A book of the waters which with various 
currents pass through seas. 

A book of deepening the beds of rivers 
by means of currents of water. 

A book of controlling rivers so that the 
little beginnings of mischief, caused by them, 
may not increase. 

A book of the various movements of waters 
passing through channels of different forms. 

A book of preventing small rivers from 
diverting the larger one into which their 
waters run. 

A book of the lowest level which can 
be found in the current of the surface of 

926. 2. chessi spich[a] erano effia la terra "sotto il nostro emisperio" scoperta dellacqua. 3. tere. 4. perse nettili riepiuti porta 

del mare. 5. ellor premanentia. 6. chelli . . collor . . teginetti . . fondi "lor". 7. orrifondare. 8. cheffarsi. 9. ghi- 

ara . . acq"e". 
937. i. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\gi to dobliquita Lacq"a". 2 13. Each line is headed by an L, meaning Libro. 3. discosstare . . dalloro. 4. diri- 

zar . . ce ochupan. 5. effarli. 6. cho. 7. cho . . chorsi. 8. di sporre . . chelli picholi . . accresscino. 9. acq"e" . . 

chanali. 10. chelli picholi . . magore perchosso. n. dalla maggor basseza . . corete. 12. pellalte. 

VOL. 11. Z 

I 7 8 


[ 9 28. 

"Libro dell' engine de' fiumi die versa 
per 1'alte cime de' monti, 

'J Libro della uarieta de' moti dell'acque 
ne' lor fiumi. 

A book of the origin of rivers which flow 
from the high tops of mountains. 

A book of the various motions of waters in 
their rivers. 


Br. M. ] 

[i] Delia inequalita della concauita del 

[i] Libro della inequalita della curuita 
de' lati de' nauili, 

3[iJ Libro della inequalita del sito del 

[i] Libro della inequalita della carena 
de' nauili, 

s [2] Libro della uarieta delli spiraculi 
donde 1'acqua si uersa, 

6 [3] Libro dell'acqua inclusa ne' vasi 
insieme coll' aria e sua moti, 

7 [4] Libro del moto dell'acqua per 
le cicognole, 

8 [5] Libro delli scontri e concorsi del- 
l'acque venute da diuersi aspetti, 

9 [6] Libro delle varie figure delli argini 
traversati dalli fiumi, 

10 [7] Libro delle uarie seccbe generate 
sotto le chiuse de' fiumi, 

11 [8] Libro delle torture e pieghameti 
delle correti de' fiumi, 

"[9] Libro de' uari siti donde si de' 
trar 1'acqua de' fiumi, 

I3 [io] Libro delle figure dell'argini de' 
fiumi e lor permanetia, 

14 [n] Libro dell'acqua cadente perpe- 
dicularmente sopra diuersi obbietti, 

'5 [12] Libro del corso dell'acqua inpe- 
dito in diuersi siti, 

16 [12] Libro delle uarie figure delli ob- 
bietti che impediscono il corso del acque, 

I7 [i3J Libro delle concauita e globosita 
fatte dal fondo Ttorno a vari obbietti, 

18 [14] Libro del condurre li canali navi- 
gabili sopra o sotto li fiumi che Piterse- 

19 [15] Libro delli terreni che beono le 
acque de' canali e lor ripari, 

20 [i6] Libro della creatio de' corsi de' 
fiumi che votano il letto de' fiumi riepiuti 
di terreno. 

[i] Of inequality in the concavity of a 

[i] A book of the inequality in the curve 
of the sides of ships. 

[i] A book of the inequality in the position 
of the tiller. 

[i] A book of the inequality in the keel 
of ships. 

[2] A book of various forms of apertures 
by which water flows out. 

[3] A book of water contained in vessels 
with air, and of its movements. 

[4] A book of the motion of water through 
a syphon. 

[5] A book of the meetings and union 
of waters coming from different directions. 

[6] A book of the various forms of the 
banks through which rivers pass. 

[7] A book of the various forms of shoals 
formed under the sluices of rivers. 

[8] Abook of the windings and meanderings 
of the currents of rivers. 

[9] A book of the various places whence 
the waters of rivers are derived. 

[10] A book of the configuration of the 
shores of rivers and of their permanency. 

[u] A book of the perpendicular fall of 
water on various objects. -. 

[12] Abook of the course of water when 
it is impeded in various places. 

[12] A book of the various forms of the 
obstacles which impede the course of waters. 

[13] A book of the concavity and globosity 
formed round various objects at the bottom. 

[14] Abook of conducting navigable canals 
above or beneath the rivers which intersect 

[15] A book of the soils which absorb 
water in canals and of repairing them. 

[ 1 6] Abook of creating currents for rivers, 
which quit their beds, [and] for rivers choked 
with soil. 

4. charena. 5. spirachuli . . lacq"a". 6. essua. 7. cicognuolc. 8. acq"e" . . di . . asspetti. 9. delle . . traversate alii. 
10. secche [fatte sotto] generate, n. chorreti. u. lacque. 13. fighure dellargine . . ellor premanetia. 14. chadende per- 
pedchulare. 15. acq"a". 16. chenpedisscano . . aeq"e". 17. globbosita. 18. condure . . navichabili . . ossotto . . 
chellrersegano. 19. beano . . chanali ellor. 

928. I. Tte first line of this passage was added subsequently, evidently as a correction of the follow- 
ing line. 7. cutgnoU, see No. 966, n, 17. 







2 L'omo e detto-da li antiqui modo By the ancients man has been called the General in- 

minore -, e cierto la ditione d'esso-nome world in miniature; and certainly this name trodui 
e bene collocata, 3i m p e ro-che, sicchome- 
F omo e coposto di terra -, acqua -, aria 
e foco-, questo corpo della terra 4 e il 
simiglante-; se 1'omo a in se ossi, soste- 
nitori e armadura della carne -, jl modo a 
i sassi, Ssostenitori della terra; se 1'omo 
a in se il lago del sangue, doue crescie- 
e discrescie il pcJmo 6 ne nello alitare -, jl 
corpo della terra a il suo oceano mare -, il 
quale ancora lui crescie ^ e discrescie ogni 

sei ore per lo alitare del modo ; se dal 
detto lago di sangue diriuano ve 8 ne -, che 
si vanno ramificado per lo corpo vmano -, 
similmete il mare oceano enpie 9il corpo 
della terra d' infinite vene d' acqua; man- 
cano al corpo della terra i nerui, i quali 
no ui I0 sono -, perche i nervi sono fatti al 
proposito del movimeto -, e il modo sendo 
di perpetua stabilita, JI non accade movi- 
meto e, no accadedo movimeto, i nervi- 
no ui sono neciessari ; Ma I tutte IS Taltre 

cose sono molto simili. 

is well bestowed, because, inasmuch as man 
is composed of earth, water, air and fire, 
his body resembles that of the earth; and 
as man has in him bones the supports and 
framework of his flesh, the world has its rocks 
the supports of the earth; as man has in him 
a pool of blood in which the lungs rise and 
fall in. breathing, so the body of the earth 
has its ocean tide which likewise rises and 
falls every six hours, as if the world breathed; 
as in that pool of blood veins have their ori- 
gin, which ramify all over the human body, 
so likewise the ocean sea fills the body of the 
earth with infinite springs of water. The 
body of the earth lacks sinews and this is, 
because the sinews are made expressely for 
movements and, the world being perpetually 
stable, no movement takes place, and no 
movement taking place, muscles are not ne- 
cessary. But in all other points they are 
much alike. 

929. i. acq"a". 2. cholochata. 3. impero . chessi . chome . . choposto di tera . acq"a" . . effocho . . chorpo . . tera. 4. sel- 
lomo . . osso . . charne. 5. ssisotenitori . . lacho. 6. tera . . occicano . . anchora . . cresscie. 7. diriua ve. 8. chessi 
vano ramifichado . . chorpo . . [C] similmete . . occieano. 9. dacq"a" mancha . . tera. n. achade . . achadedo. 12. chose. 


The .i 


E. ] 930. 


'Difinisci prima che cosa e altezza e Define first what is meant by height and 

bassezza anzi come so situati ^li elemeti depth; also how the elements are situated 

one inside another. Then, what is ^meant 
by solid weight and by liquid weight; but 
first what weight and lightness are in them- 
selves. Then describe why water moves, 
and why its motion ceases; then why it be- 
comes slower or more rapid; besides this, 
how it always falls, being in contact with 
the air but lower than the air. And how water 
rises in the air by means of the heat of the 
sun, and then falls again in rain; again, why 
water springs forth from the tops of moun- 
tains; and if the water of any spring higher 
than the ocean can pour forth water 
higher than the surface of that ocean. And 
how all the water that returns to the ocean 
is higher than the sphere of waters. And 
how the waters of the equatorial seas are 
higher than the waters of the North, and higher 
beneath the body of the sun than in any part 
of the equatorial circle ; for experiment shows 
that under the heat of a burning brand the 
water near the brand boils, and the water 
surrounding this ebullition always sinks with 

Book i. 1'u'dentro all'altro; Di poi che cosa e gra- 
vita de 4 sa e che e gravita liquida, ma prima 
che cosa e in se gravista e leuita ; Di poi 
descrivi perche 1'acqua si move e perche 
ter^mina il moto suo, poi perche si fa piu 
tarda o velocie, oltre 7 a questo come ella 
senpre disciede, essendo in cofine d'ari*a 
piu bassa di lei j E come 1'acqua si leua 
in aria mediante 9il calore del sole e poi 

ricade in pioggia ; ancora perche 1' acqua 
10 surgie dalle cime de' monti e se 4' acqua 
di nessuna vena piu alta "che 1' oceano 
mare pud uersare acqua piu alta che la 
superfitie I2 d' esso oceano ; E come tutta 

1' acqua che torna all' oceano e piu alta 
'^della spera dell' acqua | e come 1'acqua 
delli mari equinotiali e piu alta ^che le 
acque settetrionali , ed e piu alta sotto il 
corpo del sole 'Sche in nessuna parte del 
circulo equinotiale come si speri l6 meta 
sotto il calore dello stizzo infocato, 1'acqua 
che mediate tale stizzo bolle e 1'acqua 
circustate al cietro di tal bol' 8 lore senpre 

930. i. p"o" libro. 2. p"a" che chosa he . . ebbasseza. 3. chosa. 4. chosa. 5. elleuita. 7. addi questo chomelU . . cotino. 
8. chome. 9. chalore . . eppoi richade . . anchora. 10. dellc cime . . essellacqua. n. chclloccieano . . cbella. 12. occic- 
ano . . chome . . chettorna . . accieano eppiu. 13. [desso] della . . chome . . ecquinotiali eppiu. 14. chelle. 15. incssuna 
. . circhulo . . iiisperi. 16. chalore . . infochato. 17. talle . . ellacqua circhustate. 18. dissciende . . circhulare e chome. 

931 933-] 



disciende con onda circulare e come 1' acque a circular eddy. And how the waters of the 

^settetrionali Son piv basse che li altri 
mari e tato piu, qua 20 to esse son piv fredde, 
insin che si convertono in ghiaccio. 

North are lower than the other seas, and 
more so as they become colder, until they 
are converted into ice. 

C 266 (4)] 



2 Acqua e infra i quatro elemeti il se- Among the four elements water is the Definitions 

codo me grave e di seconda volubilita. second both in weight and in instability. (931-932). 

1.2 24* and 1} 932. 

Pelago e detto quello, il quale a figura 


_ - !., j & Sea is the name given to that water 

la'rga ^e profoda; 4 ne l quale 1' acque stanno which is wide and deep, in which the waters 

con poco moto. 

have not much motion. 

Leic. 34 6] 


Li centri della spericita dell'acqua sono 
due : 1' uno e della vniuersale acqua, 1' altro 
e particulare; 2 l'vniversale e quello, il 
quale serue a tutte 1' acque sanza moto ; che 
sono in se in gra quatita, 3 come canali, 
fossi, viuai, fonti, pozzi, fiumi morti, laghi, 
paduli, stagni e mari, li quali, ancorache 
sieno di uarie altezze ciascuno per se, ano 
li termini delle lor superfitie equi^distanti 
al centro del mondo, come sono i laghi 
posti nelle cime delli alti moti come sopra 
s Pietra Pana e Lago della Sibilla a Norcia, 
e tutti li laghi che da principio a grandi 
fiumi, come Tesino 6 dal Lago Maggiore, 
Adda dal lago di Como, Mincio dal lago 
di Garda e Reno dal lago di Costan?tia | 
e di Coira e dal lago di Lucerne, e come 
Tigron, il quale passa per la Minore Asia, 
il quale ne porta 8 con seco 1' acqua di 3 
paduli, 1'un dopo 1' altro, di uarie altezze, 
de' quali il piv alto e Munace, el mezzano 
e Pallas 9e '1 piu basso e Triton; ancora 
el Nilo diriua da 3 altissimi paduli in Eti- 

The centres of the sphere of water are or the sur- 
two, one universal and common to all water, ^aterhlrda- 
the other particular. The universal one istin to the 
that which is common to all waters not in (933-936). 
motion, which exist in great quantities. As 
canals, ditches, ponds, fountains, wells, dead 
rivers, lakes, stagnant pools and seas, which, 
although they are at various, levels, have 
each in itself the limits of their superficies 
equally distant from the centre of the earth, 
such as lakes placed at the tops of high moun- 
tains; as the lake near Pietra Pana and 
the lake of the Sybil near Norcia; and all 
the lakes that give rise to great rivers, as 
the Ticino from Lago Maggiore, .the Adda 
from the lake of Como, the Mincio from 
the lake of Garda, the Rhine from the lakes 
of Constance and of Chur, and from the lake of 
Lucerne, like the Tigris which passes through 
Asia Minor carrying with it the waters of three 
lakes, one above the other at different heights 
of which the highest is Munace, the middle one 
Pallas, and the lowest Triton; the Nile again 
flows from three very high lakes in Ethiopia. 

19. chelli . . ettato. 20. chessi chonvertano in diaccio. 

931. i. chosa . . sechodo. 2. grieve . . sechonda. 933. 2. pellago . . affigura. 

933. i. Lli centri . . acq"a" . . partichulare. 2. deluniversale . . attutte lacque . . chessono. 3. cannali fossi "viuai fonti pozi' 
fiumi . . quali "ancorche sieno di uarie alteze ciascun per se" ano. 4. distante . . illaghi. 5. pietra pana ellago . . sibilla 
a norca ettutti. 6. [adda da] dal . . magore . . lagho . . como [adice] "menzo" dal lagho . . erreno . . gostan. 7. eurio 
lacho . . Trigon . . minore africha il quane ne. 8. consecholacq"a" . . alteze . . mezano he. 9. di. 

932. Only the beginning of this passage is here 
given, the remainder consists of definitions which 
have no direct bearing on the subject. 

933- 5- Pietra Pana, a mountain near Florence. If 
for Norcia, we may read Norchia, the remains of 

the Etruscan city near Viterbo, there can be no doubt 
that by 'Lago della Sibilla! a name not known else- 
where, so far as I can learn Leonardo meant 
Lago di Vico (Lacus Ciminus, Aen. 7). 



[934- 935- 




*D cietro della spera dell'acqua e il 
centre- vero della rotodita del nostro modo, 

il quale si copone J infra acqua e terra 
in forma rotoda ; Ma se tu volessi trovare 

il cietro dello elemeto della terra , questo 

e cotenuto per equidistate spatio dalla 
superfitie dell' oceano mare , e no dalla 
sequidistante superfitie della- terra , perche 
chiaro si comprende questa palla della 
terra non 6 avere niente di perfetta roto- 
dita , se non in quella parte dou' e mare 

o paduli o altre acque mor 7 te, e qualun- 
que parte d'essa terra che escie fori 
d'esso mare, s'allontana dal suo- cietro. 


The centre of the sphere of waters is 
the true centre of the globe of our world, 
which is composed of water and earth, 
having the shape of a sphere. But, if you 
want to find the centre of the element of 
the earth, this is placed at a point equidi- 
stant from the surface of the ocean, and 
not equidistant from the surface of the earth; 
for it is evident that this globe of earth has 
nowhere any perfect rotundity, excepting in 
places where the sea is, or marshes or other 
still waters. And every part of the earth 
that rises above the water is farther from 
the centre. 

E. 4*1 935 



3 Li nichi, ostrighe e altri simili animali, 
<che nascono nelli fanghi marini, ci testifi- 
scano la mutatio della terra intorno al 

6 cietro de' nostri elemeti; pruovasi cosl: 

7 Li fiumi reali senpre corrono con torbidu- 
8 me, tinto dalla terra, che per lor si leua 
mediate la co^fregatio delle sue acque sopra 
il fondo e nelle sue I0 riue, e tal cosumati- 
one scopre le fronti de' gradi "fatti a' suoli 
di quelli nichi, che stan nella superfitie 
"del fango marine, li quali in tal sito na- 
scierono, qua^do 1' acque salse li coprivano, 
e questi tali gradi erano ri I4 coperti di tenpo 
in tenpo dalli fanghi di uarie grossez'Sze o 
condotti al mare dalli fiumi co diluvi di di- 
verse gra l6 dezze; e cosl tali faghi furono 
composti in tata altezza, che dal fondo si 
'^scopriua all' aria; Ora questi tali fondi 
sono in tata l8 altezza che son fatti colli, 
o alti moti, e li fiumi, ^consuma^tori de' 
lati "d'essi monti, "scoprono **\\ gradi 
d'es^si nichi, e co 2 5sl il Ieni 26 ficato lato 
*? della terra 28 al cotinuo 2 9s'inalza, e *]i 
antipcP'di s'accosta^no piu al -"tietro del 
Jmondo, 35 e li anti^chi fondi del 37 ma re 
son fatti * 8 gioghi di monti. 

The shells, oysters, and other similar ani- 
mals, which originate in sea-mud, bear wit- 
ness "to the changes of the earth round the 
centre of our elements. This is proved 
thus: Great rivers always run turbid, being 
coloured by the earth, which is stirred by the 
friction of their waters at the bottom and on 
their shores; and this wearing disturbs the face 
of the strata made by the layers of shells, 
which lie on the surface of the marine mud, 
and which were produced there when the 
salt waters covered them; and these strata 
were covered over again from time to time, 
with mud of various thickness, or carried down 
to the sea by the rivers and floods of more or 
less extent; and thus these layers of mud became 
raised to such a height, that they came up 
from the bottom to the air. At the present time 
these bottoms are so high that they form hills 
or high mountains, and the rivers, which 
wear away the sides of these mountains, un- 
cover the strata of these shells, and thus the 
softened side of the earth continually rises and 
the antipodes sink closer to the centre of the 
earth, and the ancient bottoms of the seas 
have become mountain ridges. 

934. i. eccicono. a. dellacq"a" . . retodita . . nosstro . . qualle . . chopone. 3. acq"a" ecterra . . retoda Massettu . . elle- 

meto. 4. quessio e thotenuto . . equidissunte . . occieano. 5. equidisstanto . . chonplende questa . . nona. 6. retodita. 

7. ecqualumque . . terra esscie. 
935- 3- osstrighe. 4. nasschano . . tessti. 5. chano. 6. nosstri. 7. senpre [stanno] cor! torbidi. 8. mediate la terra. 9. fre- 

ghatio . . accque . . nelle sine. 10. rive ettal . . sconpre . . fronte. ' n. assuoli . . chesstan. 12. fangho . . nasscicrono. 

13. ecquessti . . era ri. 14. grosse. 15. indotti. 16. faghi conpossti . . alteza. 17. quessti. 18. alteza . . clli fiumi. 

22. scoprano. 24. echo. 25. si [1] illeni. 26. fichato. 29. el sacossta. Lines 19 38 are written OH the margin. 

936 938.] 



Leic. 10 i] 


Faccia mutatio la terra colla sua gra- Let the earth make whatever changes 

vezza, quate farsi 2 voglia, che mai la it may in its weight, the surface of the 

superfitie .della spera dell'acqua no si sphere of waters can never vary in its 

partira dalla sua equidistatia col centre del equal distance from the centre of the 

modo. world. 

Leic. 35,5] 937- 


2 Dicono alcuni esser vero, che la terra, 
ch'e scoperta dalle acque, sia molto 
rninore che quella che da esse acqu' e 
coperta; 3 Ma che considerando la 
grossezza di 7000 miglia di diametro, 
che a essa terra, e' si puo concludere 
1'acqua essere di *poca profondita. 

Leic. 36 




Some assert that it is true that the earth, 

. . , , , . Of the pro- 

which is not covered by water is portion of 
much less than that covered by wa- ^ a e te " a ss th J 
ter. But considering the size of 7000 of the Dearth 
miles in diameter which is that of 
this earth, we may conclude the 
water to be of small depth. 


(937- 938)- 

2 L' alzarsi tanto le cime de' monti sopra 
la spera dell' acqua puo esser diriuato, perche 
il loco grandissimo 3 della terra, il quale 

The great elevations of the peaks of the 
mountains above the sphere of the water 
may have resulted from this that: a very 

era ripieno d' acqua, 
cioe la grandissima 
cauerna, douette ca- 
dere assai della sua 
volta inuerso il centro 
del mondo, trovandosi 
ispiccata mediante il 
corso deslle uene che 
al continuo consuma- 
no il loco donde pas- 

6 Profondameto di paesi 7 come 
Mare Morto di So 8 ria cioe Sodoma e 

9 E necessario che 1'acqua sia piu che 
la terra, e la parte scoperta del mare no 


large portion of the earth 
which was filled with 
water that is to say 
the vast cavern inside 
the earth may have fal- 
len in a vast part of 
its vault towards the 
centre of the earth, being 
pierced by means of the 
course of the springs 
which continually wear 

away the place where they pass. 

Sinking in of countries like the Dead Sea 

in Syria, that is Sodom and Gomorrah. 
It is of necessity that there should be more 

water than land, and the visible portion of 

936. i. facia . . graveza. 2. dellacq"a". 

937. i. Sella . . chellacq"a". 2. dicano . . chella. 3. groseza . . diamitro . . po con chludere lacqua per essere. 4. pocha. 

938. 2. lasspera . . ilocho. 3. coe. 4. isspichata. 5. iloco. 8. coe soddoma e gamora. 9. chellacq"a" . . chella terra ella . . 
dell . . dimosstra. 

938. The small sketch below on the left, is placed in the original close to the text referring to the 
Dead Sea. 



[939- 940. 

lo dimostra, onde bisognia che I0 molta the sea does not show this ; so that there must 

acqua sia dentro alia terra, sanza quella be a great deal of water inside the earth, 

ch'e infusa nella bassa aria e che scorre besides that which rises into the lower air 

"per li fiumi e uene. an d which flows through rivers and springs. 




'Delia figura delli elemeti, e prima 

The theory contro a chi nega ^I'opinione di Platone, 

ofpuio. che dicono che se essi elemeti vestis'sero 

1'un 1'altro, colle figure che mette Platone, 

che si caJvserebbe vacuo infra 1* uno e 1* al- 

tro; e non e vero, e *'qui lo provo, ma 

Erima bisognia proporre alcuna co^clusione; 
on e neciessario che nessuno ele 8 mento, 
che veste 1'u 1'altro, sia d'equ 1 grossezza 
in tu9tta la sua quantitk infra la parte che 
ueste e quel I0 la ch'e 
uestita ; Noi uediamo 
la spera dell' acqua 
ma^nifestamete essere 
di uarie grossezze dal- 
la sua "superfitie al 
fondo, e che, no che 
essa vestisse I3 la terra 
quando fusse di figura cuba cioe di 8 an- 
goli come ^vole Platone, essa veste la 
terra che a innumerabili 'Sangoli di scogli 
coperti dall' acqua e varie globosita e co- 
l6 cavita, e non si genera vacuo infra 1' ac- 
qua e la terra; Ancora 1'aria veste la 
spera dell' acqua ^insieme colli monti e 
valli che superano essa spera, e no l8 ri- 
mane vacuo infra la terra e 1'aria, sicche, 
chi disse ^generarsi vacuo, ebbe tristo di- 

20 A Plato si rispode che la superfitie 
"delle figure che avrebbero li elemeti, 
22 che lui pone, non potrebbero sta 2 -*re. 

Of the figures of the elements; and first 
as against those who deny the opinions of 
Plato, and who say that if the elements in-" 
elude one another in the forms attributed 
to them by Plato they would cause a va- 
cuum one within the other. I say it is not 
true, and I here prove it, but first I desire 
to propound some conclusions. It is not 
necessary that the elements which include 
each other should be of corresponding magni- 
tude in all the parts, of 
that which includes and 
of that which is inclu- 
ded. We see that the 
sphere of the waters 
varies conspicuously in 
mass from the surface to 
the bottom, and that, far 

from investing the earth when that was in the 
form of a cube that is of 8 angles as Plato 
will have it, that it invests the earth which 
has innumerable angles of rock covered by 
the water and various prominences and concavi- 
ties, and yet no vacuum is generated between 
the earth and water; again, the air invests 
the sphere of waters together with the moun- 
tains and valleys, which rise above that sphere, 
and no vacuum remains between the earth and 
the air, so that any one who says a vacuum is 
generated, speaks foolishly. 

But to Plato I would reply that the sur- 
face of the figures which according to him 
the elements would have, could . not exist. 

A. 58*] 940. 


i vediamo il Nilo partirsi dalle- We see the Nile come from Southern 

That the meridiane regioni-e rigare diuerse pro- regions and traverse various provinces, run- 
proresThTvinciej corredo 4 inverse settentrione per ning towards the North for a distance of 

slope of the 

939. i. p"a" cootro . . niegha. 3. lopenione . . dicano chesse . . vessti. 4. sm lulaltro cholle. 5. vserebe . . ellaltro ilenone 
ere. 6. sna p"a". 8. grosseza. 9. infralla . . ecquel. 10. lasspera dellacq"a". xx. grosseze. 12. vestissi [il cubo] 
13. quande fussi . . cubo *'cee di 8 angoli" come. 14. esse . . inunbili. 15. acq"a". 16. cavita "e non sigenera vacuo 
infra lacqua ella terra" Ancora laria che veste. 17. cholli. 18. ellaria siche. 20. chella. 21. arebo. 22. chellui . . 

940. i. chome . . tera . . po avr chomune. 3. vedemo . . delle . . choredo. 4. settantrione . . isspatio . . miglia "e vessare 



I8 5 

ispatio di 3000 miglia e versare nelle 
mediterrane ode ai liti d'Egitto, e se noi 
vogliamo dare a questo di calo quelle 
s dieci braccia per miglio , le quali comv- 
nalmete si concede alia vniversalita del 
corso de' fiumi, 6 noi troveremo il Nilo 
avere il suo fine piv basso che '1 pricipio 
miglia dieci ; ?Ancora vediamo il Reno, 
Rodano e Danvbio - partirsi dalle germani- 
che parti, quasi cietro 8 d'Evropa , e 1'uno 
a Oriete, 1'altro a settetrione , e P ultimo- 
a meridiani mari fa suo corso; 9 se tu cosi- 
derai bene tutto, vedrai le pianvre d' Europa 
fare vno cocorso molto I0 piv elevato , 
che no sono 1'alte cime de' marittimi moti; 
or pesa, quato le loro cime TI si trovano- 
piv alte che liti marini. 

3000 miles and flow into the Mediterranean 
by the shores of Egypt; and if we will give 
to this a fall of ten braccia a mile, as is 
usually allowed to the course of rivers in 
general, we shall find that the Nile must 
have its mouth ten miles lower than its source. 
Again, we see the Rhine, the Rhone and 
the Danube starting from the German parts, 
almost the -centre of Europe, and having a 
course one to the East, the other to the 
North, and the last to Southern seas. 
And if you consider all this you will see 
that the plains of Europe in their aggre- 
gate are much higher than the high peaks 
of the maritime mountains; think then how 
much their tops must be above the sea 

A. 55-5] 



2 Dov'e-vita 11 e calore , e dou'e-ca- 
lore vitale, quiui e mouimeto d'umori; 
3 Questo si pruova, inperoche si uede per 
effetto che il caldo dello elemeto del 
foco senpre tira a se 4 li umidi vapori e 
folte nebbie e spessi nuvoli , i quali spic- 
cano da' mari e altri paduli e fiumi e 
vmide s valli, e quelle tirado a poco a poco 

insino alia fredda regione , quella prima 
parte si ferma, 6 perche-il caldo e vmido 
no si affa col freddo e secco ; onde ferma 
la prima parte 11 assetta 1'altre 7 parti, e 
cosl, aggiugniedosi parte co parte , si fa 
spesse e oscure nvbole ; e spesso sono 
8 remosse e portate da veti d' Una -in altra 
regione; dove per la densita loro fanno si 
spessa gravezza, 9 che cadono co spessa 
pioggia ; e se '1 caldo del sole s' aggivgnie 
alia potetia dello elemeto I0 del foco , i 
nvuoli fieno -tirati piv alti e trovano piv 
freddo, in nel quale si ghiacciano e cavsasi 
11 tepestosa gradine ; Ora quel medesimo 

caldo , che tiene si gra peso d' acqua , 
come si uede I2 piovere de' nvvoli, sveglie 
P acque di basso in alto dalle base delle 
motagnie, e coduciele, e tienle ^detro- 
alle cime delle motagnie, le quali , tro- 
vado qualche fessura, al continue vsciedo, 
14 causa i fiumi. 

within the 

Where there is life there is heat, and where Theory of 
vital heat is, there is movement of vapour. th of e wlter n 
This is proved, inasmuch as we see that 
the element of fire by its heat always draws 
to itself damp vapours and thick mists as 
opaque clouds, which it raises from seas as 
well as lakes and rivers and damp valleys; and 
these being drawn by degrees as far as the 
cold region, the first portion stops, because 
heat and moisture cannot exist with cold 
and dryness; and where the first portion stops 
the rest settle, and thus one portion after 
another being added , thick and dark 
clouds are formed. They are often wafted 
about and borne by the winds from one 
region to another, where by their density 
they become so heavy that they fall in thick 
rain; and if the heat of the sun is added to 
the power of the element of fire, the clouds 
are drawn up higher still and find a greater 
degree of cold, in which they form ice and 
fall in storms of hail. Now the same heat 
which holds up so great a weight of water 
as is seen to rain from the clouds, draws 
them from below upwards, from the foot of 
the mountains, and leads and holds them 
within the summits of the mountains, and 
these, finding some fissure, issue continuously 
and cause rivers. 

nelle mediterane ode a liti e se . . degitto acquessto di cholo qualle. 5. dieci br . . quale chomvnemete . . chonciede. 6. no 
trovrremo . . precipio . . . diecip. 7. vedemo . . delle. 8. elluno . . assettatrione . . chorso. 9. settu chosiderai . be 
verai [levr] le . . deropia . . chochorso. 10. cime. 

941. i. chaldo. 2. vita | "li" e chalore . . quiue . . domori [Esse 1 chaldo move lumido "il freddo lo ferma". 3. chaldo . . focho 
. asse. 4. elTolte nebie esspessi nuboli . . spicha de . . effiumi. 5. quele . . apocho apocho . . freda regione [i] e. 6. chal- 
do . . chol . . essecho . . li assetta laltre. 7. chosi agiugnedo . . cho . . osschure . . esspesso sono [portale]. 8. fano 
graueza. 9. chadano choispessa piogia esselchaldo . . sagivgnie. 10. focho . . fredo inel . . diacciano e chavsasi. 
ii. chaldo chettiene . . chome. 12. nvboli [tiene] disuelle . . delle motagnie e choducie le ettielle. 13. motagnie le quali 
. . li chontinui vssciedo. 14. chausano i fiumi. 


A A 



[942. 943. 




* d e vna pianvra, donde corre s vn 
Th reuuve fiume al mare, la qual pianu 6 ra a per ter- 
h tmf a f o 1 f e mine esso mare; e per'che in vero essa 
the' <a 10 t err a scoperta no * e nel sito dell' e- 
lh *und the qualita,-perche, seco'slfusse, il fiume 
l)- non avrebbe mo jo to~,onde, moven- 
dosi, questo sito "a piutosto da essere 
detto spiagg"ia che pianvra; e cosl 
essa pia^nura d b termina in tal 
modo '*colla spera dell'acqua che, 
chi la produ'Scesse in continua rettitudine 
in b a, Ib essa entrerebbe sotto il mare, e 
7di qui nasce che '1 mar a c b pare piu 
alto che la terra discoperta. 

l8 Naturalmete nes^suna parte della 20 terra 
discoperta da 2I l'acqua fia mai 22 piu bassa 
che la 2 3superfitie della ** spera d'essa acqua. 


b d is a plain through which a river 
flows to the sea; this plain ends at the sea, 
and since in fact the dry land that is un- 
covered is not perfectly level for, 
if it were, the river would have no 
motion as the river does move, this 
place is a slope rather than a plain; 
hence this plain d b so ends where 
the sphere of water begins that if 
it were extended in a continuous line 
to b a it would go down beneath the sea, 
whence it follows that the sea a c b looks 
higher than the dry land. 

Obviously no portions of dry land left 
uncovered by water can ever be lower than 
the surface of the watery sphere. 




2 Cierto non poca ammiratione -mi da 
la comvne opinione fatta cotro al uero 
dallo vniversale 3 cocorso de' givditi delli 
omini , e 'questo e che tutti s'accordano 
che la superfitie del mare 4 sia piv alta 
che 1'altissime cime delle motagnie , alle- 
gado molte vane e puerili ragioni, 5 cotro 
ai quali io n'allegher6 solo vna senplie e 
brieve ragione ; Noi vediamo chiaro , che 
b se si toglie via 1'argine al mare , che 
lui vestira la terra e faralla di per- 
fetta rotodita; ?or cosidera quata terra 
si leuerebbe a fare che 1'ode marine 
coprissino 8 il modo; aduque ci6, che si 
leuasse, sarebbe piv alto che la riua del 


Certainly I wonder not a little at the 
common opinion which is contrary to truth, 
but held by the universal consent of the 
judgment of men. And this is that all are 
agreed that the surface of the sea is higher 
than the highest peaks of the mountains; 
and they allege many vain and childish reasons, 
against which I will allege only one simple 
and short reason: We see plainly that if 
we could remove the shores of the sea, it 
would invest the whole earth and make it 
a perfect sphere. Now, consider how much 
earth would be carried away to enable the 
waves of the sea to cover the world; there- 
fore that which would be carried away must 
be higher than the sea-shore. 

94*. 2. senpici par pu. 3. chella . . chclli. 4. a d e vna. 5. lacqual. 6. essesso. 9. fussi . . arebbe. 14. dellacq"a". 15. cessi. 

16. enterebbe. 17. nassce. On Ote margin is written: cella tera 

di scoperta. 

LtHft te 24 are olio written on ike margin. 18. nc. 22. chella. 24. acq"a". 
943. i. dichanu lac<j"a" . . chella. 2. pocha amiratione . . chomvne oppenione fatto chotra. 3. chochorso . . ecquesto e chet- 

tutti sachordnno chella. 4. chellaltissime . . ragione. 5. nalegero . . vedemo. 6. tolglie . . chellui vesstira eflaralla . . 

rcJodita. 7. chOsidera |vn p.cha] . . affare chellode . . choprissino. 8. chessi leuassi . . chella. 

944- 945-1 


I8 7 

A. 5 6a] 





4 L' acqua no si movera da loco a loco 

se la bassezza-non la tira; E per corso 
Snaturale no potra mai ritornare a altezza 

simile al primo loco, do 6 ve 
nel uscire de'moti si mostro 

al cielo ; E quella parte 
del mare , che 7 co falsa 
imaginatione tu diciesti es- 
sere si alta , che uersaua 
per le cime de 8 li alti moti, 

per tati seculi sarebbe co- 
sumata e uersata per 1' uscita 
d'esse 9 m dtagnie; Tu puoi 
bene pesare che tato tepo 
che Tigris ed Eufrates 


Water would not move from place to 
place if it were not that it seeks the lowest 
level and by a natural consequence it never 
can return to a height like that 
of the place where it first on 
issuing from the mountain 
came to light. And that por- 
tion of the sea which, in your 
vain imagining, you say was 
so high that it flowed over the 
summits of the high mountains, 
for so many centuries would be 
swallowed^up and poured out 
again through the issue from 
these mountains. You can well imagine that 
all the time that Tigris and Euphrates 

A. 566] 


anno versato per le sommita de' moti 

Armeni , che si puo credere che tutta 
F acqua dell' ocieano * sia moltissime volte 

passata per dette bocche ; or non cre- 
di tu che '1 Nilo abbi messo piv 3 acqua- 
1 mare che non e al presente tutto lo ele- 
meto dell' acqua ? cierto si; e se detta 
acqua 4 fusse caduta fori di questo corpo 

della terra , questa machina sarebbe gia 
lugo tepo Sstata saza acqua, siche si puo 
cocludere che F acqua vadi dai fiumi al 
mare e dal mare 6 ai fivmi, senpre cosl 
raggirado e voltadosi, e che tutto il mare 

e i fivmi sieno passati per la bocca del 
Nilo infinite volte. 

have flowed from the summits of the 
mountains of Armenia, it must be believed 
that all the water of the ocean has passed 
very many times through these mouths. 
And do you not believe that the Nile must 
have sent more water into the sea than at 
present exists of all the element of water? 
Undoubtedly, yes. And if all this water 
had fallen away from this body of the earth, 
this terrestrial machine would long since 
have been without water. Whence we may 
conclude that the water goes from the rivers 
to the sea, and from the sea to the rivers, thus 
constantly circulating and returning, and that 
all the sea and the rivers have passed through the 
mouth of the Nile an infinite number of times 

944. I. Openione dalchuni che dichano chellacqua dalchuni. 2. alta [che alchu] chelle . . somita. 4. Lacq"a" . . dalocho al- 
locho sella basseza . . chorso. 5. alteza . . locho. 6. usscire . . Ecquella. 7. cho . . dicievi. 8. tate sechuli sarebe cho 
sumata . . lusscita. 9. motagnia . . chettato . . chettigris. 

945. i. moti ermini che si po . . che | "tutta"llacq"a". 2. boche . . abi. 3. imare . . e "al presete" tutto . . esse. 4. fussi 
chaduta . . chorpo . . tera . . sarebe. 5. chochiudere. 6. ragirado . . chettutto . . sia pasato . . bocha; the last two words 
infinite volte are written on tlie margin. 

945. Moti Armeni, Ermini in the original, in M. 
RAVAISSON'S transcript "monti ernini \le loro ruine?]". 
He renders this "Le Tigre et I' Euphrate se sont de- 
verses par les sommeli- des monlagnes \avec leurs eaux 
destructives ?\ on peut cro : re" &c. Leonardo always 
writes Ermini, Erminia, for Armeni, Armenia (Arabic : 

IrminiaK]. M. RAVAISSON also deviates from the 
original in his translation of the following pas- 
sage: "Or tu ne crois pas que le Nil ait mis plus 
d'eau dans la mer qdil tfy en a a present dans tout 
V element de I'eau. II est certain que si cette eau etait 
tombed &c. 




G. 48*) 



the saltncss 
of the sea 
(946 947)- 

'Dicie Plinio nel 2 suo libro, al 103 
Refutation ca'pitolo, che 1'acqua del mare e salata per- 
iheory' n u> che M'ardore del sole secca I'umisdo e 
quello succia, e questo al mare, che 6 molto 
s'allarga, da sapore di sale; 7 Ma questo 
no si cociede, perche se la salsedine 8 del 
mare avesse cavsa dallo ardore del sole, 
'e' non e dubbio che tanto maggiormente li 
laghi, stagni e paduli I0 sarebbonopiu insalati, 
quato "le loro acque son manco mobili e 
di 13 minore profondita, e la esperiezia ci 
mo'^stra il contrario; tali paduli ci mostra 
14 le loro acque essere al tutto private di 
sal'Ssedine; Ancora s'assegnia da Plinio 
nel medesimo l6 capitolo che tal salsedine 


Pliny says in his second book, chapter 
103, that the water of the sea is salt because 
the heat of the sun dries up the moisture 
and drinks it up; and this gives to the wide 
stretching sea the savour of salt. But this 
cannot be admitted, because if the saltness 
of the sea were caused by the heat of the 
sun, there can be no doubt that lakes, 
pools and marshes would be so much 
the more salt, as their waters have less 
motion and are of less depth ; but experience 
shows us, on the contrary, that these lakes 
have their waters quite free from salt. 
Again it is stated by Pliny in the same 
chapter that this saltness might originate, 

946. i. essalsa. 2. a 103 capitoli. j.chellacqua . . essalata. 4. [li razi solarij Lardore . . secha "abrozre e (?)'\lumi. 5. ecquello . . 
ecquesto. 6. sallargha. .sale | [Qui|. 7. Macquesto . .sella. 8. avessi chausa dello. 9. chelli "tanto magiormente" laghi. -10. [dove 
lacquej sarebbono. n. |le] le . . mancho . . eddi. 12. ella . . mos. 13. in chontrario . . mosstra. 14. tucto. 15. Acora 
sasegnia [nel me). 16. chapitolo chettal. 17. nassciere . . leuato | "ne ogni" porte. 18. dolcie [dellacq"a" ressta lasspra] 

946. See PLINY, Hist. Nat. II, CIII [C]. Itaque 
Salts ardore slccatur liquor: ft hoc use masculum sidus 
acctpimui, tarrens cuncta sorbensque. (cp. CIV.) Sic mart 
late pattnti saporem incoqtti salis, out quia exhausto inde 
dulci tfnuique, quod facillime trahat vis ignea, omne 
atperiui crassiusque linquatur: ideo summa aequorum 
aqua dulciorem profundam; hanc esse veriorem causam, 
quant quod mare terrae sudor sit aeterttits: out quia 
plurimum ex arido misctatur illi vapore: aut quia terrae 
ttatura ticiit mcdiaitas aquas inficiat . . (cp. CV) : a/tis- 

simum mare XV. stadiorum Fabianus tradit. Alii n 
Ponto coadverso Coraxorum gentis (vacant Ba!)ea Ponti) 
trecentis fere a continents stadiis immensam altitudinem 
marts tradunt, vadis nunquam repertis. (cp. CVI [CIII]) 
Mirabilius id faciunt aquae dulces, juxta mare, ut fi- 
stulis emicanles. Nam nee aquarunt natura a miraculis 
cessat. Dulces mart invehuntur, leviores haud dubie. 
Ideo et marinae, quarum nalura gravior, magis in- 
vecla sustinent. Qiiaedam vero et dulces inter se super- 
meant alitis. 




J 7potrebbe nasciere, perche, leuatone ogni 
l8 dolce e sottile I9 parte, la qual facilmete 
il caldo a se ti 20 ra, rimane la parte piu 
aspra e piu 2I grossa, e per questo 1'acqua, 
che e nella su 22 perfitie, e piu dolcie che 
nel fodo; 23 a questa si cotradice colle me- 
desime 24 sopradette ragioni, cioe che il 
medesimo ac 2 5caderebbe alii paduli e.altre 
acque che per il ca! 26 do s'asciugano; Acora 
fu detto che 27 la salsedine del mare e 
sudore della terra; 28 a questo si rispode 
che tutte le uene dell' acque 2 ?che pene- 
trano la terra, sarebbono insalate ; Ma 3 si 
coclude la salsedine del mare esser nata 
3 1 dalle molte vene d'acqua le quali nel 
34penetrare la ter^sra trovano $ 6 \Q mini- 
37ere del sale, e 3 8 quelle in parte 39 si sol- 
uono e por4ta seco all' o^cieano e li altri 
4 2 mari, d'643de mai Kli nuvo 44 li, seminatori 
is d' elli fiumi If ^\o leuano; ed e'sarebbe 
4 7 piu salato il ma^re alii nostri te"49pi che 
mai per 5 alcun altro te^po fusse, e se 
per 52 1' auersario si dis^cesse, che il tenpo 
54 infinite- secchereb ss be over cogielereb5 6 be 
il mare in sa S7 le, a questo s s si risponde, 
che 59tal sale si re 6o de alia terra 6l colla 
liberatione 62 d' essa terra, che 6 3 s' inalza col 
suo 64 acquistato sale, 65 e li fiumi lo rendo- 
66 no alia somersa terra. 

because all the sweet and subtle portions which 
the heat attracts easily being taken away, the 
more bitter and coarser part will remain, and 
thus the water on the surface is fresher than 
at the bottom [22]; but this is contradicted 
by the same reason given above, which is, 
that the same thing would happen in marshes 
and other waters, which are dried up by the 
heat. Again, it has been said that the 
saltness of the sea is the sweat of the 
earth; to this it may be answered that all 
the springs of water which penetrate through 
the earth, would then be salt. But the con- 
clusion is, that the saltness of the sea must 
proceed from the many springs of water which, 
as they penetrate into the earth, find mines 
of salt and these they dissolve in part, and 
carry with them to the ocean and the other 
seas, whence the clouds, the begetters of 
rivers, never carry it up. And the sea 
would be salter in our times than ever it 
was at any time; and if the adversary were 
to say that in infinite time the sea would 
dry up or congeal into salt, to this I ans- 
wer that this salt is restored to the earth 
by the setting free of that part of the earth 
which rises out of the sea with the salt it 
has acquired, and the rivers return it to the 
earth under the sea. 

G. 49*] 


Terza e vlti 2 ma ragione di3remo, il sale 
4 essere in tutte s le cose create 6 e questo 
c' I7.segniano 8 le acque passage per tutte 
le ci I0 eneri e calcium delle cose I2 bruciate, 
e le J 3orine di qua I4 luche anima I5 le e le 
super 1<5 fluita usci^te de' lor cor l8 pi e le 
terre, ^nelle quali si 20 couertono 2I le cor- 
rutioni 22 di tutte le cose. 

2 3Ma a dire meglio, essendo dato il 
modo eterno, egli e neciessario 2 *che li 
sua popoli sieno acora loro eterni; ode 
2 5 eternalmete fu e sarebbe la spetie vmana 
cosu 26 matricie del sale; e se tutta la massa 

For the third and last reason we will 
say that salt is in all created things; and 
this we learn from water passed over the 
ashes and cinders of burnt things; and the 
urine of every animal, and the superfluities 
issuing from their bodies, and the earth into 
which all things are converted by corruption. 

But, to put it better, given that the 
world is everlasting, it must be admitted that 
its population will also be eternal; hence the 
human species has eternally been and would 
be consumers of salt; and if all the mass 
of the earth were to be turned into salt, it 

essottile. 19. chaldo asseti. 20. asspra. 22. fodo |[ contro. 23. acquessta si cotraddicie cholle. 25. chaderebbe . . chal. 
26. sassciughano Achora fuddetto. 27. essudore. 28. acquessto . . chettutte. Lines 32 66 are written on the margin. 
32. Tf finiscie quel che.- 33. macha di socto-^f 35. trovano [le ve]. 36. [ne del 5] le. 40. secho alloc. 41. elli. 42. mari 
[dove] do. 43. de mai (li nuvo. 45. delli fiumi) mai. 46. no leuano ede "sare". 48. nosstri. 50. alchu. 51. fussi esse. 
53. ciessi. 54. sechere. 55. cogielere. 57. acquesto. 59. sare. 61. cholla. 65. elli . . reda. 66. somersa. 

947. 3. direno . . sale es. 5. chose. 6. ecquessto. 7. segnia [lecho]. 10. enere e chalci. n. ne. 12. elle. 15. elle. 16. fruita 
vssci. 17. de de. 18. elle. 19. nelle. 20. couertano. Lines i 27 are written on the margin along the text no 1201 , under 
which is the text of lines 23 39, parallel with the lines 40 60. 23. essendo | "dato" il modo "etterno", egli. 24. chelli . . 
achora . % . ecterni. 25. etternalmete . . essarebbe lasspetie . . cosu. 26. essettutta. 27. bassterebbe. 28. chonfessare | o 

22. Compare No. 948. 



[948. 949. 

della terra fas'?si sale, non basterebbe alii 
cibi vmani, per la qual 8 cosa ci bisognia 
confessare, o che la spetie del sale * 9 sia 
eterna Isieme col modo, o che quella 
3mora e rinasca insieme cogli omini d'essa 
di jl voratori; Ma se la esperieza c'insegnia 
quel iif non avere morte come per il foco si 
manife^sta, il qual non la cosuma, e per 
1'acqua che di tato si J*sala di quato ella 
in se ne risolue, evaporado l'a-qua, sempre 
il sale resta nella prima quatita, ^deve 
passare per li corpi vmani che in orina, 
MO sudore, o altre superfluita fia ritrovato, 
e ques^to e il sale che ogni anno si porta 
alle citta; aduque 39 cavasi il sale de' lochi, 
dov'e piscia; li porci e li veti marini so 

Diremo che la ' pioggia pene 42 tratrice 
della terra sia que 44 lla, ch'e sotto 4 5 a lli 
fonda 46 meti delle cit^ta e popoli, 48 e sia 
quella che per li meati del s la terra re- 
s'da la salsedi 52 ne leuata dal s>mare, e 
che 54 la mutatio ssdel mare, sta5 6 to sopra 
tutti 57 H monti, lo Ia s8 sci per le 
ritrovate in essi monti ecc. 

would not suffice for all human food [27]; 
whence we are forced to admit, either that 
the species of salt must be everlasting like 
the world, or that it dies and is born again 
like the men who devour it. But as expe- 
rience teaches us that it does not die, as is 
evident by fire, which does not consume 
it, and by water which becomes salt in pro- 
portion to the quantity dissolved in it, and 
when it is evaporated the salt always remains 
in the original quantity it must pass through 
the bodies of men either in the urine or the 
sweat or other excretions where it is found 
again; and as much salt is thus got rid of 
as is carried every year into towns; therefore 
salt is dug in places where there is urine. 
Sea hogs and sea winds are salt. 

We will say that the rains which penetrate 
the earth are what is under the foundations 
of cities with their inhabitants, and are what 
restore through the internal passages of the 
earth the saltness taken from the sea; and that 
the change in the place of the sea, which has 
been over all the mountains, caused it to be left 
it there in the mines found in those mountains,&c. 

Leic. 21 1\ 

94 8. 

L'acque de' mari salati son dolci nelle 

The charac- 
teristics of -* 

*ea water sua era profondita. 

(948. 949). 6 

The waters of the salt sea are fresh at 
the greatest depths. 

G. 38*) 




L'oceano no penetra infra la terra, e 
que 4 sto c'insegniano le molte e varie vene 
d'acque dolsci, le quali in diuersi lochi 
d'esso oceano pene 6 trano dal fondo alia 
sua superfitie; Ancora il me 7 desimo di- 
mostrano li pozzi fatti dopo lo spa 8 tio d'u 
miglio remoti dal detto ocieano, 9li quali 
s'enpiano d'acqua dolcie, e questo ac I0 cade 
perche 1'acqua dolcie e piu sottile che 1'ac- 
"qua salata, e per cosegueza piu penetra- 
I2 tiva. 

'J Qual pesa piu, '*o 1'acqua ghiac'Sciata 
o la no I6 ghiacciata? 


The ocean does not penetrate under the 
earth, and this we learn from the many and 
various springs of fresh water which, in many 
parts of the ocean make their way up from 
the bottom to the surface. The same thing 
is farther proved by wells dug beyond the 
distance of a mile from the said ocean, 
which fill with fresh water; and -this hap- 
pens because the fresh water is lighter 
than salt water and consequently more pene- 

Which weighs most, water when frozen 
or when not frozen? 

chella. 29. etterna . . chol . . checquella. 30. rinassca . . chogli. 31. Massella essperieza. 32. focho. 33. nolla. 35. sepre 
. . ressta. 36. ne vale passare. 37. ritrorato ecq"a". 38. oni. 39. pisscia. 40. direno chelle. 41. piogie. 42. tratrici. 
43. sien. 44. Ha. 46. delli ci. 48. sic quella che. 49. de. 60. nessi. 

949. loccieano. 2. infralla. 3. loccicano . . infralla . . ecques. 4. cinsegnia . . euuarie. 5. occieano "pe" nene. 7. dimos- 
strano li pozi . . losspa. 8. miglio [li quali] remoti. 9. ecquessto. 10. chade . . chellac. n. piu [soct] penetra. Lines 
13 16 are written <m the margin. 14. diac. 15. olla. 16. diacciata. 17. dole. 18. chella. 20. chellacquat . . choiro. 

947. 1. 27. That is, on the supposition that salt, once consumed, disappears for ever. 






20 Che 1'acqua dolcie penetri piu cotro 
all'ac 2I qua salsa, che essa salsa cotro alia 
dolcie, ci 22 lo manifesta vna sottil tela asci- 
utta e 2 3vechia, pendente con equal bas- 
sezza 2 4colli sua oppositi stremi nelle due 
varie 2 s acque, delle quali le lor superfitie 
sie 2<3 d' equal bassezza, e allor si vedra ele- 
var 2 9si in alto infra essa pezza tanto piu 
1'acqua 28 dolcie, che la salsa, quanto la 
dolcie e piu Mieve che essa salsa. 



That fresh water penetrates more against 
salt water, than salt water against fresh is 
proved by a thin cloth dry and old, 
hanging with the two opposite ends equally 
low in the two different waters, the surfaces 
of which are at an equal level; and it will 
then be seen how much higher the fresh 
water will rise in this piece of linen than the 
salt; by so much is the fresh lighter than 
the salt. 

C. A. 157 b; 466^] 


Tutti li mari mediterrani e li 2 golfi 
d'essi mari so fatti da fi3vmi che versano 
in mare. 

All inland seas and the gulfs of those On the for- 
seas, are made by rivers which flow into mof 

the sea. 

<95- 951)- 

C. A. 83 ; 240,5] 



2 Tutti li laghi e tutti li golfi del mare 
e tutti li mari mediterrani nascono dalli 
fiumi, che in quelli spa^dono le loro acque, 
e dalli impedimeti della loro declinatione 
4nel Mare Mediterrano, diuisore d' Africa 
dall'Europa, e dell'Europa dall'Asia, me- 
diate il Nilo e Tanai che in shij versano 
le loro acque; Si domada, quale inpedi- 
meto e maggiore a proibire il corso delle 
sue acque, che no si renda all' oceano. 



All the lakes and all the gulfs of the sea 
and all inland seas are due to rivers which 
distribute their waters into them, and from im- 
pediments in their downfall into the Mediter- 
ranean which divides Africa from Europe 
and Europe from Asia by means of the Nile 
and the Don which pour their waters into it. 
It is asked what impediment is great en- 
ough to stop the course of the waters 
which do not reach the ocean. 

Ash.' III. 25 a] 

2 L'onda del mare 
senpre ruina 3dinan- 
ti alia sua basa, e 
quella paHte del col- 
mo si trovera piu 
bassa che sprima era 
piu alta. 



A Wave Of the r " a *ments 
, , n of the sea on 

sea always breaks in the land and 

vice versa 

front of its base, (952954)- 
and that portion of 
the crest will then be 
lowest which before 
was highest. 

21. dolcie cie. 22. assciuta eo. 23. pendente [cholli] chon. 24. cholli. 26. vedra me eleua "r". 27. si [eleua] in . . tantu. 
28. chella . . he piu. 

950. i. elli. 2. gholfi. 

951. i. effect! .. delle. 2. ettuttili gholfi . . etti ttutti . . nasschano. 3. Dano le . . ed dalli la pedimeu. 4. mediterano . . et 
che il. 5. domade . . occieano. 

952. 2. Londa [delle] del. 3. ecquella. 4. cholmo. 5. alta sara poi piu has. 

952. The page of FRANCESCO DI GIOROIO'S contains some notes on the construction of dams> 
Trattatn, on which Leonardo has written this remark, harbours &c. 




Lac. tot] 

Come le riue del ma're al continvo 
acquistano terreno inuerso il mezzo del 
mare; Come li scogli e promontori 3d e ' 
mari al continvo ruinano e si consumano; 
Come i mediterrani scopriranno i lor fondi 
all' aria e sol riserberanno il canale al 
maggior fiume, che dentro vi metta, il qualc 
correra all'oceano e iui uerseSra le sue 


That the shores of the sea constantly 
acquire more soil towards the middle of 
the sea; that the rocks and promontories of 
the sea are constantly being ruined and worn 
away; that the Mediterranean seas will in 
time discover their bottom to the air, and all 
that will be left will be the channel of the 
greatest river that enters it; and this will run 

acque insieme con quelle di tutti i fiumi, to the ocean and pour its waters into that with 

che co seco s' accopagnano. 

those of all the rivers that are its tributaries. 

Leic. 27 


Come il fiume del Po in brieve tenpo 
secca il mare Adriano nel 2 medesimo modo 
ch'elli asseccd gra parte di Lonbardia. 

How the river Pb, in a short time might 
dry up the Adriatic sea in the same way as 
it has dried up a large part of Lombardy. 

C. A. 162^; 


IDove e maggior quatita d'acqua, 2 quivi 
The ebb and maggior flusso e riflusso; e '1 ^contrario 
ftow uSe thc fa nolle acque strette.l 
(955-960) *Guarda se '1 mare e nella sorha cre- 
scieHe quado la luna nel mezzo del tuo 
emi 6 sphero. 

Where there is a larger quantity of water, 
there is a greater flow and ebb, but the con- 
trary in narrow waters. 

Look whether the sea is at its greatest 
flow when the moon is half way over our 
hemisphere [on the meridian]. 



Se '1 flusso e riflusso nasce dalla luna 
o sole, overo e I'ali 2 tare di questa terrestre 
machina; Come il flusso e riflusso e vario 
in diuersi paesi e mari. 

Whether the flow and ebb are caused by 
the moon or the sun, or are the breathing of 
this terrestrial machine. That the flow and ebb 
are different in different countries and seas. 

Leic. 50) 


Libro 9 delli scontri de' fiumi e lor 
flusso e riflusso; e la medesima 2 causa lo 
crea nel mare per causa dello stretto di 
Gibiltar, e ancora accade per le uoragini. 

Book 9 of the meeting of rivers and their 
flow and .ebb. The cause is the same in the 
sea, where it is caused by the straits of Gi- 
braltar. And again it is caused by whirlpools. 

953- 2 - acquisstano . . mezo . . Hscogli. 3. essi chonsumano Come e . . scopiranno . . essol. 4. magor. 5. cosecho 


954. i. secha. 2. assecho. 

953. i. he magior. 2. frusso e refrusso. 4. gharda. 5. mezo. 
936. i. frusso e refrusso nassce. 2. tereste . . frusso e refrusso. 
957. f. isscontri . . ellor frusso e refrusso ella. 2. chausa . . strett[i] o di gibiltar . . achade . . voraginc. 

956. i. Allusion may here be made to the my- 
thological explanation of the ebb and flow given 
in the Edda. Utgardloki says to Thor (Gylfagin- 
ning 48): "When thou wert drinking out of the 
hom, and it seemed to thee that it was slow in 
emptying a wonder befell, which I should not have 
believed possible: the other end of the horn lay in 

the sea, which thou sawest not; but when thou shalt 
go to the sea, thou shalt see how much thou hast drunk 
out of it. And that men now call the ebb tide." 

Several passages in various manuscripts treat of 
the ebb and flow. In collecting them I have been 
guided by the rule only to transcribe those which 
named some particular spot. 




Leic. 66} 




2 Tutti li mari anno il lor flusso e ri- 
flusso in v medesimo tempo, ma pare va- 
riarsi, perche li giorni no co^minciano in 
vn medesimo tenpo in tutto 1'universo, co- 
ciosiache, quado nel nostro emisperio e 
mezzo 4 giorno , nelP opposite emisperio e 
mezzanotte , e nelle congiuntioni orietali 
dell' uno e del' altro emispeSrio comincia la 
notte che corre dirieto al giorno, e nelle 
congiutioni occidentali d' essi emisperi co- 
mincia 6 il giorno che seguita la notte dalla 
sua opposita parte ; adunque e conchiuso 
che, ancora che '1 7detto accrescimeto 
e diminvitione delle altezze de' mari sien 
fatte in vn 8 medesimo tenpo, essi mostrano 
variarsi per le gia dette cagioni ; sono adun- 
que somerse le acque 9 nelle uene partite 
dai fondi de' mari, le quali ramificano dentro 
al corpo della terra, e rispondono I0 al na- 
scimento de' fiumi , i quali al continvo tol- 
gono dal fondo il mare al mare andato; 
e tolto innvme^rabili volte nella superfitie 
un mare al mare ; E se tu volessi , che la 
luna, apparendo all'orientale parte I2 del 
Mare Mediterrano, comiciasse ad attrarre a 
se 1' acque del mare, ne seguirebbe che in- 
mediate 13 se ne vedrebbe la sperieza al 
fine orietale di tal mare predetto; Ancora 
essendo il Mar Medi I4 terrano circa alia 
ottava parte della circuferenza della spera 
dell acqua, per essere lui 'Slungo 3 mila 
miglia, e '1 flusso e riflusso no fa se no 4 
volte in 24 ore, e' no s'accorderebbe tale 
I6 effetto col tenpo d'esse 24 ore, se esso 
Mare Mediterra no fusse lungo semila miglia, 
perche x ? se lo spogliameto di tanto mare 
avesse a passare per lo stretto di Gibiltar 
nel correr dietro l8 alla luna, e' sarebbe si 
grade il corso delle acque per tale stretto, 
e s'alzerebbe in tata altezza, T 9che dopo 
esso stretto farebbe tal corso, che per molte 
miglia infra 1'oceano farebbe inodatione e 
bolli 20 menti grandissimi, per la qual cosa 
sarebbe inpossibile passarui, e dopo questo 
subito l'ocea 2I no rederebbe colla medesima 
furia F acque ricevute, donde esso le riceve ; 

All seas have their flow and ebb in the 
same period, but they seem to vary because 
the days do not begin at the same time 
throughout the universe ; in such wise as that 
when it is midday in our hemisphere, it is 
midnight in the opposite hemisphere; and at 
the Eastern boundary of the two hemispheres 
the night begins which follows on the day, 
and at the Western boundary of these hemi- 
spheres begins the day, which follows the 
night from the opposite side. Hence it is 
to be inferred that the above mentioned swelling 
and diminution in the height of the seas, 
although they take place in one and the 
same space of time, are seen to vary from 
the above mentioned causes. The waters are 
then withdrawn into the fissures which start from 
the depths of the sea and which ramify in- 
side the body of the earth, corresponding to 
the sources of rivers, which are constantly 
taking from the bottom of the sea the water 
which has flowed into it. A sea of water is 
incessantly being drawn off from the surface of 
the sea. And if you should think that the moon, 
rising at the Eastern end of the Mediterranean 
sea must there begin to attract to herself the 
waters of the sea, it would follow that we 
must at once see the effect of it at the Eas- 
tern end of that sea. Again, as the Mediter- 
ranean sea is about the eighth part of the cir- 
cumference of . the aqueous sphere, being 
3000 miles long, while the flow and ebb only 
occur 4 times in 24 hours, these results 
would not agree with the time of 24 hours, 
unless this Mediterranean sea were six 
thousand miles in length; because if such a 
superabundance of water had to pass through 
the straits of Gibraltar in running behind the 
moon, the rush of the \vater through that 
strait would be so great, and would rise 
to such a height, that beyond the straits it 
would for many miles rush so violently 
into the ocean as to cause floods and 
tremendous seething, so that it would be 
impossible to pass through. This agitated 
ocean would afterwards return the waters it 

958. i. frusso e refrusso. 2. frusso e refrusso nv . . gorni no cho- 3. mincano. 3. concosia . . nosstro . . mez. 4. gorno . . 
oposito . . mezanotte . . conguntioni . . emisspe. 5. cominca . . gorno . . congutioni ocidentali . . comica. 6. gorno . . opo- 
sita. 7. acresscimeto . . dellellalteze de mari ancora chelle . . nvn. 8. mostra . . chagoni . . somerse. 9. defondi ramifichano 
. . rispondano. 10. nasscimento De . . tolgano '-del fondo" [e rendano] il . . andato "e tolto" invmerabili volte "nella 
superfitie" umare . . Essettu . . chella . . aparendo. 12. mediterano comicassi . . asse. 13. lassperieza . . mare "predetto". 
14. terano circha . . acqu"a". 15. lungho . . frusso e refrusso . . sacorderebe. 16. meditera fussi lungho. 17. sello . . 
avessi . . dirie. 18. sarebe . . essalzerebe. 19. hesso . . infrall . . ebbolli. 21. rederebbe . . riceve . . echoche. 22. passerebe . . 

VOL. ii. BB 




ecco che aduque mai si "passerebbe per 
tale stretto-, e la sperieza mostra che 
d'ogni ora vi si passa, saluo che quado il 
uento ''vie per la linia della correte, allora 
il riflusso forte s'aumeta-; II mare non 
alza 1'acqua nelli 2 stretti che anno vscita 
ma ben s'ingorga e si ritarda dinati a 
quelli , onde con furioso moto a s poi ristora 
il tempo del suo ritardameto insino al fin 
del suo moto riflesso. 

had received with equal fury to the place they 
had come from, so that no one ever could pass 
through those straits. Now experience shows 
that at every hour they are passed in safety, but 
when the wind sets in the same direction as 
the current, the strong ebb increases [23]. The 
sea does not raise the water that has issued 
from the straits, but it checks them and this 
retards the tide; then it makes up with fu- 
rious haste for the time it has lost until the 
end of the ebb movement. 

Leic. ,3-) 959- 

Come jl flusso e riflusso non e generale, That the flow and ebb are not general; 

perche 2 in riuiera di Genova non fa niete, for on the shore at Genoa there is none, at 
a Vinegia due braccia, tra la Inghilterra Venice two braccia, between England and 
e Fiandra fa 18 braccia; 3 Come per lo 
stretto di Sicilia la correte e gradissima, 

Flanders 18 braccia. That in the straits of 
Sicily the current is very strong because 
perchd di H passa tutte 1'acque de' fiumi all the waters from the rivers that flow into 

che uersa 4 nel Mare Adriatico. 

the Adriatic pass there. 

Leic. 35 \ 


Nelle parti occidentali , appresso alia 
Fiandra, il mare cresce e maca ogni 6 ore 
circa 20 braccia, 2 e 22 quado la luna 
in suo fauore, ma le 20 braccia e il suo 
ordinario, il quale ordinario manifestamete 
si uede >non essere per cavsa della luna; 
Questa varieta del crescere e discrescere 
del mare ogni 6 ore pu6 4 accadere per le 
ringorgationi delle acque, le quali son con- 
dotte nel Mare Mediterrano da quella quan- 
tita de' fiu s mi dell' Africa Asia ed Evropa, 
che in esso mare versano le loro acque, le 
quali per lo stretto di Gibiltar infra Abila 

In the West, near to Flanders, the sea 
rises and decreases every 6 hours about 20 
braccia, and 22 when the moon is in its 
favour; but 20 braccia is the general rule, 
and this rule, as it is evident, cannot have 
the moon for its cause. This variation in 
the increase and decrease of the sea every 
6 hours may arise from the damming up of 
the waters, which are poured into the 
Mediterranean by the quantity of rivers from 
Africa, Asia and Europe, which flow into that 
sea, and the waters which are given to it by 
those rivers; it pours them to the ocean 

ella . . ora usi passa. 23. . . lacq"a". 24. vsscita [ne in quelli] ma ben siningorgha "essiritarda . . acquelli onde 

poi con. 25. tenpo [chechej del . . refresso. 

9S9- i. frusso e rcfrusso. 2. genva . . uinegia due br tralla ingilterra . . 18 br. 3. cicilia lacorete. 4. adriatico. 
960. i. parte hoccidentale . . cressce "e macha . . circha 20 bra. 2. 20 br quale "ordinario". 3. chavsa . . cressciere e dis- 

cretscere ore po. 4. achadere . . mediterano da "quella". 5. africha . . versano "le loro acque" le . . abile e calpe. 

958. 23. In attempting to get out of the Mediter- 
ranean, vessels are sometimes detained for a con- 
siderable time; not merely by the causes mentioned 
by Leonardo but by the constant current flowing 
eastwards through the middle of the straits of 

959- A few more recent data may be given here 
to facilitate comparison. In the Adriatic the tide 
rises 2 and '/ feet, at Terracina l/ 4 . In the Eng- 
lish channel between Calais and Kent it rises from 
1 8 to 20 feet In the straits of Messina it rises no 
more than 2 ' /2 feet, and that only in stormy weather, 
but the current is all the stronger. When Leo- 

nardo accounts for this by the southward flow of 
all the Italian rivers along the coasts, the expla- 
nation is at least based on a correct observation; 
namely that a steady current flows southwards along 
the coast of Calabria and another northwards, along 
the shores of Sicily; he seems to infer, from the 
direction of the fust, that the tide in the Adriatic 
is caused by it. 

960. 5. Abila, Lat. Abyla, Gr. 'Ap<iATj, now Surra 
Ximiera near Ceuta; Calpe, I,at. Calpe. Gr. KdtXTti], 
now Gibraltar. Leonardo here uses the ancient 
names of the rocks, which were known as the Pil- 
lars of Hercules. 




e Calpe 6 promotori rende all'occeano le 
acque che da essi fiumi li son date, jl quale 
oceano, astendendosi 7 infra le isole d'ln- 
ghilterra e 1'altre piu settetrionali, si uiene 
a ringorgare e tenere in collo per diuersi 
golfi, 8 li quali, essendo tali mari discostati- 
si colla lor superfitie dal centre del modo , 
anno acquistato peso, il quale, 9poiche 
supera la potentia dell'avenimeto delle 
acque che lo cavsauano, essa acqua ripiglia 
im I0 peto in contrario al suo avenimeto, e 
fa impeto contro alii stretti, che li davano 
1' acque e massime fa "contra lo stretto di 
Gibiltar, il quale per alquato spatio di tenpo 
rima ringorgato e viene a riseruarsi tut I2 te 
1' acque che di novo in tal tenpo li so date 
dalli gia detti fiumi, e questa mi pare una 
delle ragioni che T 3si potrebbe assegnare 
della causa d'esso flusso e riflusso, come 
nella 21 a del 4* della mia teori^ca e provato. 

through the straits of Gibraltar, between Abila 
and Calpe [5]. That ocean extends to the island 
of England and others farther North, and it 
becomes dammed up and kept high in 
various gulfs. These, being seas of which 
the surface is remote from the centre of the 
earth, have acquired a weight, which as it is 
greater than the force of the incoming waters 
which cause it, gives this water an impetus 
in the contrary direction to that in which it 
came and it is borne back to meet the waters 
coming out of the straits ; and this it does 
most against the straits of Gibraltar; these, 
so long as this goes on, remain dammed up 
and all the water which is poured out 
meanwhile by the aforementioned rivers, is 
pent up [in the Mediterranean]; and this 
might be assigned as the cause of its flow 
and ebb, as is shown in the 2i st of the 
4 th of my theory. 

6. asslendendosi. 7. infralle isola digilterra ellaltre . . settatrionali . . ettenere. 8. cholla . .del mo . ' ano. 9. chello 
. . ripiglia e. 10. peto . . inpito . . chelli. 12. ta .lacq"a" . . ga detti . . ecquesti . . chausa . . frusso e 
refrusso comi. 14. cha e. 



Theory of 
the circula- 
tion of the 

(961. 962). 

C. A. 157 <*; 4664] 

Gradissimi fiumi corrono 2 sotto terra. 


Leic. 310] 

Qui s'a a Imagina 2 re la terra 
pel mez*zo,- e vedrannosi Me pro- 
fondita 6 del mare e della' ? terra; 
8 le uene si partono 9 da' fondi de' 
ma I0 ri e tessono la "terra, e si 
Ieua l2 no alia sommita ^de'moti, 
e riuer^sano per li fiumi e 'Sritor- 
nano al ma l6 re. 


1 segata 

Very large rivers flow under ground. 

This is meant to represent the earth cut through 
in the middle, showing the depths of 
the sea and of the earth ; the waters 
start from the bottom of the seas, 
and ramifying through the earth 
they rise to the summits of the 
mountains, flowing back by the 
rivers and returning to the sea. 

Leic. xi 6] 

Raggirasi 1' acqua con cotinvo moto dal- 
observationsl'infime profondita de' mari alle altissime 
'ik.. S k!^t.? f somita de' moti, non osseruando 2 la natura 

menypotne- '. 

delle cose gram, e in questo caso fanno . 
come il sangue delli animali, che sempre 
si 3moue dal mare del core e scorre alia 
somita delle loro teste, e quiui roponsi le 
uene, come si uede una vena rotta nel 
naso, che tutto il sangue da basso si leua 


The waters circulate with constant motion 
from the utmost depths of the sea to the 
highest summits of the mountains, not obeying 
the nature of heavy matter; and in this case 
it acts as ' does the blood of animals which 
is always moving from the sea of the heart 
and flows to the top of their heads; and here 
it is that veins burst as one may see when 
a vein bursts in the nose, that all the blood 

961. i. cori. 

969. 4. uedrassi. 7. [e come]. 8. parta. 10. cttessano. ix. essi. 

963. i. Rogirasi. 2. fa . . animati. 3. move [dal lago] "dal mare" del . . tesste . . e chi quiui ropasi. 4. chettutto . . alteza 

963. The greater part of this passage has been given as No. 849 in the section on Anatomy. 



I 97 

alia altezza della rotta vena; s Quando 
1'acqua escie della rotta vena della terra, 
essa osserua la natura dell'altre cose piv 
gravi 6 che 1' aria, onde senpre cerca i lochi 
bassi. 7 Vaiio 8 le uene scorredo con Ifinita 
ramificatione pel corpo della terra. 

from below rises to the level of the burst 
vein. When the water rushes out of a burst 
vein in the earth it obeys the nature of other 
things heavier than the air, whence it always 
seeks the lowest places. [7] These waters 
traverse the body of the earth with infinite 

Br. M. 233,5] 


Quella cavsa, che move li umori in tutte The same cause which stirs the humours 

le spetie de' corpi animati e che co quelle j n eve ry species of animal body and by 

soccorrea ogni lesione, 2 move 1'acqua dal- which eye inj is repaired a i so moves 
1 mfima profodita del mare alia soma altezza 

de' moti, 3 e come 1'acqua si leua dalle the waters from the utmost de P th of the sea 

* inferior! parti della vite all'alte tagliature. to the greatest heights. 

Br. M. 236,5] 

L' acqua e proprio quella che per vitale 
umore 2 di questa arida terra e dedicata , 
e ^ quella cavsa che la move per le sue 
rami 4 ficate vene cotro al natural corso del- 
sle cose gravi , e proprio quella che mo 6 ve 
li umori in tutte le spetie de' 
corpi 7 animati; Ma quella, con 
soma ami 8 ratio de' sua contem- 
planti, daH'infima pro^fondita 
del mare all' altissime somita 
10 de' moti si leua, e per le 
rotte vene ver 1 'sando al basso 
mare ritorna, e di novo I2 con 
celerita sormota, e all' -ati- 
detto de^sceso ritorna-, cosl 
dalle parti intri I4 siche al- 
1'esteriori -, cosl dalle infime 
alle I5 superiori, voltado quado 
con naturale cor l5 so ruina , cosl insieme 
cogiunta, co ^cotinua revolutione, l8 per 
li terrestri meati si ua raggirado. 

It is the property of water that it con- 
stitutes the vital human of this arid earth; 
and the cause which moves it through its 
ramified veins , against the natural course of 
heavy matters, is the same property which 
moves the humours in every spe- 
cies of animal body. But that 
which crowns our wonder in 
contemplating it is, that it rises 
from the utmost depths of the 
sea to the highest tops of the 
mountains, and flowing from 
the opened veins returns to the 
low seas; then once more, and 
with extreme swiftness, it mounts 
again and returns by the same 
descent, thus rising from the 
inside to the outside, and 
going round from the lowest to the high- 
est, from whence it rushes down in a 
natural course. Thus by these two move- 
ments combined in a constant circulation, 
it travels through the veins of the earth. 

G. 7 o] 966. 


3 II mare oceano no puo penetrare 4 dalle The water of the ocean cannot make its way 

radici alle cime de' moti che con lui Scon- from the bases to the tops of the mountains 

. . ve "ne". 5. esscie. 6. grave chellaria . . cercha. 

964. i. socore . . lesione. 2. frofodita . . alteza. 3. come [il sangue] lacq"a". 4. tagliature de. here the text breaks off. 

965. i. lacq"a" . . omore. 2. quessta . . dedichata. 4. chotro . de. 5. chose. 6. omori . . lesspetie. 7. che chosoma ami. 
8. contenplanti | "e che" dall. 10. rocte. 12. cono celerita . . 3is. 13. scienso. 15. cho. 17. cotinua revoluitione siua 
[ragirado]. 18. teresti . . ragirado. 

966. i. sellacq"a" motare. 3. occieano. 4. radicie . . collui. 5. sul si leua quato la seccita. 6. Esse. 7. cheppienetra. 




finano, ma solo si leua quado la secchita 
6 del mote ne tira; E se per 1'aversario la 
7 pioggia, che penetra dalla cima del monte 
8 alle radici sua, che col mare confinano, 
disce'de e mollifica la spiaggia opposta 
del me lo desimo monte e tira al continuo, 
si come M fa la cicogniola che versa per il 
suo lato piu lu"go, fusse quella che tira 
in alto 1' acqua del 'Jmare; come se s n 
fusse la pelle del ma're, e la pioggia di- 
scende dalla cima del mo 'He a allo n da 
vn lato e dall'altro lato di' 6 scede 
da a allo w, sanza dubbio que' 7 sto 
sarebbe il modo dello stillare a 
feltro o l8 come si fa per la canna ^ 
detta cico'9gniola, e senpre 1'ac- ^ 
qua che a mollificato 20 il monte in 
per la gran pioggia, che discende 
da! 2I li due oppositi lati, tirerebbe a se al 
lato 22 piu lugo la pioggia a n insieme 
coll' acqua 2 - } del mare perpetuamete , se il 
lato del mote **a m fusse piu lugo che 
1'altro a n, il che essere 25 no puo, perche 
nessuna parte di terra che no 26 sia so- 
mersa dall'oceano sara piu bassa 2 ?d'esso 
oceano ecc. 

which bound it, but only so much rises as 
the dryness of the mountain attracts. And if, 
on the contrary, the rain, which pene- 
trates from the summit of the mountain to 
the base, which is the boundary of the sea; 
descends and softens the slope opposite to 
the said mountain and constantly draws the 
water, like a syphon [n] which pours through 
its longest side, it must be this which 
draws up the water of the sea; thus if sn were 
the surface of the sea, and the rain descends 
from the top of the mountain a to n 
on one side, and on the other sides 
it descends from a to m, without a 
doubt this would occur after the 
manner of distilling through felt, or 
as happens through the tubes called 
syphons [17]. And at all times the 
water which has softened the mountain, by 
the great rain which runs down the two 
opposite sides, would constantly attract the 
rain a , on its longest side together with the 
water from the sea, if that side of the 
mountain a m were longer than the other a 
#; but this cannot be, because no part of the 
earth which is not submerged by the ocean 
can be lower than that ocean. 

n s 

A. 55*1 



2 Chiaro apparisce che tutta la super- 
fitie delPocieano , quado non a fortuna , e 
di pan distatia 3 al cietro della terra , e 
che le cime delle motagnie sono tanto piv 
lontane da esso ''cietro quato elle s'alzano 

sopra alia superfitie d' esso mare ; Adu- 
que se'l corpo della s terra non avesse simi- 
litudine coll' omo, sarebbe inpossibile che 
1' acqua del mare, essendo tato 6 piv bassa 

che le motagnie , ch' ella potesse di sua 
natura salire alle sommita d' esse motag- 
nie ; 7 Onde e da credere che quella ca- 
gione , che tiene il sangue nella somita 
della testa dell' omo, 8 quella medesima 
tenga 1' acqua nella sommita de' monti. 



It is quite evident that the whole surface 
of the ocean when there is no storm is at 
an equal distance from the centre of the 
earth, and that the tops of the mountains 
are farther from this centre in proportion as 
they rise above the surface of that sea; 
therefore if the body of the earth were 
not like that of man, it would be impossible 
that the waters of the sea being so much 
lower than the mountains could by their 
nature rise up to the summits of these 
mountains. Hence it is to be believed that 
the same cause which keeps the blood at 
the top of the head in man keeps the water 
at the summits of the mountains. 

8. chol . . chonfin.1 disscie. 9. mollifiche. 10. cttira. 12. gho fussi . . chettira. 13. chome . . fusse. 14. ella . . disciende 
alia. 15. da ullato. 16. disciede . . dubbio che. 17. aflfeltro. 18. chome . . lla channa [decta], 19. essenpre . . mollifi- 
chato. 20. cheddissciede. ai. asse il lato. 22. lugho . . chollacq"a". 23. sellatto. 24. fussi . . lugho chellaltro. 
26. occieano. 27. occieano. 

967. i. acq"a". 2. aparisscie . . chella "tutu". 3. tera e chclle . . motagni "e" . . esso [mare]. 4. sopa . . chorpo. 5. tera 
. . avessi . . choll . . chellacqua. 7. chccquella chagione . chettiene . . somita. 8. lacq"a". 

966. n, 17. Cicognola, Syphon. See VoL I, 
PL XXIV, No. I. 

967. 968. This conception of the rising of the 

blood, which has given rise to the comparison, 
was recognised as erroneous by Leonardo him- 
self at a later period. It must be remembered that 




A. 5 6a] 



2 Dico che siccome il naturale calore 

tiene il sague nelle uene alia sommita 
dell'omo, 3 e quado lo omo e morto, esso 
.sangue freddo si riduce 4 ne' lochi bassi , 
e, quado il sole riscalda la testa all' omo, 
s moltiplica e sopraviene tato sangue con 
omori , che forzado le uene 6 gienera spesso 
dolori di testa , similemete le uene , che 
vanno ramificado 1 per il corpo della terra 

e per lo naturale calore, ch' e sparso 
per tutto il coti 8 nete corpo , 1'aqua sta- 
per le uene eleuate alPalte cime de' moti; 
E queNa acqua , che passasi per uno 
condotto mvrato nel corpo d' essa motag- 
nia, I0 come cosa morta non uscira dalla 

sua prima bassezza , perche non e "ri- 
scaldata dal uitale calore della prima 
vena ; ancora il calore 12 dell'elemeto del 
fuoco , e il giorno il caldo - del sole , anno 
potetia disuegliere ^I'umidita -de' bassi lochi 

de' moti e tirare in alto nel medesimo 
modo ch'ella ^tira.i nvvoli e sueglie la 
loro vmidita dal letto del mare. 



I say that just as the natural heat of 
the blood in the veins keeps it in the head 
of man, for when the man is dead the 
cold blood sinks to the lower parts and 
when the sun is hot on the head of a man 
the blood increases and rises so much, with 
other humours, that by pressure in the veins 
pains in the head are often caused; in 
the same way veins ramify through the 
body of the earth, and by the natural heat 
which is distributed throughout the containing 
body, the water is raised through the veins 
to the tops of mountains. And this water, 
which passes through a closed conduit inside 
the body of the mountain like a dead thing, 
cannot come forth from its low place unless 
it is warmed by the vital heat of the spring 
time. Again, the heat of the element of fire 
and, by day, the heat of the sun, have power 
to draw forth the moisture of the low parts of 
the mountains and to draw them up, in the 
same way as it draws the clouds and collects 
their moisture from the bed of the sea. 

Leic. us] 


Come molte vene d' acqua salata si tro- 
vano fortemete distanti dal 2 mare, e questo 
potrebbe accadere, perche tal uena passasse 
per qualche miniera di sale come quella 
d' Ungheria, che si caua 3 il sale per le gran- 
dissime cave, come quasi cavano le pietre. 

That many springs of salt water are 
found at great distances from the sea; this 
might happen because such springs pass 
through some mine of salt, like that in 
Hungary where salt is hewn out of vast 
caverns, just as stone is hewn. 

968. i. chofermatioae . . lacq"a". 2. dicho chessichome . . chalore tie "il sague" leuene . ala somita. 3. [cho] e quado [esso] 
"lo" omo . . fredo. 4. bassi [chosi] echauado il . . risschalda [il n] la. 5. molti pricha essopraviene . . chon . . cheffor- 
zado. 6. vano ramifichado. 7. locho'rpo . . tera . . chalori chessparso . . choti. 8. chorpo . . elleuate . . Ecque. 9. per 
i chondotto . . chorpo. 10. chorae chosa . . vsscira della . . basseza . none. u. rischaldata . . chalore anchora il chalore. 
12. focho . . chaldo . sole a . dissuegliere. 13. lochi "de moti" ettirare. 14. nvboli essueglie . . delletto. 

969. i. trova . . distante . . da. 2. ecquesto . . achadere . . passasi . . chessi. 3. quasi caua. 

the MS. A, from which these passages are taken, 
was written about twenty years earlier than the MS. 
Leic. (Nos. 963 and 849) and twenty-five years be- 
fore the MS. W. An. IV. 

There is, in the original a sketch with No. 968 
which is not reproduced. It represents a hill of 
the same shape, as that shown at No. 982. There 

are veins, or branched streams, on the side of the 
hill, like those on the skull PL CVIII/No. 4. 

969. The great mine of Wieliczka in Galicia, 
out of which a million cwt. of rock-salt are 
annually dug out, extends for 3000 metres from 
West to East, and 1150 metres from North to 







on the 

2 II corpo della terra, a similitudine de' 
way corpi deli animali, e tessuto di ramification! 
oV di uene, le quali son tutte insieme cogiunte, 
are j e son constituite a nvtrimento e viuifica- 
tione d'essa terra e de' sua creati ; partono 
dalle profondita del mare, e a quelle dopo 
molta revolutio+ne anno a tornare per li 
fiumi creati dalle alte rotture d'esse uene; 
e se tu volessi dire, le pioSve il uerno o 
la resolutione della neue Testate essere 
causa del nascimento de' fiumi, e' si ti po- 
trebbe allegare 6 li fiumi, che anno origine 
ne' paesi focosi dell' Africa, nella quale non 
piove e meno nevica, perche il superchio 
?caldo senpre risolue in aria tutti li nuvoli, 
che da ueti in la son sospinti; e se tu di- 
cessi che tali fiumi, che ue 8 gono grossi il 
Luglio e '1 Agosto, son delle nevi che si risol- 
uono il Maggio e '1 Giugnio per 1' appressa- 
meto del sole alle ne^ui delle montagnie 
di Scitia, e che tali resolutioni si riducono 
in certe valli e fanno laghi, doue poi en- 
trano per le I0 vene e caue sotterane, le 

The body of the earth, like the bodies of 
animals, is intersected with ramifications of 
waters which are all in connection and are 
constituted to give nutriment and life to the 
earth and to its creatures. These come from 
the depth of the sea and, after many revolu- 
tions, have to return to it by the rivers 
created by the bursting of these springs; 
and if you chose to say that the rains of 
the winter or the melting of the snows in 
summer were the cause of the birth of rivers, 
I could mention the rivers which originate 
in the torrid countries of Africa, where it 
never rains and still less snows because the 
intense heat always melts into air all the 
clouds which are borne thither by the winds. 
And if you chose to say that such rivers, as 
increase in July and August, come from the 
snows which melt in May and June from the 
sun's approach to the snows on the mountains 
of Scythiafp], and that such meltings come 
down into certain valleys and form lakes, 
into which they enter by springs and subter- 

970. i. assimi . . ettessudi di ramifichatione . . cogunte. 3. consstit ite "a nvtrimento" e viuifichatione . . terra | 4l e de sua 
creati" essi partano delle . . acquelle. 4. ano attornare . . e,settu. 5. olla . lastate . . chausa . . nassciinento . . portrebbe. 
6. fochosi africha . . nevicha. 7. chaldo . . nvoli . . ilia . . sosspinte . . essettu . . chcttali. 8. gano . . ellagosto . . chessi^ 
. . lapressamcto . . mago . . gugnio. 9. disscitia . . riduchano . . eflano lagh. 10. riescano . . effalso inperochelle . . las. 
II. chellorigine . . concosia chclla. 

970. 9. Scythia means here, as in Ancient Geography, the whole of the Northern part of Asia as 
far as India. 

. 972.] 


2O I 

quali riescono poi all' origine del Nilo, questo 
e falso, inperoche e piv bassa la "Scitia 
che F origine del Nilo, conciosiache la Scitia 
e presso al mare di Poto a 400 miglia, 
e F origine del Nilo e I2 remote 3000 
miglia dal mare d' Egitto, ove versa le sue 

ranean caves to issue forth again at the 
sources of the Nile, this is false; because 
Scythia is lower than the sources of the Nile, 
and, besides, Scythia is only 400 miles from the 
Black sea and the sources of the Nile are 
3000 miles distant from the sea of Egypt 
into which its waters flow. 

Leic. 5 


Libro 9 delli scontri de' fiumi e lor 
flusso e riflusso, e la medesima 2 causa 
lo crea nel mare per causa dello stretto 
di Gibilterra, e ancora accade per le 
uoragini ; 

3Se due fiumi insieme si scontrano per 
vna medesima linia, la qual sia retta, poi 
infra 2 angoli retti 4pigliano insieme lor 
corso , e' seguira il flusso e riflusso ora a 
F uno fiume, ora all' altro, avanti s che sieno 
vniti e massime, se F uscita nella loro vni- 
tione no sara piv veloce, che quad' era dis- 
uniti; 6 Qui accadono 4 casi. 

Book 9, of the meeting of rivers and of The tide in 
their ebb and flow. The cause is the same e 
in the sea, where it is caused by the straits 
of Gibraltar; and again it is caused by whirl- 

[3] If two rivers meet together to form 
a straight line, and then below two right 
angles take their course together, the flow 
and ebb will happen now in one river and 
now in the other above their confluence, and 
principally if the outlet for their united vo- 
lume is no swifter than when they were se- 
parate. Here occur 4 instances. 

Leic. 15 a] 


Quando il fiume minore versa le sue 
acque nel maggiore, il quale maggiore 
corra dall' opposita 2 riua, allora il corso del 
fiume minore pieghera 
il suo corso inverse 
Fauenimeto del fiume 
3 maggiore ; e questo 
accade perche, quando 
esso maggiore fiume 
enpie d'acqua tutto il 
suo letto, e' 4 gll viene a 
fare ritroso sotto la 
bocca di tal fiume, e 
cosl spingnie co seco 
F acqua versata dal 
fisvme minore ; Quando 
il fiume minore versa 
le sue acque nel fiume 
maggiore, il quale 6 ab- 
bia la corrente alia foce del minore, allora 
le sue acque si piegheranno inverse la 
fu7ga del fiume maggiore. 

When a smaller river pours its waters On the aite- 
into a larger one, and that larger one flows "ed'Tn thT 
from the opposite direction, the course of c i "^s S b f 
the smaller river will their con- 
bend up against the ap- ( ^-^. 
proach of the larger 
river; and this happens 
because, when the lar- 
ger river fills up all its 
bed with water, it makes 
an eddy in front of the 
mouth of the other river, 
and so carries the water 
poured in by the smaller 
river with its own. 
When the smaller river 
pours its waters into 
the larger one, which 
runs across the current 

at the mouth of the smaller river, its waters 
will bend with the downward movement of 
the larger river. 

971. i. isscontri . . ellor frusso e refrusso alta. 2. chausa . . strett [i] o di gibiltar . . achade . . uoragine. 3. retta e poi. 

4. piglino . . refrusso. 5. chessieno . . lusscita nedella. 6. achade 4 chasi. 
973. i. magore il equal "magore" corra "dall oposita riua" [remoto dalla sua]. 2. piegera. 3. magore ecquesto acchade . . 

magor . . letto el. 4. affare retroso . . bocha. 5. magore. 6. minor (fiume] allora . . piegeranno. 7. magore. 

971. The first two lines of this passage have 
already been given as No. 957. In the margin, 
near line 3 of this passage, the text given as 
No. 919 is written. 

VOL. a. 

972. In the original sketches the word Arno is 
written at the spot here marked A, at R. Rifredi, 
and at M. Mn^none. 




Uic. i6J] 

Quando le piene de' fiumi so 'diminuite -, 
allor li angoli acuti, che si genera 
nelle congiuntioni de' sua rami, si a 
(anno piv cor^ti nelli lor lati e piu 
grossi nelle lor punte, come sia la 
corrente an, e la corrente d n, 
Me quali si congiunghino insieme 
in-//, quando il fiume nelle sue 
gran piene; dico che, quando sia 
snella predetta dispositione , che 
se d n avanti la piena era piv basso 
che a ;/, che nel tempo della piena 
6 d n sara pie di rena e fango, il quale 
nel calare delle acque d n portera 
uia il fango e rimar^rk col fondo 
basso, e '1 canale a n, trovandosi 
alto, scolera le sue acque nel basso 
d n e consumera tutta 8 la 
punta del renaio b c , e 
cosl rimarra 1'angolo a c d 
piv grosso che 1'angolo a n 
d, e di lati piu corti, come 
sprima dissi. 


When the fulness of rivers is diminished, 
then the acute angles formed at the 
junction of their branches become shorter 
at the sides and wider at the point; 
like the current a n and the current 
d n, which unite in n when the river 
is at its greatest fulness. I say, that 
when it is in this condition if, be- 
fore the fullest time, d n was lower 
than an, at the time of ful- 
ness d n will be full of sand and 
mud. When the water d n falls, it 
will carry away the mud and remain 
with a lower bottom, and the chan- 
nel a n finding itself the higher, will 
fling its waters into the lower, d n, 
and will wash away all the point of 
the sand-spit b n c, and thus 
the angle a c d will remain 
larger than the angle and 
and the sides shorter, as I said 

G. 48-] 




4 Tanto e piu tardo o velocie il corso 
dell'acqua, 5 data dallo isboccato lago al 
secco fivme, qua 6 to esso fiume fia piu largo 
o piv stretto, over ? piu piano o cupo in 
un loco che in un altro, 8 per quel che e 
proposto: il flusso e ri^flusso del mare che 
dallo oceano entra nel Me I0 diterraneo Mare 
e de' fiumi, che giostrano "con lui, alzano 
tanto piu o meno le loro acque, I2 quanto 
tal mare e piv o meno stretto. 



In proportion as the current of the water 
given forth by the draining of the lake is slow 
or rapid in the dry river bed, so will this 
river be wider or narrower, or shallower or 
deeper in one place than another, according 
to this proposition: the flow and ebb of the 
sea which enters the Mediterranean from the 
ocean, and of the rivers which meet and struggle 
with it, will raise their waters more or less 
in proportion as the sea is wider or narrower. 

c. A. y>tb\ 


whirlpool*. Voragine, cioe caverne, 2 cioe residui Whirlpools, that is to say caverns; that 

d' acque pre^cipitose. is to say places left by precipitated waters. 

973- * conguntione. 3. corente . . ella corcnte. 4. congunghino . . dicho. 5. predecta disspositione chesse. 6. eflTango . . 
rima. 8. cori riraara lanolo . . groso. 

974. j. da u . . assciucto. 4. eppiu . . chorpo . . acq"a". 5. isbochato lagho . . secho. 6. largho . . strecto. 7. ochupo nu 
locho che inu. 8. propossto . . e re. 9. frusso . . dello occieano. 10. mediterano . . giosstrano. xi. cho. 12. eppiu 
. . strecto. 

975. 2. coe residii. 3. cipitosa. 

973. Above the first sketch we find, in the original, this note: "Sofira il pott rubaeonU alia toiri- 
rella"; and by the second, -which represents a pier of a bridge, "Sotto I'ospedal del 

974. In the margin is a sketch of a river which winds so as to form islands. 







2 Li corsi sotterranei 3 delle acque, sicome 
quelli che son fatti infra ^I'aria e la terra, 
son quelli che al continue scosumano e 
profondano li letti de! 6 li lor corsi. 


The subterranean channels of waters, like On the ahe- 
those which exist between the air and the'^SeSof 
earth, are those which unceasingly wear rivers - 
away and deepen the beds of their currents. 

Leic. 66} 


II fiume che esce de' moti pone gran 
quatita di sassi grossi in nel suo ghiareto, 
i quali fatti sono ancora 2 con parte de' 
sua angoli e lati, e nel processo del corso 
conduce pietre minori con angoli piv co- 
sumati, cioe le gra 3 pietre fa minori, e piv 
oltre po ghiaia grossa, e poi minvta , e 
seguita rena grossa, e poi minvta, dipoi 
precede 4 litta grossa, e poi piv sottile, e 
cosl seguedo giugne al mare 1'acqua turba 
di rena e di litta; la rena scarica sopra 
de' slid marini per il rigurgitameto dell' ode 
salse, e segue la litta di tanta sottilita che 
par di natura d'acqua, la qual non si fer- 
b ma sopra de' marl liti, ma ritorna indietro 
coll'acqua per la sua leuita, perch' e nata 
di foglie marcie e d'altre cose leuissime, 
si 7 che, essendo quasi, com'e detto, di 
natura d'acqua, essa poi in tenpo di bo- 
naccia si scarica e si ferma sopra del 
8 fondo del mare, ove per la sua sottilita 
si condensa e resiste all'onde che sopra 
vi passano per la sua lubricita, e 9qui 
stanno i nichi e quest' e terra bianca da 
far boccali. 

A river that flows from mountains The 
deposits a great quantity of large stones ini n t 
its bed, which still have some of the'ir angles (977- 
and sides, and in the course of its flow it 
carries down smaller stones with the angles 
more worn; that is to say the large stones 
become smaller. And farther on it deposits 
coarse gravel and then smaller, and as it pro- 
ceeds this becomes coarse sand and then finer, 
and going on thus the water, turbid with sand 
and gravel, joins the sea; and the sand settles 
on the sea-shores, being cast up by the salt 
waves; and there results the sand of so fine a 
nature as to seem almost like water, and it 
will not stop on the shores of the sea but re- 
turns by reason of its lightness, because it was 
originally formed of rotten leaves and other 
very light things. Still, being almost >as was 
said of the nature of water itself, it after- 
wards, when the weather is calm, settles and 
becomes solid at the bottom of the sea, 
where by its fineness it becomes compact 
and by its smoothness resists the waves 
which glide over it; and in this shells are 
found; and this is white earth, fit for pottery. 


ve r" 
9? 8 )- 

Leic. 31 b\ 


Tutte 1'uscite dell' acque dal monte nel 
mare porta co seco li sassi del monte in 
es 2 so mare, e per la inodatione dell' acque 
marine contro alii sua monti, esse pietre 
era ributta^te inverso il mote, e nell'adare 
e nel ritornare indietro delle acque al mare, 
le pietre insieme co queMa tornavano, e 
nel ritornare li angoli loro insieme si per- 
cuoteano, e come parte men Sresistente alle 
percosse si cosumavano e facean le pietre 
sanza angoli, in figu 6 ra rotonda -, come ne' 
liti dell' Elsa si dimostra, e quelle rimaneva 
piv grosse, che manco sara remosse ? dal lor 

All the torrents of water flowing from 
the mountains to the sea carry with them 
the stones from the hills to the sea, and by 
the influx of the sea- water towards the 
mountains; these stones were thrown back 
towards the mountains, and as the waters 
rose and retired, the stones were tossed 
about by it and in rolling, their angles hit 
together; then as the parts, which least resisted 
the blows, were worn off, the stones ceased to 
be angular and became round in form, as may 
be seen on the banks of the Elsa. And those 
remained larger which were less removed 

976. i. viberatio. 2. supterrani [e super accquelli]. 3. so fatti infral. 4. ella. 6. chorsi. 

977. i. essce . . inel. 2. ellati . . agoli . . coe. 3. grosa e po . . grosa prociede. 4. lita . . gugne . . lita . . scaricha. 5. per 
e . ricitrameto . . lita . . dachq"a". 6. indirieta collo per . . marce. 7. bonacca . . scaricha essi. 9. ecquest . biancha 
daffar bochali. 

978. i. lusscite dellacq"e" . . secho . . in e. 2. rebutta. 3. mode "e nelladare" e . . indirieto. 4. toravano . . perchoteano. 
5. perchose . . effacean. 6. ritonda "come ne liti dellebba si dimosstra" ecquella rimane . . mancho. 7. nasscimeto. 8. locho 




nascimeto; e cosl quella si facea minore, 
che piv si rimouea dal predet 8 to loco, in 
modo che nel procedere ella si couerte in 
ghiaja minvta, e poi in rena 'e in vltimo 
in fango ; dipoi che '1 mare si discosta dalli 
predetti monti , la salsedine lascia'ta dal 
mare con altro umore della terra a fatta 
vna collegatione a essa ghiaja e rena, che 
la "ghiaja in sasso e la rena in tufo s' 
convertita; E di questo si uede 1'esenplo 
"in Adda all'uscire de' monti di Como e 
in Tesino, Adige, Oglio dall' alpi de' Tede- 
schi, e il si 1 'mile d' Arno dal monte Albano 
intorno a Mote Lupo e Capraia, doue li 
sassi grandissimi son tutti I4 di ghiaia co- 
gelata di diuerse pietre e colori. 

from their native spot; and they became 
smaller, the farther they were carried from 
that place, so that in the process they were 
converted into small pebbles and then into 
sand and at last into mud. After the sea 
had receded from the mountains the brine 
left by the sea with other humours of the 
earth made a concretion of these pebbles 
and this sand, so that the pebbles were con- 
verted into rock and the sand into tufa. 
And of this we see an example in the Adda 
where it issues from the mountains of Como 
and in the Ticino, the Adige and the Oglio 
coming from the German Alps, and in the 
Arno at Monte Albano [13], near Monte Lupo 
and Capraia where the rocks, which are very 
large, are all of conglomerated pebbles of 
various kinds and colours. 

. . procedere in ft . . giara. 9. fangho . . disscosste . . lasscia. 10. ta del . . altromore . . aflTatto . . giara errena chella. 
ii. giara . . ella . . chonvcrtita. 12. inada . . adice oglio e adriano dell alpi . . tedesci el si . . ij. darno 
del. 14. cholori. 

978. 13. At the foot of Monte Albano lies Vinci, the birth place of Leonardo. Opposite, on the other 
bank of the Arno, is Monte Lupo . 

C. A. 157 6; 466 a] 




11 Li moti son fatti dalli cor 2 si de' Mountains are made by the currents of The forma- 

c m tionofmoun- 

numi;"| rivers. . tains 

sULi moti son disfatti dalli cor^si de' Mountains are destroyed by the currents ^979 9 8 3>- 

fiumi. U of rivers. 

Leic. 10 a] 


Come le 2 radici settentrionali di qua- 
lunche alpe non sono ancora petrificate ; 
e questo si vede ma^nifestamente doue i 
fiumi, che le tagliano, corrano inverse set- 
tentrione, li quali taglia * nell' altezze de' 
moti le falde delle pietre viue, e nell'con- 
giugniersi colle pianure le predette falde 
5 son tutte di terra da fare boccali , come 
si dimostra in Val di Lamona al fiume 
Lamona nel 6 l'uscire del Mote Appenino 
fargli le predette cose nelle sue rive; 

Come li fiumi anno tutti segati 7 e di- 
uisi li menbri delle grand' alpi 1'uno dal- 
Paltro, e questo si manifesta per lo ordine 
delle 8 pietre faldate, che dalla sommita del 
monte insino al fiume si vedono le corri- 
spodenze delle falde essere- 9cosl da 1'un 
de' lati del fiume come dall'altro; Come 

That the Northern bases of some Alps 
are not yet petrified. And this is plainly to 
be seen where the rivers, which cut through 
them, flow towards the North; where they cut 
through the strata in the living stone in the 
higher parts of the mountains; and, where 
they join the plains, these strata are all of 
potter's clay; as is to be seen in the valley 
of Lamona where the river Lamona, as it 
issues from the Appenines, does these things 
on its banks. 

That the rivers have all cut and divided 
the mountains of the great Alps one from 
the other. This is visible in the order of 
the stratified rocks, because from the summits 
of the banks, down to the river the corre- 
spondence of the strata in the rocks is 
visible on either side of the river. That the 

979. 3. dissfacti . . chor. 

980. 2. radice . . petrifichate ecquesto. 3. chelle . . chorrane . . settantrione. 4. alteze . . congugnersi cholle. 5. daflfare boch- 
ali . . lumona fare al. 6. lusscire . . farli . . fiumi an. 7. alpe . . ecquesto. 8. somita . . vede . . conrisspodenze. 9. tutti 

979. Compare 789. 




le pietre faldate de' monti son tutti i gradi 
10 de' fanghi posati Tun sopra 1'altro per 
le inodationi de' fiumi; Come le diuerse 
grossezze delle faldedel'Me pietre son create 
da diuerse inondationi de' fiumi, cioe mag- 
giore ondatione o minore. 

stratified stones of the mountains are all 
layers of clay, deposited one above the other 
by the various floods of the rivers. That the 
different size of the strata is caused by the 
difference in the floods that is to say greater 
or lesser floods. 


Le sommita de' monti per 2 lungo tenpo 
senpre s'i'nalzano; 

*I lati oppositi de' mdsti 
senpre s'auicinano; 6 le profon- 
dita delle ualli, Me quali son 
sopra la *spera dell'acqua, per 
lungo 9 tenpo senpre 10 s'ap- 
propinquano al ce M tro del 
mondo ; 

12 In equal tepo molto pi'^v 
si profondano le ua! 14 li che non 
s'alzano i mo'sti; 

16 Le base de' monti senpre 
7 si fanno piv strette; 

l8 Quanto I9 la ualle piv si pro 20 fonda, 
piv si consu 2I ma ne' sua lati in 22 piu bri- 
eue tenpo. 

The summits of mountains for a long 
time rise constantly. 

The opposite sides of the 
mountains always approach each 
other below; the depths of the 
valleys which are above the sphere 
of the waters are in the course of 
time constantly getting nearer to 
the centre of the world. 

In an equal period, the valleys 
sink much more than the moun- 
tains rise. 

The bases of the mountains 
always come closer together. 
In proportion as the valleys become 
deeper, the more quickly are their sides 
worn away. 

Br. M. 30*] 


In ogni concauita delle 
cime de' monti senpre si tro- 
ver 2 anno li piegameti delle 
falde delle pietre. 

In every concavity at the 
summit of the mountains we 
shall always find the divisions 
of the strata in the rocks. 

C. A. 124 1; 3830] 




2 Jo truovo il sito della terra essere ab I find that of old, the state of the earth 

antico nelle sue pianure tutto 3 occupato was that its plains were all covered up and 
e coperto dall'acque salse ecc. hidden by salt water. 

e gradi. 10. gosseze. it. coe magore . . ominore. 

981. i. somita. 7. la 5. 8. acq"a". 9. senpre [sabb]. 17. strecte. 20. consu. 21. made sua. 
983. 2. ra li. 
983. i. ce cignie. 2. abbanticho . . tucto. 3. ochupato e choperto. 

983. This passage has already been published f-^ipng 1873, P- 86. However, his reading of the 
by Dr. M. JORDAN: Das Malerbuch da L. da Vinci, text differs from mine. 




Leic. 31 a] 


Perche molto so 2 piv antiche le 3 cose 
che le Iette 4 re, non e maravisglia, se alii 
nostri 6 giorni non appari?sce scrittura de- 
8 lli predetti ma 9 ri essere occupa I0 tori di 
tanti pa jl esi; I2 e se pure alcuna ^scrittura 
apparia, I4 le guerre, 1'incedi, li diluvi del- 
1'acque j sle mutationi delle l6 lingue e delle 
leggi I7 anno cosumato l8 ogni antichita, ma 
Z 9a noi bastano le testi 20 monianze delle co- 
2I se nate nelle acque "salse ritrouarsi 
2 3nelli aid moti, 2 +lontani dalli mari 2 sd'allora. 

Since things are much more ancient than xheauthori- 
letters, it is no marvel if, in our day, no study Jf th e e 
records exist of these seas having covered so ^g'elrth 01 
many countries; and if, moreover, some 
records had existed, war and conflagrations, 
the deluge of waters, the changes of languages 
and of laws have consumed every thing an- 
cient. But sufficient for us is the testimony 
of things created in the salt waters, and 
found again in high mountains far from 
the seas. 

984. 3. chelle. 6. gorni non aparis. 7. sciptura del. 9. ocupa. n. [esi essettu]. 12. esse. 15. "li diluui dellacque" le muta- 
tioni. 16. legi. 19. basta. 20. monatie. 26. talor. 



Leic. 3 a] 


In questa tua opera tu ai jn prima a 
provare, come li nichi in mille braccia 
d'altura no ui furo 2 portati dal diluuio, 
perche si uedono a u medesimo liuello, e 
si vedono auazare assai moti sopra 3 e sso 
liuello, e a dimadare se '1 diluvio fu per 
piogga o per ringorgameto di mare, e poi 
ai 4 a mostrare, che ne per pioggia che in- 
grossi i fiumi, ne per rigonfiameto d'esso 
mare ; li nichi, come cosa 5 grave, non sono 
sospinti dal mare alii moti, ne tirati a 
se dalli fiumi cotro al corso delle 6 loro 

In this work you have first to prove that 
the shells at a thousand braccia of elevation 
were not carried there by the deluge, because 
they are seen to be all at one level, and 
many mountains are seen to be above that 
level; and to inquire whether the deluge 
was caused by rain or by the swelling of 
the sea; and then you must show how, 
neither by rain nor by swelling of the rivers, 
nor by the overflow of this sea, could the 
shells being heavy objects be floated up 
the mountains by the sea, nor have carried there 
by the rivers against the course of their waters. 

C. A. 1520; 452 a] 

9 86. 



2 Mouesi qui vn dubbio e questo e, se Here a doubt arises, and that is: whether 

Doubt* '1 3 diluvio, venuto al tenpo di Noe, fu vni- the deluge, which happened at the time of 

a dehiVe he 4 versale o no; E qui parra di no, per le Noah, was universal or not. And it would 

985. i. quessta . . br daltura. 2. perchessi uedano . . e uedesi. 4. mosstrare . . piogga chengrossi . . chome. 5. sosspinti . . 
asse . . chorso. 6. accq"e". 

986. 2. ecquesso. 4. onno. 5. chessi . . abbian nella bibbia. 6. chonpossto. 7. node . . pio. 8. chettal piogg. g. ghomiti. 

985. The passages, here given from the MS. that is not repeated here more clearly and fully. 

Leic., have hitherto remained unknown. Some pre- 
liminary notes on the subject are to be found in 
MS. F So 3 and 8o b ; but as compared with the 
fuller treatment here given, they are, it seems to 
me, of secondary interest. They contain nothing 

I.IHRI, Histoire des Sciences mathematiques Iff, pages 
218 221, has printed the text of F 80* and 8o b , 
therefore it seemed desirable to give my reasons 
for not inserting it in this work. 




s ragioni che si assegnieranno ; Noi abbiamo 
nella bibbia, 6 che il predetto diluvio fu 
conposto di 40 7 dl e 40 notti di continua 
e vniversa piog 8 gia, e che tal pioggia alzo 
died 9gomiti sopra al piu alto mote del- 
l'univer I0 so; E se cosl fu, che la pioggia 
fusse vniver^sale, ella vestl di se la nostra 
ter I2 ra di figura sperica; E la supern I3 tie 
sperica in ogni sua parte equalmen^te di- 
stante dal cietro della sva spe is ra, onde la 
spera del'acqua, trovandosi l6 nel modo 
della detta conditione, elli e ^inpossibile, 
che 1'acqua sopra di lei si mova, l8 perch e 
1'acqua in se non si move, s'ella non J 'di- 
sciede; addunque 1'acqua di tanto dilu 20 vio 
come si parti, se qui e provato, non a 2I ver 
moto? e s'ella si parti, come si mosse, 22 se 
ella non adava allo insu? e qui ne macano 2 ^ 
le ragio naturali, ode bisognia per soccor- 
2< *so di tal dvbitatione chiamare il mira- 
2 5colo per aiuto, o dire che 26 tale acqua 
fu vaporata dal calore del sole. 

seem not, for the reasons now to be given: 
We have it in the Bible that this deluge 
lasted 40 days and 40 nights of incessant 
and universal rain, and that this rain rose to 
ten cubits above the highest mountains in the 
world. And if it had been that the rain 
was universal, it would have covered our 
globe which is spherical in form. And 
this spherical surface is equally distant in 
every part, from the centre of its sphere; 
hence the sphere of the waters being 
under the same conditions, it is im- 
possible that the water upon it should move, 
because water, in itself, does not move 
unless it falls; therefore how could the 
waters of such a deluge depart, if it is 
proved that it has no motion? and if it de- 
parted how could it move unless it went 
upwards? Here, then, natural reasons are 
wanting; hence to remove this doubt it is 
necessary to call in a miracle to aid us, or 
else to say that all this water was evapo- 
rated by the heat of the sun. 

Leic. 86} 



2 Se tu dirai che li nichi, che per li cori- 
fini d' Italia lontano dalli mari in tata altezza 
si ueggono 3 alii nostri tempi, siano stati 
per causa del diluuio che 11 li lascio, io ti 
rispodo che, credendo tu che Hal diluvio 
superasse il piv alto monte 7 cubiti, come 
scrisse chi li misuro, tali nichi che senpre 
s stanno vicini ai liti del mare, e' doueano 
restare sopra tali motagnie, e no si poco 
sopra le radi 6 ci de' monti per tutto a vna 
medesima altezza a suoli a suoli; E se tu 
dirai che, essendo tali 7 nichi vaghi di stare 
vicini alii liti marini e che, crescedo in tata 
altezza, che li nichi si 8 partirono da esso 
lor primo sito e seguitarono 1' accrescimeto 
delle acque insino alia lor 9soma altezza, 
Qui si risponde che, sendo il nichio anima- 


If you were to say that the shells which That marine 
are to be seen within the confines of Italy shells could 

, re .1 ' not go up 

now, in our days, tar from the sea and at the moun- 
such heights, had been brought there by the tains< 
deluge which left them there, I should 
answer that if you believe that this deluge 
rose 7 cubits above the highest mountains 
as he who measured it has written these 
shells, which always live near the sea-shore, 
should have been left on the mountains; and 
not such a little way from the foot of the 
mountains; nor all at one level, nor in layers 
upon layers. And if you were to say that 
these shells are desirous of remaining 
near to the margin of the sea, and that, 
as it rose in height, the shells quitted 
their first home, and followed the in- 
crease of the waters up to their highest 
level; to this I answer, that the cockle is an 
animal of not more rapid movement than 
the snail is out of water, or even somewhat 

io. chosi . . chella piggia fussi. 12. fighura spericha Ella. 13. spericha nogni. 14. disstante al. 16. chonditione. 17. chel- 
lacqua . . mov "a". 20. chome. 21. essella . . chome, 22. ecquimaca. 23. sochor. 25. cholo [per sochorso] per . . oddire. 
26. chalar. 

987. I. 8 del. 2. settu . . chelli . . luntano dali . . alteza si uegghano. 3. nosstri tenpi sia stato . . chausa . . lasscio . . rispode. 
4. diluio superassi . . chessenpre. 5. aliti del mare doueano . . pocho . . li radi. 6. ce de . . assuoli assuoli Essettu. 
7. cresscedo . . alteza chelli. 8. partirano . . lor p"o" sito essejuitorno lacresscimeto. 9. alteza . . che^sendo. io. chessi 
VOL. 11. DL> 




le di non piii veloce moto, che si sia la 
lumaca, fori dell'acqua, e qualche cosa piu 
tarda perche no nota, a"zi si fa vn solco 
per F arena mediante i lati di tal solco ove 
s'appoggia, caminerk il dl dalle 3 alle 4. 
braccia; I2 adunque questo co tale moto 
no sari caminato dal mare Adriano insino 
in Moferrato di Lon'^bardia, che v'e 250 
n>iglia di distantia, in 40 giorni, come disse 
chi tenne coto d'esso tenpo; e se tu dici 
che I4 l'onde ve li portarono, essi per la 
lor gravezza non si reggono, se no sopra 
il suo fondo-; e se questo no mi 'Sconcedi, co- 
fessami al meno ch'elli aueano a' rimanere 
nelle cime de' piv alti moti e ne' laghi che 
in'fra li moti si serrano, come lago di 
Lario o di Como, e '1 Maggiore, e di 
Fiesole, e di Perugia e simili; 

'/E se tu dirai che li nichi son l8 por- 
tati dair onde, essedo voti e morti, io dico 
che, dove andauano li morti, poco si rimo- 
veuano da'uiui, e in que'^ste m'ontagnie 
sono trovati tutti i uiui che si cognoscono 
che sono colli gusci appaiati, e scno 20 in 
vn filo doue non e nessun de' morti, e 
poco piv alto e trovato doue eran gittati 
dall'o^de tutti li morti colle loro scorze 
separate, apresso a dove li fiumi cascavano 
in "mare in gra profondita; come Arno, 
che cadea dalla Gonfolina apresso a 2 -' Mote 
Lupo e quiui lasciaua la ghiaja, la quale 
ancor si uede, che si e insieme ricogielata 
e di pie 24 tre di uari paesi nature e colori 
e durezze se n'e fatto vna sola congelatione, 
e poco piu oltre la congelatione dell'are 2 5na 
s' fatta tufo, dou'ella s'agiraua inverse 
Castel Fioretino, piu oltre si scaricava il 
fango, 26 nel quale abitavano i nichi, il quale 
s'inalzava a gradi, secondo che le piene 
d'Arno torbido 2 ?in quel mare versauano, 
e di tempo in tenpo s'inalzaua il fondo al 
mare, jl quale a gradi 28 producea essi 
nichi, come si mostra nel taglio di Colle 
Gonzoli, dirupato dal flume d'Arno, 2 9che 
il suo piede consuma, nel qual taglio si 

slower; because it does not swim, on the 
contrary it makes a furrow in the sand by 
means of its sides, and in this furrow it will 
travel each day from 3 to 4 braccia; therefore 
this creature, with so slow a motion, could 
not have travelled from the Adriatic sea as 
far as Monferrato in Lombardy [13], which 
is 250 miles distance, in 40 days; which 
he has said who took account of the time. 
And if you say that the waves carried them 
there, by their gravity they could not move, 
excepting at the bottom. And if you will 
not grant me this, confess at least that they 
would have to stay at the summits of the 
highest mountains, in the lakes which are 
enclosed among the mountains, like the lakes 
of Lario, or of Como and il Maggiore [i 6] 
and of Fiesole, and of Perugia, and others. 
And if you should say that the shells 
were carried by the waves, being empty and 
dead, I say that where the dead' went they 
were not far removed from the living; for in 
these mountains living ones are found, which 
are recognisable by the shells being in pairs ; 
and they are in a layer where there are no 
dead ones; and a little higher up they are 
found, where they were thrown by the waves, 
all the dead ones with their shells separated, 
near to where the rivers fell into the sea, 
to a great depth; like the Arno which fell 
from the Gonfolina near to Monte Lupo [23], 
where it left a deposit of gravel which may 
still be seen, and which has agglomerated; 
and of stones of various districts, natures, 
and colours and hardness, making one single 
conglomerate. And a little beyond the sand- 
stone conglomerate a tufa has been formed, 
where it turned towards Castel Florentine; 
farther on, the mud was deposited in which the 
shells lived, and which rose in layers according 
to the levels at which the turbid Arno flowed 
into that sea. And from time to time the 
bottom of the sea was raised, depositing 
these shells in layers, as may be seen in 
the cutting at Colle Gonzoli, laid open by 

. . lumacha . . ecqualche . . tarda. n. solcho . . sapogia chaminera . . 4 br. 12. chaminato . . i moferato. ij. gorni . . 
tcnc . . essettu di che. 14. portorono . . regano. 15. cedi. 16. fralli . . magore . . pertiga. 17. Ksse tu dirai dirai chcllc. 
18. dicho . . andaua . . pocho. 19. cognoscano . . cholli gussci . . essono. 20. in vnn . . pocho. 21. cholle . . chassca- 
Yano. 22. gra . . chadea delta Golfolina. 23. giara . . chesse insieme . ricogielata. 24. nari "paesi" nature "e colorie du- 
reze" se ne fatto . . gongelatione . . pocho. 25. seffatto . . invero chastel . . scharichava il fangho. 26. abitava . . chelle 

987. 13. Monferrato di Lombardia. The range of the words in the MS. are: "Come Lago di Lario o'l 

hills of Monferrato is in Piedmont, and Casale di 
Monferrato belonged, in Leonardo's time, to the 
Marchese di Mantova. 

1 6. Lago di Lario. Lacus Larius was the name 
given, by the Romans to the lake of Como. It is 
evident that it is here a slip of the pen since the 

Magore e di Como." In the MS. after line 16 we 
come upon a digression treating of the weight of 
water; this has here been omitted. It is II lines 

23. Monte Lupo, compare 970, 13; it is between 
Empoli and Florence. 

9 88.] 



uedono manifestamete li predetti gradi de' 
nichi in 3fango azzureggiante, e ui si trova 
di uarie cose marine; E si e alzata la terra 
del nostro ^emisperio per tanto piu che 
no solea, per quato ella si fece piu lieue 
delle acque, che le manca 32 rono per il 
taglio di Calpe e d'Abila, e altrettanto piv 
s'e alzata, perche il peso dell' acque, che 
di qui ma.33carono, s' aggiunsero alia terra 
volta all'altro emisperio, E se li nichi fus- 
sero stati 34 portati dal Torbido diluuio, 
essi si sarebbero misti, separatamente Pun 
dal'altro, infra '1 fango e non 3 5con ordinati 
gradi a suoli, come alii nostri tenpi si vede. 

the Arno which is wearing away the base of it; 
in which cutting the said layers of shells are 
very plainly to be seen in clay of a bluish 
colour, and various marine objects are found 
there. And if the earth of our hemisphere 
is indeed raised by so much higher than it 
used to be, it must .have become by so much 
lighter by the waters which it lost through 
the rift between Gibraltar and Ceuta; and all 
the more the higher it rose, because the weight 
of the waters which were thus lost would be 
added to the earth in the other hemisphere. 
And if the shells had been carried by the 
muddy deluge they would have been mixed 
up, and separated from each other amidst the 
mud, and not in regular steps and layers 
as we see them now in our time. 

Leic. ga] 


Di quelli che dicono che i nichi sono 
per molto spatio e nati remoti dalli mari 
per la natura del sito e de' cieli, 2 che di- 
spone e influiscie tal loco a simile creatione 
d'animali-;a costor si rispondera che, se 
tale influetia 3d'animali no potrebbe acca- 
dere in vna sola linia, se no animali di 
medesima sorte e eta, e non il uechio col 
gio 4 vane, e no alcun col coperchio e 1'al- 
tro essere sanza sua .copritura, e no Funo 
esser rotto e Paltro intero, Se no 1'uno 
ripieno di rena marina e rottame minvto e 
grosso d'altri nichi dentro alii nichi 6 interi, 
che li son rimasti aperti, e no le boche de' 
granchi sanza il rimanete del suo tutto, e 
non li ni?chi d'altre spetie appiccati con loro 
in forma d'animale che sopra di quelli si 
mouesse, perche ancora resta 8 il uestigio 
del suo andamento sopra la scorza che lui 
gia, a uso di tarlo sopra il legname, ando 
cosumado; 9 no si troverebbero infra loro 
ossa e denti di pescie, li quali alcuni di- 
mandano saette e altri lingue di ser I0 penti, 

As to those who say that shells existed The marine 
for a long time and were born at a distance ^St produ- 
from the sea. from the nature of the place , ced ? vva y 

,-. - . ' _ from the sea. 

and ot the cycles, which can influence a 
place to produce such creatures to them it 
may be answered: such an influence could 
not place the animals all on one line, except 
those of the same sort and age; and not the 
old with the young, nor some with an operculum 
and others without their operculum, nor some 
broken and others whole, nor some filled 
with sea-sand and large and small fragments 
of other shells inside the whole shells 
which remained open; nor the claws of 
crabs without the rest of their bodies; 
nor the shells of other species stuck on to 
them like animals which have moved about 
on them; since the traces of their track still 
remain, on the outside, after the manner of 
worms in the wood which they ate into. Nor 
would there be found among them the bones 
and teeth of fish which some call arrows and 
others serpents' tongues, nor would so many 

plane. 2.7. quell . . versaua. 28. deripato. 29. piede . . taglo si vede. 30. fangho azuregantc . . Essi alzato . . noss- 
tro. 31. emissperio . . mancho. 32. perl . . calpe dattile . . perche[la] il. 33. chorono sagunsono . . emissperio 
Esselli . . futtino. 34. portadi . . essi saren misti . . fangho enno. 35. assuoli. 

98]. i. dicano che michi. 2. infruisscie . . locho assimile . . risodera chesse . . infruetia. 3. po achadere . . enone il . . col 
go. 4. ellaltro esere colla sua . . ellaltro. 6. chelli . . rimassti . . rimane dal . . e none. 7. colloro apichati . . mouessi. 8. las- 
scorza chellui ga. 9. troverrainfrallaro . . pesscie. 10. troverra. n. auebe . . stano . . elle cose. 12. sariano . . alteza . . ga a 

988. I. Scilla argued against this hypothesis, which was still accepted in his days; see: La 
vana Speculazione, Napoli 1670. 



[ 9 88. 

e no si troverebbero tanti mebri di diuersi 
animali insieme vniti se 11 da liti marini 
gittati no fussino, "e '1 diluuio U no gli 
avrebbe portati, perche le cose gravi piii 
del'acqua no stanno a galla sopra 1'acqua, 
e le cose pre"dette no sariano in tanta al- 
tezza, se gia a nuoto ivi sopra dell' acque 
portate non furono, la qual cosa e inpossi- 
"bile per la lor gravezza; Dove le uallate 
non ricievono le acque salse del mare, 
quiui i nichi mai non si '*vedono, come 
manifesto si uede nella gran valle d'Arno 
di sopra alia Gonfolina, sasso per antico 
vnito 'Scon Monte Albano in forma d'al- 
tissimo argine, il quale tenea ringorgato 
tal fiu me in modo che prima che versasse 
nel mare, l6 il quale era dopo ai piedi di 
tal sasso, conponea 2 grandi laghi, de' quali 
il primo e, dove oggi si uede fiorire la citta 
di Fiore^ze insieme con Prato e Pistoia, e 
Monte Albano seguiva il resto dell' argine 
insin doue oggi e posto Serravalle-; dal 
Va; d'Arno l8 di sopra insino Arezzo si 
creava vno secondo lago, il quale nell'ati- 
detto lago versaua le sue acque, ^chiuso 
circa dove oggi si uede Girone, e occupaua 
tutta la detti valle di sopra per ispatio di 
40 miglia 20 di lughezza; questa valle riceue 
sopra il suo fondo tutta la terra portata 
dall'acqua da quella intorbidata, la quale 
2I anccra si uede a' piedi di Prato Magno 
restare altissima, doue li fiumi no 1'anno 
consumata, e infra essa terra si uedono le 
pro 22 fonde segature de' fiumi che quiui son 
passati, li quali discedono dal gra mote di 
Prato Magno, nelle quali 2 ' segature no si 
uede vestigio alcuno di nichi e di terra 
marina; questo lago si congiugnea col lago 
di Perugia; 

2 +Gran somma di nichi si uede doue li 
fiumi versano in mare, perche in tali siti 
T acque non so 2 Sno tante salse per la mi- 
stion dell'acque dolci che con quelle s'uni- 
scono -, e '1 segnio di cio si vede doue per 
antico li Mo z6 nti Appenini versauano li lor 
fiumi nel mare Adriano, li quali in gran 
parte mostrano infra li moti gra 2 ? somma 
di nichi insieme coll azzurigno terrenodi mare, 

portions of various animals be found all 
together if they had not been thrown on the 
sea shore. And the deluge cannot have 
carried them there, because things that are 
heavier than water do not float on the water. 
But these things could not be at so great a 
height if they had not been carried there by 
the water, such a thing being impossible from 
their weight. In places where the valleys have 
not been filled with salt sea water shells are 
never to be seen; as is plainly visible in the 
great valley of the Arno above Gonfolina; 
a rock formerly united to Monte Albano, in 
the form of a very high bank which kept 
the river pent up, in such a way that before 
it could flow into the sea, which was after- 
wards at its foot, it formed two great lakes ; 
of which the first was where we now see the 
city of Florence together with Prato and 
Pistoia, and Monte Albano. It followed the 
rest of its bank as far as where Serravalle 
now stands. From the Val d'Arno upwards, 
as far as Arezzo, another lake was formed, 
which discharged its waters into the former 
lake. It was closed at about the spot where 
now we see Girone, and occupied the whole 
of that valley above for a distance of 40 
miles in length. This valley received on its 
bottom all the soil brought down by the 
turbid waters. And this is still to be seen 
at the foot of Prato Magno; it there lies 
very high where the rivers have not worn 
it away. Across this land are to be 
seen the deep cuts of the rivers that have 
passed there, falling from the great moun- 
tain of Prato Magno; in these cuts there 
are no vestiges of any shells or of ma- 
rine soil. This lake was joined with that of 
Perugia [2 3]. 

A great quantity of shells are to be seen 
where the rivers flow into the sea, because 
on such shores the waters are not so salt owing 
to the admixture of the fresh water, which 
is poured into it. Evidence of this is to be 
seen where, of old, the Appenines poured their 
rivers into the Adriatic sea; for there in 
most places great quantities of shells are to 
be found, among the mountains, together 

note . . inposi. 13. graveza. 14. vidone . . vale. 15. "con monte albano" in forma . . daltissima argine (il quale) tenea 
. . versassi nel ma. 16. apiedi . . il p"o"e dove ogi si uide "fruire" la. 17. ze "insieme con" prato . . il re"ito" . . ogi 
. . ualdarno. 18. arezo . . lagho . . atidetto. 19. chircha . . ochupaua. 20. di lugeza . 20 tera porta dallacquedi. 21. acora 
. . al "tissima" . . no Ian. 22. si uede . . disscedano. 23. alchuno . . terra (azurigma come] "marina" questo . . congugnea 
collacho di peruga. 24. soma. 25. suniscano . . dicosi . . anticho. 26. nti appenini . . moti. 27. chollazurigno tere . . 

23. See PI. CXIII. 



e tutti li sassi, che di tal loco si cauano, 
son pieni di nichi; 28 I1 medesimo si cono- 
scie auere fatto Arno, quando cadea dal 
sasso della Gonfolina nel mare, 2 9che dopo 
quella non troppo basso si trovaua, perche 
a quelli tempi superaua 1'altezza di San 
Miniato al Tedesco, 3 perche nelle somme 
altezze di quello si uedono le ripe piene 
di nichi e ostriche dentro alle sue mvra; 
non si distesero li nr'chi inverse Val di 
Nievole, perche 1'ncque dolci d'Arno in la 
non si astendeano; 

Come li nichi no si ^partirono dal 
mare per diluuio, perche 1'acque, che di 
uerso la terra veniuano, acora che esse 
tirassino il mare 33Jnverso la terra,' esse 
era quelle che percuoteano il suo fondo, 
perche 1'acqua, che viene diuerso la terra, 
a J 4 piu corso che quella del mare, e per 
coseguenza e piv potente, entra sotto 1'al- 
tra acqua del mare 35 e rimove il fondo e 
accompagnia con seco tutte le cose mobili 
che in quella trova, come son i predetti 
3 6 nichi e altre simili cose, e quanto 1' acqua, 
che vie di terra, e piv torbida che quella 
del mare, ta^/to piv si fa potente e grave 
che quella; adunque io no ci vedo modo 
di tirare i predetti nichi tanto in3 8 fra terra, 
se quiui nati no fussino; se tu mi dicessi, 
il flume Loira, che passa per la Francia, 
39rielPaccrescimeto del mare si copre piv 
di ottanta miglia di paese, perche e loco 
di gra pia 4 nvra, e '1 mare s'alza circa 
braccia 20, e nichi si uengono a trovare 
in tal pianvra, disco^sta dal mare essa 
80 miglia, qui si rispode che '1 flusso e 
reflusso ne' nostri mediterrani ^rnari no 
fanno tanta varieta, perche in Genovese 
no uaria nvlla, a Vinegia poco, in A^frica 
poco, e dove poco varia, poco occupa di 
paese ; 

Senpre la correte dell' acqua de' fiumi 
44s'inoda sopra del loco doue li e inpedito 
il corso ; ancora doue essa si ristrignie per 
passare sotto 45 li archi de' ponti. 

with bluish marine clay; and all the rocks 
which are torn off in such places are full of 
shells. The same may be observed to have 
been done by the Arno when it fell from the 
rock of Gonfolina into the sea, which was 
not so very far below; for at that time it 
was higher than the top of San Miniato al 
Tedesco, since at the highest summit of this 
the shores may be seen full of shells and 
oysters within its flanks. The shells did not 
extend towards Val di Nievole, because the fresh 
waters of the Arno did not extend so far. 

That the shells were not carried away 
from the sea by the deluge, because the 
waters which came from the earth although 
they drew the sea towards the earth, were 
those which struck its depths; because the 
water which goes down from the earth, has 
a stronger current than that of the sea, and 
in consequence is more powerful, and it 
enters beneath the sea water and stirs the 
depths and carries with it all sorts of movable 
objects which are to be found in the earth, 
such as the above-mentioned shells and other 
similar things. And in proportion as the 
water which comes from the land is muddier 
than sea water it is stronger and heavier than 
this ; therefore I see no way of getting the 
said shells so far in land, unless they had 
been born there. If you were to tell me that 
the river Loire [3 8], which traverses France, 
covers when the sea rises more than eighty 
miles of country, because it is a district of 
vast plains, and the sea rises about 20 braccia, 
and shells are found in this plain at the di- 
stance of 80 miles from the sea; here I answer 
that the flow and ebb in our Mediterranean 
Sea does not vary so much; for at Genoa it 
does not rise at all, and at Venice but little, 
and very little in Africa; and where it varies 
little it covers but little of the country. 

The course of the water of a river always 
rises higher in a place where the current is 
impeded; it behaves as it does where it is 
reduced in width to pass under the arches 
of a bridge. 

ettutti. 28. conosscie . . fatto [il ual dnrno] arno . . chadea del . . golfolina. 29. tropo . . acquelli tenpi . . lalteza di 
saminiato. 30. some alteze . . uede . . osstrighe . . distesono. 31. nievole per lacque . . asstendeano. 32. partiro del . . 
lache che diuerso terra veniuano al mare ancora e esse. 33. inverso terra . . peroteano . . vie diuerso tera | a. 34. che- 
cquella . . acq"a" . . 35. aconpagnia consecho . . mobile . . son e prede. 36. ecquanto . . checquella. 37. adunque i 
no ci vego . . e predetti. 38. fiatterra . . settu . . era . . franca. 39. acresscimeto . . ellocho. 40. circha br 20 e . . 
uengano attrorare . . discos. 41. sto dal . . esse . . risspode . . frusso e refrusso . . medi terani. 42. nola . . pocho. 
43. pocho . . pocho . . pocho schupa . . correte. 44. locho douele . . corso . | anchora. 

38. Leonardo has written Era instead of Loera or Loira perhaps under the mistaken idea that Lo was 
an article. 




Uic. 9 'I 








3Dico che il diluuio non pote portare 
le cose nate dal mare alii moti, se gia il 
mare gonfiando no creasse inodazione *in- 
sino alii lochi sopradetti, la qual gonfia- 
tione accadere no pu6, perche si darebbe 
vacuo, e se tu diciessi 1'aria quiui sriem- 
pierebbe , noi abbiamo concluso il grave 
non si sostenere sopra il lieue, onde per 
neciessita si c6 6 clude, esso diluuio essere 
cavsato dall'acque piovane, e se cosl e, 
tutte esse acque corrono al mare, 7 e no 
corre il mare alle montagnie, e se elle cor- 
rono al mare, esse spingono li nichi dal 
lito del mare, e no le 8 tirano a se; E se 
tu dicessi, poiche '1 mare alzo per 1'acque 
piovane, port6 essi nichi a tale altezza, 
9 gia abbiamo detto che le cose piv gravi 
delFacqua no nota sopra di lei, ma stano 
nei fondi, dalle quali no si I0 rimovono , se 
no per cavsa di percussio d' onda ; E se tu 
dirai che 1'onde le portassino in tali lochi 
alti, noi abbiamo "prouato che 1'onde nelle 
gra profondita tornano in contrario nel 
fondo al moto di sopra, la qual cosa I2 si 
manifesta per lo intorbidare del mare dal 
terreno tolto vicino alii liti; Muovesi la 
cosa piv lieue che 1'^acqua insieme colla 
sua onda, ed e lasciata nel piv alto sito 
della riva dalla piv alta onda; Muouesi la 
cosa ^piu grave che 1'acqua , sospinta 
dalla sua oda nella superfitie e dal fondo 
suo e per queste due conclusion!, che ai 
lochi 'Ssua-sara provate a pieno, noi con- 
cludiamo che 1'onda superfitiale no puo 
portare nichi, per essere piu grievi che 
16 1'acqua; 

'7Quando il diluuio auesse avto a por- 
tare li nichi trecento e quattro cento mi- 
l8 glia distanti dalli mari, esso li avrebbe 
portati misti con diuerse nature insieme 
ammontati, e noi vediamo in J 9tal distantie 
1'ostriche tutte insteme, e le conchilie, e li 
pesci calamai, e tutti li altri nichi, che 
stanno insieme a congre 20 gatione, essere 




I say that the deluge could not carry objects, 
native to the sea, up to the mountains, unless 
the sea had already increased so as to create 
inundations as high up as those places; and 
this increase could not have occurred because 
it would cause a vacuum; and if you were 
to say that the air would rush in there, we 
have already concluded that what is heavy 
cannot remain above what is light, whence of 
necessity we must conclude that this deluge 
was caused by rain water, so that all these 
waters ran to the sea, and the sea did not run 
up the mountains; and as they ran to the sea, 
they thrust the shells from the shore of the sea 
and did not draw them to wards themselves. And 
if you were then to say that the sea, raised 
by the rain water, had carried these shells 
to such a height, we have already said that 
things heavier than water cannot rise upon 
it, but remain at the bottom of it, and do 
not move unless by the impact of the waves. 
And if you were to say that the waves had 
carried them to such high spots, we have 
proved that the waves in a great depth move 
in a contrary direction at the bottom to the 
motion at the top, and this is shown by the 
turbidity of the sea from the earth washed 
down near its shores. Anything which is 
lighter than the water moves with the waves, 
and is left on the highest level of the highest 
margin of the waves. Anything which is 
heavier than the water moves, suspended in 
it, between the surface and the bottom; and 
from these two conclusions, which will be 
amply proved in their place, we infer that the 
waves of the surface cannot convey shells, 
since they are heavier than water. 

If the deluge had to carry shells three 
hundred and four hundred miles from the 
sea, it would have carried them mixed with 
various other natural objects heaped together; 
and we see at such distances oysters all 
together, and sea-snails, and cuttlefish, and 
all the other shells which congregate together, 

989. i. dicano . . gornate . . chausa. 2. tantalta . . superassi. j. Dicho che diluuio no po | "te" . . cose "nate" del . . creassi 
. . achadere . . po . . dare vachuo. 5. rienpierebe . . abia . . greve. 6. esse chosi . . corrano. 7. csselle corrano . . del 
lito. 8. asse Esse . . attale alteza. 9. abia . . chelle . . grav . . stano in fondo delle 10. removano . . . Essettu . . abia. 
ii. chellonde . . provondita. 12. del tere . . chella. 13. acq"a" . . lassciata. 14. chellacqua . sospinte . . e del. 15. che- 
llond.i . . po. 17. auesse. 18. disstanti . . arebbe . . chou . . amotati. 19. losstriche . . elli conchili elli . . chalamai 




trovati tutti insieme morti, e li nichi sole- 
tari trovarsi distant! 1'uno dall'altro, come 
ne' liti marittimi 2I tutto il giorno vediamo; 
E se noi troviamo 1'ostriche insieme appa- 
retate gradissime, infra le quali assai vedi 
quelle 22 che anno ancora il coperchio con- 
giunlo, a significare chequi furono lasciate 
dal mare, che ancor viveano quando fu 
2 3tagliato lo stretto di Gibilterra; Vedesi 
in nelle montagnie di Parma e Piacetia le 
moltitudini di nichi e coralli 24 intarlati, an- 
cora appiccati alii sassi, de' quali, quand' io 
facevo il gra cavallo di Milano, me ne fu 
portato vn gra sacco ne 2 5lla mia fabbrica 
da certi villani, che in tal loco furo trovati, 
fralli quali ve n'era assai delli conseruati 
nella prima bota; 

26 Truovasi sotto terra e sotto li pro- 
fondi cavamenti de' lastroni li legniami 
delle traui lauorati, fatti gia neri, li qua 27 ll 
furo trovati a mio tenpo in quel di Castel 
Fioretino , e questi in tal loco profondo 
v'erano prima che la litta gittata 28 dall'Arno 
nel mare, che quiui copriva, fusse abban- 
donata in tant' altezza, e che le pianvre del 
Casentino fussi tanto abbassate 2 9dal terre 
che anno al continue di 11 sgonberato; 

3E se tu dicessi, tali 3 1 nichi essere 
crea3 2 ti e creano a c63 tinvo in simili lochi 
per la natura del 34 S ito e de' cieli, che 
qui3 6 vi influisce, questa 37 tale openione non 
3 8 sta in cervelli di trop39po discorso, perche 
qui 4 vi s'envmera li anni 4I del loro accre- 
scimento 42 sulle loro scorze, e se ne 43 V e- 
dono piccoli e gradi, 44 i quali sanza cibo no 
cre^ 5 scerebbero e non si cibarebbero sa 46 za 
moto, e quivi mouere no si po 4 ?teano. 

all to be found together and dead; and the 
solitary shells are found wide apart from each 
other, as we may see them on sea-shores every 
day. And if we find oysters of very large shells 
joined together and among them very many 
which still have the covering attached, indi- 
cating that they were left hereby the sea, and 
still living when the strait of Gibraltar 
was cut through; there are to be seen, in 
the mountains of Parma and Piacenza, a 
multitude of 'shells and corals, full of holes, 
and still sticking to the rocks there. When 
I was making the great horse for Milan , a 
large sack full was brought to me in my 
workshop by certain peasants; these were 
found in that place and among them were 
many preserved in their first freshness. 

Under ground, and under the foundations 
of buildings, timbers are found of wrought 
beams and already black. Such were found in 
my time in those diggings at Castel Fiorentino. 
And these had been in that deep place before 
the sand carried by the Arno into the sea, 
then covering the plain, had heen raised to 
such a height; and before the plains of Casen- 
tino had been so much lowered, by the earth 
being constantly carried down from them. 

[30] And if you were to say that these 
shells were created, and were continually 
being created in such places by the nature 
of the spot, and of the heavens which might 
have some influence there, such an opinion 
cannot exist in a brain of much reason; 
because here are the years of their growth, 
numbered on their shells, and there are large 
and small ones to be seen which could not 
have grown without food, and could not 
have fed without motion #nd here they could 
not move [47]. 

Leic. io a] 9QO 

Come 2 nelle falde, infra 1'una e 1'altra 
si trovano ancora li andameti delli lonbrici, 
che caminavano infra esse ^quado non erano 
ancora asciutte; Come tutti li fanghi ma- 
rini ritengono ancora de' nichi 4 ed e petri- 
ficato il nichio insieme col fango; della 

That in the drifts, among one and another, 
there are still to be found the traces of the 
worms which crawled upon them when they 
were not yet dry. And all marine clays 
still contain shells, and the shells are petri- 
fied together with the clay. From their 
firmness and unity some persons will have 
it that these animals were carried up to 

ettutti. 20. elli trovare . . lunoall. 21. gorno . . Esse . . losstriche . . aparetadi gradissimi infralle quale. 22. anchora 
. . congunto . . assignificare . . lassciate . . ancoravveano. 23. losstretto di gibiltar . . inelle . . moltitudinede. 24. apichati 

. . ne nefu . . sachone. 25. fabricha . . nella p".i" bota. 26. essotto . . ga neri. 27. ecquesti . . profondor "o"no . . 
chella litagitta. 28. copria fussi abondata . . alteza e chelle . . tante abassate. 29. del. .sgonbera 30. essettu. 31. niche. 

33. nvo. 36. infruisscie. 37. none. 38. di tro. 41. deloro acresscimento. 42. sule. 43. vede picoli. 45. bono e non si 

ciboro. 47. trono. 
990. 2. infralluna allaltra . . trova anchora. 3. neuera . . asscutta . . fangh . . ritengano. 4. essenplicita . . uogliano chettal. 

989. 30 47. These lines arc written in the margin. 




stoltitia e senplicita di quelli, che uogliono 
che taMi animali fussino alii lochi distanti 
dai mari portati dal diluvio; Come altra 
setta d'ignoranti 6 affermano la natura, o i 
cell auerli in tali lochi creati per Iflussi 
celesti, come in quelli 7 no si trovassino 
1'ossa de' pesci cresciuti co lughezza di 
tenpo, come nelle scorze de' nichi e luma- 
che no si potcsse 8 annvmerare li anni o i 
mesi della lor uita, come nelle corna de' 
buoi e de' castroni e nella ramificatione 
decile piante, che no furo mai tagliate in 
alcuna parte; E auendo con tali segni di- 
mostrato e la lunghezza della lor uita I0 es- 
sere manifesta, ecco bisognio confessare, 
che tali animali no uiuino sanza moto per 
cercare "il loro cibo e in loro non si uede 
strumeto da penetrare la terra e '1 sasso, 
ove si trovano rinchiusi ; I2 Ma in che modo 
si potrebbe trovare in vna gra lumaca i 
rottami e parte di molt'altre sorti di nichi 
di uarie na^ture, se ad essa, sopra de' liti 
marini gia morta, non. li fussino state git- 
tate dalle onde del mare, come dell'al'nre 
cose lieui, che esso gitta a terra? Perche 
si truova tanto rottame e nichi interi fra 
falda e falda di pie'Stra, se gia quella so- 
pra del lito no fusse stata ricoperta da una 
terra rigittata dal mare, la qual poi si uenne 
pc l6 trificando? E se '1 diluvio predetto li 
auesse in tali siti dal mare portato, tu trove- 
resti essi nichi in nel termi' 7 ne d'una sola 
falda, e non al termine di moke; deuonsi 
poi annvmerare le uernate delli a l8 ni, che 
'1 mare mvltiplicaua le falde dell' arena e 
fango, portatoli da fiumi vicini, e ch'elli 
scaricava in sui liti sua, e se '9tu volessi 
dire, che piv diluui fussino stati a produrre 
tali falde e nichi infra loro, e' bisognierebbe, 
20 che ancora tu affermassi ogni ano essere 
vn tal diluuio accaduto; Ancora infra li 
rot 2I tami di tal nichi si presume in tal sito 
essere spiaggia di mare, doue tutti i nichi 
son gittati rotti e diuisi e no 22 mai appai- 
ati, come infra '1 mare viui si trovano con 
due gusci, che fan coperchio 1'uno all'altro; 
E infra 2 ^le falde della riuiera e de' liti 
marittimi son trovati de' rottami; E dentro 
alii termini delle pietre son trovati 2 *rari 
e appaiati de' gusci, come quelli che furo 
lasciati dal mare sotterrati viui dentro al 
fango, il qual 2 5poi si secc6 e col tenpo 

places remote from the sea by the deluge. 
Another sect of ignorant persons declare 
that Nature or Heaven created them in these 
places by celestial influences, as if in these 
places we did not also find the bones of 
fishes which have taken a long rime to grow; 
and as if, we could not count, in the shells 
of cockles and snails, the years and months 
of their life, as we do in the horns of bulls 
and oxen, and in the branches of plants that 
have never been cut in any part. Besides, 
having proved by these signs the length of 
their lives, it is evident, and it must be 
admitted, that these animals could not live 
without moving to fetch their food; and we 
find in them no instrument for penetrating 
the earth or the rock where we find them 
enclosed. But how could we find in a large 
snail shell the fragments and portions of 
many other sorts of shells, of various sorts, 
if they had not been thrown there, when 
dead, by the waves of the sea like the other 
light objects which it throws on the earth? 
Why do we find so many fragments and 
whole shells between layer and layer of stone, 
if this had not formerly been covered on the 
shore by a layer of earth thrown up by 
the sea, and which was afterwards petrified? 
And if the deluge before mentioned had 
carried them to these parts of the sea, you 
might find these shells at the boundary of one 
drift but not at the boundary between many 
drifts. We must also account for the winters 
of the years during which the sea multiplied 
the drifts of sand and mud brought down by 
the neighbouring rivers, by washing down 
the shores; and if you chose to say that 
there were several deluges to produce these 
rifts and the shells among them, you would 
also have to affirm that such a deluge took 
place every year. Again, among the frag- 
ments of these shells, it must be presumed 
that in those places there were sea coasts, 
where all the shells were thrown up, broken, 
and divided, and never in pairs, since they 
are found alive in the sea, with two valves, 
each serving as a lid to the other ; and in the 
drifts of rivers, and on the shores of the sea they 
are found in fragments. And within the limits 
of the separate strata of rocks they are found, 
few in number and in pairs like those which were 
left by the sea, buried alive in the mud, which 
subsequently dried up and, in time, was petrified. 

5. fossi inali . . diluio . I frussi. 7. trovassi . . crcssciuti . . lugeza . . pote. 8. anvmerare . . casstroni . . del. 9. sign! dimostro 
o la lungeza. 10. ecci bisognia chettali. n.illor nosi. 12. nvna gra lumacha . . altre sotte. 13. ture e essa sopa de . . morta 
nolli . . comella. 14. etso . . atterra. 15. fussi . . uno. 16. trifichando . Essel diluio . . auessi . . troverresti hessi . . 
incl. 17. none . . di [qualunche falda] "di moke" deuensi po anvmerare [li ani] le uernate. 18. del [fango] "larena eff- 
angho" portatoli . . insu lid . . esset. 19. ennichi infralloro. 20. ongni . . tatal . . acaduto [e che tenessi] Ancora infralii. 
ai.spiagia. 22. apaiati . . gussci cheffan . . iniralle. 24. apaiati di gussci . . lassciati sollcrati. 25. secho . . petrificho. 





E se tu vuoi dire che tale diluuio fu 
quello che porto tali nichi fuor de' mari 
cetinaia di miglia , questo no puo acca 2 dere, 
essendo stato esso diluuio per cause di 
pioggie, perche naturalmente le pioggie 
spingono i fiumi insieme colle cose da loro 
3portate inuerso il mare, e no tirano in- 
verso de' moti le cose morte dai liti marit- 
timi ., e setu dicessi che'l diluvio poi s'a! 4 zo 
colle sue acque sopra de' moti, il moto del 
mare fu si tardo col camino suo contro al 
corso de' fiumi, che non avrebbe 5 sopra di 
se tenvto a noto le cose piv gravi di lui, 
e se pur 1'auesse sostenute, esso nel ca- 
lare 1' avrebbe lasciate in diversi 6 lochi 
seminate; Ma come accomoderemo noi 
li coralli, li quali inverse Mote Ferrato 
di Lonbardia esser si tuttoMl trovati 
intarlati appiccati alii scogli , scoperti 
dalle correti de' fiumi? e li detti scogli 
sono tutti coperti di parentadi 8 e famiglie 
d'ostriche, le quali noi sappiamo che no 
si movono, ma sta senpre appiccate col' 
u de' gusci al sasso, e Paltro apro^no per 
che nota per 1' acque, 
trovar bona pastura, 
predetto nichio; non 
mista coll' aliga ma- 
rina essersi petrificata, poiche 1' aliga, che 
la ramezzaua, venne meno; e di questo 
IT scopre tutto il giorno il Po nelle ruine 
delle sue ripe. 

cibarsi d' animaluzzi , 
li quali, credendo 
diuentano cibo del 
si I0 trova 1' arena 

And if you choose to say that it was 
the deluge which carried these shells away from 
the sea for hundreds of miles, this cannot 
have happened, since that deluge was caused 
by rain; because rain naturally forces the 
rivers to rush towards the sea with all the 
things they carry with them, and not to bear 
the dead things of the sea shores to the 
mountains. And if you choose to say that 
the deluge afterwards rose with its waters 
above the mountains, the movement of the sea 
must have been so sluggish in its rise against 
the currents of the rivers, that it could not 
have carried, floating upon it, things heavier 
than itself; and even if it had supported them, 
in its receding it would have left them strewn 
about, in various spots. But how are we to 
account for the corals which are found every 
day towards Monte Ferrato in Lombardy, 
with the holes of the worms in them, sticking 
to rocks left uncovered by the currents of 
rivers? These rocks are all covered with 
stocks and families of oysters, which as we 
know, never move, but always remain with 
one of their halves stuck to a rock, and the 
other they open to feed themselves on the 
animalcules that swim in the water, which, 
hoping to find good feeding ground, become 
the food of these shells. We do not find 
that the sand mixed with seaweed has been 
petrified, because the weed which was min- 
gled with it has shrunk away, and this the Po 
shows us every day in the debris of its banks. 

Leic. 20 a] 


Perche sono trovate 1'ossa 2 de' gra 

Why do we find the bones of great fishes other 

pesci e le ostriche e coralli e altri diuersi and oysters and corals and various other bl ^ ms 

1 1 "i 1 f _ i j_ _ __- i _ i in i M ,1 i i * _ r '99 994*' 

nichi e chiocciole sopra 1'alte cime de' 
moti ma^rittimi nel medesimo modo che 
si trova ne' bassi mari? 

shells and sea-snails on the high summits of 
mountains by the sea, just as we find them 
in low seas? 

Leic. 36 


Tu ai ora a provare come li nichi no 
nascono, se no in acque salse, quasi tutte 
le sorte, e che 2 li nichi di Lonbardia anno 

You now have to prove that the shells 
cannot have originated if not in salt water, 
almost all being of that sort; and that 
the shells in Lombardy are at four levels, 

991. i. Essettu volli . . chettale . . for . . po acha. 2. chause di piogie . . piogie spingano . . dallor. 3. morte de liti . . esse 
. . diluui. 4. sittardo . . arebe [te]. 5. esse . . lauesi sosstenvte . . larebe lassciate. 6. acomodereno. 7. ildi . . "intarlati" 
apichati alii scolgli . . elli . . scolgli . . parendadi e. 8. sapiano . . movano . . apichate cholu degussci . . apra. 9. danima- 
luzi . . diuenta. 10. trova egli larena . . cholla . . poichellaliga chella framezaua. n. gorno. 

993. 2. pessci elle osstriche . . cioccole. 993. i. nasscano. 3. chessabochano. 

VOL. u. EE * 




4 liuelli, e cosj per tutti, li quali sono 
fatti in piv tepi, e questi ^sono per tutte 
le ualli che sboccano alii mari. 

and thus it is everywhere, having been made 
at various times. And they all occur in 
valleys that open towards the seas. 

Hr. M. 156*1 


Per le 2 linie de* nicchi bisognia dire 
che_la terra per sdegno 2 s'attufasse sotto 
il mare, e fece il primo suolo, poi il di- 
luuio J fece il secondo. 

From the two lines of shells we are forced 
to say that the earth indignantly submerged 
under the sea and so the first layer was 
made ; and then the deluge made the second. 

994. i. nicch . . chellatcra. 2. sattu fassi sottollmare eflfe. 3. fe il sechondo. 

994. This note is in the early writing of about 
1470 1480. On the same sheet are the passages 
No. 1217 and 1219. Compare also No. 1339. All the 

foregoing chapters are from Manuscripts of about 
1510. This explains the want of connection and the 
contradiction between this and the foregoing texts. 



Leic. 20 a] 


Come la chiarezza dell' aria na 2 scie dal- 
1'acqua che in quella s'e resoluta e fattasi 
in Isesibili graniculi, li quali, preso il lume 
del sole dall' op3posita parte, redone la chi- 
arezza che in essa aria si dimonstra, e 
1'azzurro, che in quella apparisce, nascie 
* dalle tenebre, che dopo essa aria si na- 

That the brightness of the air is occa- Constituents 
sioned by the water which has dissolved it- of th , e al 

. . ., , mosphere. 

self in it into imperceptible molecules. 
These, being lighted by the sun from the 
opposite side, reflect the brightness^which 
is visible in the air; and the azure which is 
seen in it is caused by the darkness that is 
hidden beyond the air. [4] 

Leic. 226] 


Come i retrosi de' ueti a certe 2 boche 
di ualli percuotino sopra delle acque e 
quelle concauino co gra cauameto, e portino 
^Pacqua in aria in forma colunnale in color 
di nugola, e il medesimo vid'io gia fare 
sopra 4 V n arenaio d' Arno, nel quale fu 
concauato 1' arena piu d'una statura d'uomo, 
e sdi quella fu remossa la ghiaja e gittata 
in disparte per lugo spatio, e parea per 
1'aria in forma 6 di gradissimo canpanile, 
e crescieva la sommita come i rami di 
gran pino, e si piegaua ?poi nel con- 
tatto del retto ueto che passaua sopra 
li moti. 


That the return eddies of wind at the on the mo- 
mouth of certain valleys strike upon the tion of air 
waters and scoop them out in a great hol- 
low, whirl the water into the air in the form of 
a column, and of the colour of a cloud. And 
I saw this thing happen on a sand bank in 
the Arno, where the sand was hollowed out to 
a greater depth than the stature of a man ; and 
with it the gravel was whirled round and 
flung about for a great space; it appeared in 
the air in the form of a great bell-tower; and 
the top spread like the branches of a pine tree, 
and then it bent at the contact of the direct 
wind, which passed over from the mountains. 

995. i. chiareza. 2. sscie . . effattasi . . presi. 3. redano la ciareza . . dimosstra ellazurro . . apparissce nasscie . . nasscondano. 

996. i. accerte. 2. percotino . . ecquelle . . chauamento. 3. colunale . . vidio cia. 4. duome he. 5. giara e gittatta. 6. ecres- 
scieva lasomita . . rami di girapino essi. 

995- 4- Compare Vol. I, No. 300. 






L'onda dell 1 aria fa il me'desimo vfitio The element of fire acts upon a wave of 

infra 1' elemeto del fuoco -, che fa 1'onda air in the same way as the air does on 

clell'acqua infra T aria, o 1'onda dcll'a3rena, water, or as water does on a mass of sand 

doe terra, infra 1'acqua, e sono i lor moti that is earth; and their motions are in the 

in tal proportione qual e quella de' lor same proportions as those of the motors 

mo'tori infra loro. acting upon them. 

S. K. M. Il.a 19*1 



Domado, se '1 uero moto 2 de' nuvoli I ask whether the true motion of the 

si puo conosciere -Jper lo moto delle sue clouds can be known by the motion of their 

. M ^ * i t _i__i__ _ir i *i_ _ _/* A.I iJ _ 

ombre , 4 e similemete 

del moto 5 del 

shadows; and in like manner of the motion 
of the sun. 



Per cognosciere 2 meglio i 



To know better the direction 
of the winds. 

Lic. 340] 


Nessuna cosa nasce in loco doue no 
The globe sia vita sensitiua, vegetatiua e rationale; 

an organism. nascono J e p enne S Opra H UCCelU, 6 si mv- 

tano ogni anno ; nascono 2 li peli sopra li 
animali, e ogni anno si mvtano, saluo al- 
cuna parte, come li peli delle barbe de' 
lioni e gatte e simi-Jli ; nascono 1' erbe sopra 
li prati e le foglie sopra li alberi, e ogn'ano 
in gra parte si rinovano; adunque potremo 
dire, 4 la terra avere anima vegetatiua, e 
che la sua carne sia la terra, li sua ossi 
sieno li ordini delle collegationi de' 

Nothing originates in a spot where there is 
no sentient, vegetable and rational life ; feathers 
grow upon birds and are changed every year; 
hairs grow upon animals and are changed 
every year, excepting some parts, like the 
hairs of the beard in lions, cats and their 
like. The grass grows in the fields, and 
the leaves on the trees, and every year 
they are, in great part, renewed. So that 
we might say that the earth has a spirit of 
growth; that its flesh is the soil, its bones the 
arrangement and connection of the rocks of 

997. 2. mfrallclemcto . . focho . cheffa. 3. coe . . infrallacqua essono . . quele quella delor. 

998. 2. nvvoli spo. j. obre. 4. essimile i.ete. 

999. i 2 R. s. cognosciere. 2. e veti. 

1000. i. nance . . locho . . vita "sensitiua (intellettiva) vigitatiua e ra t'onale] nassce le pene . . essi . . nassce. 2. alchuna . . 
essimi. 3. nassce . . elle . . potren. 4. vigitatiua e chella . . collcgatione. 5. comogano. 6. occeano . . cresscere e dis- 

999. In connection with this text I may here pert quando j'<J arrompere U tep<f (Mode of weighing 

mention a hygrometer, drawn and probably invented the air and of knowing when the weather will 

by Leonardo. A facsimile of this is given in VoL I, change); by the sponge "Spugnea" is written, 

p. 297 with the note: 'Modi di pesare I'arie tddi ta- 1000. Compare No. 929. 




di che si compongono le motagnie, il suo 
tenerume soiio li tufi , il suo sangue sono 
le uene delle acque, il lago 6 del sangue, 
che sta dintorno al core, e il mare oceano, 
il suo alitare e '1 crescere e discrescere 
del sangue 7pelli polsi, e cosi nella terra 
e il flusso e riflusso del mare, e '1 caldo 
dell' anima del mondo e il fuoco, 8 ch' e in- 
fuso per la terra, e la residenza dell' anima 
vegetativa sono li fochi, che per diuersi 
lochi della 9 terra spirano in bagni, e in 
miniere di solfi, e in vulcani, e Mo Gibello 
di Sicilia, e altri lochi assai. 

which the mountains are composed, its 
cartilage the tufa, and its blood the springs 
of water. The pool of blood which lies 
round the heart is the ocean, and its brea- 
thing, and the increase and decrease of the 
blood in the pulses, is represented in the 
earth by the flow and ebb of the sea; and 
the heat of the spirit of the world is the 
fire which pervades the earth, and the seat 
of the vegetative soul is in the fires, which in 
many parts of the earth find vent in baths and 
mines of sulphur, and in volcanoes, as at Mount 
in Sicily, and in many other places. 

scresscere. 7. frusso e refrusso . . focho. 8. ella reside dell . . vigitativa. 9. in vulgano . . cicilia. 

Topographical Notes. 

A large part of the texts published in this section might perhaps have found their 
proper place in connection with the foregoing chapters on Physical Geography. But these 
observations on Physical Geography, of whatever kind they may be, as soon as they are 
localised acquire a special interest and importance and particularly as bearing on the 
question whether Leonardo himself made the observations recorded at the places men- 
tioned or merely noted the statements from hearsay. In a few instances he himself tells 
us that he writes at second hand. In some cases again, although the style and expressions 
used make it seem highly probable that he has derived his information from others 
though, as it seems to me, these cases are not very numerous we find, on the other hand, 
among these topographical notes a great number of observations, about which it is ex- 
tremely difficult to form a decided opinion. Of what the Master's life and travels may have 
been throughout his sixty-seven years of life we know comparatively little; for a long course 
of time, and particularly from about 1482 to 1486, we do not even know with certainty 
that he was living in Italy. Thus, from a biographical point of view a very great interest 
attaches to some of the topographical notes, and for this reason it seemed that it would 
add to their value to arrange them in a group by themselves. Leonardo's intimate 
knowledge with places, some of which were certainly remote from his native home, are 
of importance as contributing to decide the still open question as to the extent of Leo- 
nardo's travels. We sJiall find in these notes a confirmation of the view, that the MSS. 
in which the Topographical Notes occur are in only a very few instances such diaries as 
may have been in use during a journey. These notes are mostly found in the MSS. books 
of his later and quieter years, and it is certainly remarkable that Leonardo is very 
reticent as to the authorities from whom he quotes his facts arid observations : For in- 
stance, as to the Straits of Gibraltar, the Nile, the Taurus Mountains and the Tigris 
and Euphrates. Is it likely that he, who declared that in all scientific research, his 
own experience should be the foundation of his statements (see XIX PhilosopJiy 
No. 987 991,) sJiould here have made an exception to this rule without mentioning it 1 ? 


As for instance in the discussion as to the equilibrium of the mass of water in the 
Mediterranean Sea a subject which, it may be observed, liad at that time attracted 
the interest and study of hardly any other observer. The acute remarks, in Nos. 985993, 
on the presence of shells at the tops of mountains, suffice to prove as it seems to 
m ethat it was not in his nature to allow himself to be betrayed into wide gene- 
ralisations, extending beyond the limits of his own investigations, even by such brilli- 
ant results of personal study. 

Most of these Topographical Notes, though suggesting very careful and 
tliorough research, do not however, as has been said, afford necessarily indisputable 
evidence that that research was Leonardo's own. But it must be granted that in more 
than one instance probability is in favour of this idea. 

Among the passages which treat somewhat fully of the topography of Eastern 
places by far the most interesting is a description of the Taurus Mountains] but as this 
text is written in the style of a formal report and, in the original, is associated with 
certain letters which give us the history of its origin, I have thought it best not to 
sever it from that connection. It will be found under No. XXI (Letters}. 

That Florence, and its neighbourhood, where Leonardo spent his early years, should 
be nowhere mentioned except in connection with the projects for canals , which occu- 
pied his attention for some short time during the first ten years of tJie XVI th century, 
need not surprise us. The various passages relating to the construction of canals in 
Tuscany, which are put together at the beginning, are immediately followed by those 
which deal with schemes for canals in Lombardy ; and after these come notes on the 
city and vicinity of Milan as well as on the lakes of North Italy. 

The notes on some towns of Central Italy which Leonardo visited in 1502, when 
in the service of Cesare Borgia, are reproduced here in the same order as in the note 
book used during these travels (MS. L., Institut de France). 77iese notes have but 
little interest in themselves excepting as suggesting his itinerary. The maps of the 
districts drawn by Leonardo at tlie time are more valuable (see No. 1054 note). The 
names on these maps are not written from right to left, but in the usual manner, and 
we are permitted to infer that they were made in obedience to some command, 
possibly for the use of Cesare Borgia himself; the fact that they remained never- 
theless in Leonardo's hands is not surprising when we remember tlie sudden political 
changes and warlike events of the period. There can be no doubt that these maps, 
which are here published for the first time, are original in the strictest sense of the 
word, that is to say drawn from observations of the places themselves; this is proved 
by tJie fact among others that we find among his manuscripts not only the finis/ted 
maps themselves but the rough sketches and studies for them. And it would perhaps 
be difficult to point out among the abundant contributions to geographical knowledge 
published during the XVI*k century, any maps at all approaching these in accuracy 
and finish. 

The interesting map of the world, so far as it was then known, wJiich is among 
the Leonardo MSS. at Windsor (published in the 'Archaeologia' Vol. XI) cannot 
be attributed to the Master, as the Marchese Girolamo d'Adda has sufficiently proved; 
it has not therefore been reproduced here. 


Such of Leonardo's observations on places in Italy as were made before or after his 
official travels as military engineer to Cesarc Borgia, have been arranged in alphabetical 
order, imder Nos. 1034 1054. The most interesting are those which relate to tJie Alps 
and the Appenines , Nos. 1057 1068. 

Most of the passages in which France is mentioned have hitherto remained un- 
known, as well as those which treat of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, 
which come at the end of this section. Though these may be regarded as of a more 
questionable importance in their bearing on the biography of the Master than those 
which mention places in France, it must be allowed that they are interesting as showing 
the prominent place which the countries of the East held in his geographical studies. 
He never once alludes to the discovery of America. 



C. A. 45*1; 



2 Facciasi alle Chiane d'Arezzo tali 
cateratte che, machando acqua 1' estate in 
Arno-, il canale no rimaga arido; 3 e fac- 
ciasi esso canale largo in fodo braccia 20 , 
e 30 in bocca, e braccia 2 s per 1' acqua 
04-, perche dua d' esse braccia reca 4 alii 
mvlini e li prati ; questo bonifichera il 
paese , e Prato, Pistoia e Pisa insieme 
co Fireze, faranno 1'anno di meglio s dugie- 
to mila ducati , e porgieranno le mani 
e spesa a esso aivtorio, e i Lucchesi 
il simile, perche il lago di Sesto fia na- 
vicabile; 6 fo lo fare la uia di Prato 
e Pistoia e tagliare Serravalle . e uscire 
nel lago , perche no bisognia conche o 
sostegni i qua 7 li no sono eterni, anzi 
senpre si sta in esercitio a operarli e 

8 E sappi che se, cauado il canale , doue 
esso e profondo 4 braccia, si da 4 dinari 
per braccio quadro , in doppia profondita 
si 9 da 6 dinari, se fai 4 I0 braccia e' sono 


Sluices should be made in the valley 

..",_.,. , ,1 . v 

of la Chiana at Arezzo, so that when, 
in the summer , the Arno lacks water, the 

111* 1 V 

canal may not remain dry: and let this canal 
be 20 braccia wide at the bottom, and at 
the top 30, and 2 braccia deep, or 4, so that 
two of these braccia may flow to the mills and 
the meadows, which will benefit the country ; and 
Prato, Pistoia and Pisa, as well as Florence, 
will gain two hundred thousand ducats a year, 
and will lend a hand and money to this useful 
work ; and the Lucchese the same, for the lake 
of Sesto will be navigable; I shall direct it to 
Prato and Pistoia, and cut through Serravalle 
and make an issue into the lake ; for there will 
be no need of locks or supports, which are 
not lasting and so will always be giving trouble 
in working at them and keeping them up. 

And know that in digging this canal 
where it is 4 braccia deep, it will cost 4 
dinari the square braccio; for twice the 
depth 6 dinari, if you are making 4 braccia 


with the 
Arno , 

*^ L>OO^. 

looi. 2. alle chiane darezo . . chateratte . . machando . acqua \ lastate innarno. 3. effacciasi . . br. 20 .. boccha e br. 2 . 5 . 
per qua . . dua desse br. rua (?) . 4. elli . . quessto . . pisstoia . . cho . . fia lano dimeglio. 5. porgierano le mani "esspesa" 
..sessto. 6. folli fare . . ettagliare esscire. 7. etterni . Lines 815 br. stands always for braccia. 8. Essapi chesse chauado 
il chanale . . dopia. 9. dinari [onsi in . 7 . si da il doppio . perche . quelle . sechonde 4 br. il tereno e giassmosso e 
poi perche] seffai 4, 10. dellabri . . ellaltro. n. esse fussi. 12. cresse solo . i . bancho . . cresscie. 13. viene dinari sei 

iooi. This passage is illustrated by a slightly 
sketched map, on which these places are indicated 

from West to East: Pisa, Luccha, Lago, Seravalle, 
Pistoja, Prato, Firenze. 




solamete 2 banchi -, cioe vno dal fondo 
del fosso -alia superfitie de' labri del fosso , 
e Paltro da essi labri "alia somita del 
mote della terra che d' in sulla riva 
dell' argine- si leua-; e se fusse di doppia 
profondita , esso argine "cresce solo 
uno banco, cioe braccia 4 , che crescie 
la meta della prima spesa, cioe che, 
dove prima in 2 banchi si da'^va di- 
nari 4 in 3 , si viene a dare sei a 2 di- 
nari per banco, essendo il fosso in fondo 
braccia 16; ancora se'l fosso fusse largo 
bracciu 16 I4 e profodo 4 , venedo- a 4 
L per opera , dinari 4 Milanesi il brac- 
cio quadro ; il fosso che in fondo sara 
braccia I5 32, verra a stare dinari 8 il 
braccio quadro. 

and there are but 2 banks; that is to say 
one from the bottom of the trench to the 
surface of the edges of it, and the other 
from these edges to the top of the ridge of 
earth which will be raised on the margin of 
the bank. And if this bank were of double 
the depth only the first bank will be in- 
creased, that is 4 braccia increased by half 
the first cost; that is to say that if at first 
4 dinari were paid for 2 banks, for 3 it 
would come to 6, at 2 dinari the bank, if 
the trench measured 16 braccia at the bottom; 
again, if the trench were 16 braccia wide 
and 4 deep, coming to 4 lire for the 
work, 4 Milan dinari the square braccio; a 
trench which was 32 braccia at the bottom 
would come to 8 dinari the square braccio. 

L. ia\ 


Dal muro d'Arno della 2 Giustitia al- 
1' argine d'Ar^no di Sardigna, dove sono 
*i muri alle mulina, e braccia S 74OO, cioe 
migla 2 6 e braccia 1400, 7 e'l di la d'Arno 
e braccia 5500. 

From the wall of the Arno at [the gate 
of] la Giustizia to the bank of the Arno at 
Sardigna where the walls are, to the mills, is 
7400 braccia, that is 2 miles and 1400 brac- 
cia and beyond the Arno is 5500 braccia. 

C. A. 284 a; 865 a] 


Dirizzare Arno 2 di sotto e di sopra; 
3 s' auanzera vn tesoro, 'a tanto per stajoro 
s a chi lo vole. 

By guiding the Arno above and below 
a treasure will be found in each acre of 
ground by whomsoever will. 

Br. M. 273*] 


n muro dalle 2 Casaccie si 3dirizza alia 
porta di san Niccolo. 

The wall of the old houses runs towards 
the gate of San Nicolo. 

. . bancho "essendo il fosso in fondo braccia 16" anchora . . fusi largho. 14. [e al] e profodo.. 15. vena dinari. 
looa. 2. gusstitia. 4. e br. 5. [8000] 7400 coe. 6. br. 7. br. 
1003. i. dirizare arnno. 4. attanto pcrisstaioro. 1004. i. mro d-lle. 2. casace [con]. 3. diriza. 4. nicolo. 

1002. 2. Giustizia. By this the Porta della 
Giustizia seems to be meant; from the XVth to the 
XVIth centuries it was also commonly known as 
Porta Guelfa, Porta San Francesco del Renaio, Porta 
Nuova, and Porta Reale. It was close to the, Arno 
opposite to the Porta San Niccol6, which still exists. 

1004. By the side of this text there is an in- 
distinct sketch, resembling that given under No. 973. 
On the bank is written the word Casace. There 
then follows in the original a passage of 12 lines in 
which the consequences of the windings of the 
river are discussed. A larger but equally hasty 
diagram on the same page represents the shores of 

the Arno inside Florence as in two parallel lines. 
Four horizontal lines indicate the bridges. By the 
side these measures are stated in figures: i. (at the 
Ponte alia Carraja): 230 largho br. 12 e 2 di spoda 
e 14 di pile e a ^pilastri; 2. (at the Ponte S. Trinita): 
188 largho br. 15 e 2 di sfode he 28 di pilastri for 
delle specie e pilastri so 2 ; 3. (at the Ponte vecchio) ; 
pote lung br. 152 e largo; 4. (at the Ponte alle Grazie): 
290 ellargo 12 e 2 di spdde e 6 di pili. 

There is, in MS. W. L. 2I2*> , a sketched plan of 
Florence, with the following names of gates: .M- 
cholo Saminiato Giorgo Ghanolini Porta San Fre.fian 
PratoFaenza GhalloPinti Giustitia. 

iocs loo/.J 



Br. M. 274 ] IOO5 

640 braccia e il muro rotto, 2 e 130 e il 
muro rimanete, 3 C ol mulino 4 3OO braccia 
a rotto dal Bisarno in 4 anni. 

The ruined wall is 640 braccia; 130 is the 
wall remaining with the mill; 300 braccia 
were broken in 4 years by Bisarno. 

W. L. 226 a\ 


No sanno, perche Arno 2 non stara mai 
in ca 3 nale ; perche 4 i fiumi che vi mettono, 
s nella loro entrata p6 6 gono terreno, e dalla 
oppo?sita parte leuano e 8 pieganvi il fiume; 
96 miglia si fa per Ar I0 no dalla Caprona 
a Li^vorno, e 12 si fa per li I2 stagni che 
s'avazano 32 ^miglia, e 16 dalla Caprona 
14 in su, che fa 48 'Sper Arno da Firenze, 
l6 avanzasi 16 miglia; a Vico miglia 16, ^e'l 
canale a 5; l8 da Firenze a Fucechio miglia 

40 per I9 acqua d'Arno. 

20 Miglia 56 per Arno 2I da Fireze a 
Vico, 22 e pel canale di Pistoia 2 3e miglia 
44-adu 24 que e piv corta 12 2 s miglia per 
canale che per Arno. 

They do not know why the Arno will 
never remain in a channel. It is because 
the rivers which flow into it deposit earth 
where they enter, and wear it away on the 
opposite side, bending the river in that 
direction. The Arno flows for 6 miles be- 
tween la Caprona and Leghorn; and for 12 
through the marshes, which extend 32 miles, 
and 1 6 from La Caprona up the river, which 
makes 48; by the Arno from Florence beyond 
1 6 miles; to Vico 16 miles, and the canal is 
5 ; from Florence to Fucechio it is 40 miles 
by the river Arno. 

56 miles by the Arno from Florence to 
Vico ; by the Pistoia canal it is 44 miles. 
Thus it is 12 miles shorter by the canal 
than by the Arno. 



Cocauita fatta da Mesola, 
quado Arno e basso e Me- 
sola grossa. 

The eddy made by the 
Mensola, when the Arno is 
low and the Mensola full. 

1005. i. 6400 bre. 2. moro. 

1006. 2. nonistara. 4. mettano. 6. ga terreno e dallopo. 10. caprona alii. 12. savaza. 17. ecanale. 19. acq"a". 24. chorta. 

1006. This passage is written by the side of a 
map washed in Indian ink, of the course of the 
Arno; it is evidently a sketch for a completer map. 

These investigations may possibly be connected 
with the following documents. Francesco Guidiicci alia 
Dalla di Firenze. Dal Campo contra Pisa 24 Luglio 1503 
(Archivio di Stato, Firenze, Lettere alia Balla; published 
by J. GAVE, Carteggio inedito d'Artisti, Firenze 1840, 
Tom. H, p. 62) : Ex Castris, Franciscus Ghuiduccius, 
24. Jul. 1503. Appresso fu qui hieri con una di V. 
Signoria Alexandra degli Albizi insieme con Leonardo da 
Vinci et certi altri, et veduto el disegno insieme con el 
ghcrvernatore, doppo molte discussioni et dubii conclusesi 
che Paper a fussi molto al proposito, a si veramente Arno 
volgersi qui, o restarvi con un canale, che almeno viete- 
rebbe che le colline da nemici nan potrebbono essere offese; 
come tucto referiranno loro a bocha V, S. 

And, Archivio di Stato, Firenze, Libra d' 1 Entrata 
e Uscita di cassa de' 1 Magnifici Signori di luglio e agosto 

J 5 O 3 a S 1 7*' ; Andata di Leonardo al Campo sotto 
Pisa. Spese extraordinarie dieno dare a di XXVI di 
luglio L. L VI sol. XIII per loro a Giovanni Piffero; 
e sono per tanti, asegnia avere spexi in vetture di set 
chavalli a spese di vitto per andare chon Lionardo da 
Vinci a livellare Arno in quello di Pisa per levatto del 
lito suo. (Published by MILANESI, Archivio Storico 
Italiano, Serie III, Tom. XVI.) VASARI asserts : (Leo- 
nardo) fu il primo ancora, che giovanetto discorresse sopra 
il fiume d^Arno per metier lo in canale da Pisa a Fio- 
renza -(ed. SANSONI, IV, 20). 

The passage above is in some degree illustrated 
by the map on PI. CXII, where the course of the 
Arno westward from Empoli is shown. 

1007. Mensola is a mountain stream which falls 
into the Arno about a mile and a half above 

A=Arno, I=Isola, M=Mvgone, P=Pesa, N=Me- 



1008- 1010. 


Come il fiume, che s'a a piegare d'uno 
in altro loco, debbe essere lusin'gato e no 
con uiolenza aspreggiato, e a questo fare si 
de' cauare infra' 1 fiume alquato Jdi P es ' 
caia, e poi di sotto gittarne vna piv inati, 
e cosl si faccia colla 3" 4 a e 5 a , in modo 
che M fiume inbocchi col canale'datoli, o che 
per tal mezzo si scosti dal loco da lui dan- 
neggiato, come 5 fu fatto in Fiadra, dettomi 
da Niccol6 di Forzore; 

Come si de' vestire di riparo vn argine 
percosso 6 dal'acqua, come sotto Pisola 
de' Cocomeri. 

That the river which is to be turned 
from one place to another must be coaxed 
and not treated roughly or with violence; 
and to do this a sort of floodgate should be 
made in the river, and then lower down 
one in front of it and in like manner a 
third, fourth and fifth, so that the river may 
discharge itself into the channel given to it, 
or that by this means it may be diverted 
from the place it has damaged, as was done 
in Flanders as I was told by Niccol6 di 

How to protect and repair the banks 
washed by the water, as below the island 
of Cocomeri. 

Fig- 3- 

Fig. 2. 
?P6te Rubaconte (Fig. i); 8 sotto il Bi- 

Ponte Rubaconte (Fig. i); below [the pala- 

sticci 9 e Canigiani (Fig. 2); I0 sopra la pe- ces] Bisticci and Canigiani (Fig. 2). Above the 
scaiade lt lla Givstitia (Fig. 3); 12 a b e vna flood gate of la Giustizia (Fig. 3); a b is a 

secca 13 a riscotro doue fi'^niscie Pisola de' 
Coco' 5 meri in mezzo d'Ar l6 no (Fig. 4). 

sand bank opposite the end of the island of the 
Cocomeri in the middle of the Arno (Fig. 4). 

C. A. 3873; ii97<i] lOOQ. 

CanaUjnthe Navilio di san Cristoforo di Milano The canal of San Cristofano at Milan 

1^). fatto a dl 3 di maggio 1509. made May 3 rd 1509. 





*Facedo il canale di Martesana e'si By making the canal of Martesana the 

diminuisce ^Pacqua all' Adda, la qual e water of the Adda is greatly diminished by 

destribuita in mol^ti paesi alseruiti'o de'prati; its distribution over many districts for the 

Ecco vn rime s dio, e questo e di fare molti irrigation of the fields. A remedy for this 

1008. i. chessa . . locho. 2. asspreggato e acquessto. 4. inbochi . . mezo si scossti dal locho dallui damegato. 5. nicholo 
. . percossa. 8. besticci . 9. camigagani. 10. pesscaja. n. giosstitia. 15. imezo. 

1009. crisstofano . . facto addi . . maggo. 

1010. i. martigana. 2. martigana . . diminuissce. 3. imol. 4. Ecci. 5. ecquesto . . checq. 6. beuta datta terra. 8. nessono 

1008. The course of the river Arno is also 
discussed in Nos. 987 and 988. 

1009. This observation is written above a washed 
pen and ink drawing which has been published as 
Tav. VI in the n Saggio. n The editors of that work 
explain the drawing as "uno Studio di boeche per 
estranone d'afyua." 

1010. "el nmrilio di Martogantf* is also mentioned 

in a note written in red chalk, MS. H* 17" 
Leonardo has, as it seems, little to do with 
Lodovico il Moro's scheme to render this canal na- 
vigable. The canal had been made in 1460 by 
Bertonino da 'Novara. II Moro issued his degree 
in 1493, but Leonardo's notes about this canal were, 
with the exception of one (No. 1343), written about 
sixteen years later. 




fontanili, che q 6 uell'acqua, che e bevuta 
dalla terra no fa ser^uitio a nessuno, ne 
ancora danno, perche a 8 nessuno e tolta, 
e facedo tali fontanili, 1'acqua, 9 che prima 
era perduta, ritorna di nouo a rifa I0 re 
seruitio e vtile alii ominr. 

would be to make several little channels, since 
the water drunk up by the earth is of no 
more use to any one, nor mischief neither, 
because it is taken from no one; and by 
making these channels the water which before 
was lost returns again and is once more 
serviceable and useful to men. 



Nessuno canale, che esca fori de'fiumi, 
sara durabile, se 1'acqua del flume, donde 
2 nascie, non e integralmete rinchiusa come 
il canal diMartisana e quel ch'escie diTesino. 

No canal which is fed by a river can be 
permanent if the river .whence it originates 
is not wholly closed up, like the canal of 
Martesana which is fed by the Ticino. 

C. A. 1391?; 42i(5] 

Dal principio del navilio al 
mo 2 lino. 

3 Dal pricipio del navilio di 
Briuio al ^molino del Travaglia e 
trabochi 2794, s cioe braccia 11176, 
che son piu di 3 miglia 6 e due 
terzi, e quiui truovo 'piu alto il 
7 navilio che la pelle dell'acqua di 


From the beginning of the canal 
to the mill. 

From the beginning of the canal 
of Brivio to the mill of Travaglia is 
2794 trabochi, that is 11176 brac- 
cia, which is more than 3 miles 
and two thirds; and here the canal 
is 57 braccia higher than the surface 

ettolta'effacedo . . lacq"a". 9. primo. 10. omini E . there tfte text breaks off. 
ion. i. chanale^. . essca . . sellacqua. 2. nasscie . . rinciusa . . tessino. 
1012. marligana ccquel . . esscie. 5. br. 11176. 6. ecquini. 7. chella . . dellacq"a' . . br. 57. 8. chalo. 

1012. The following are written on the sketches: of Travaglia); at R: rochetta ssanta maria (small rock 
At the place marked N: navilio da dacqitiue (canal of Santa Maria); at A: Adda; at L: Lagho di Lectio 
of running water); at M: molin del Travaglia (Mill ringorgato alii 3 corni in Adda, Concha perpetua (lake 



[1013. 1014. 

Adda braccia 57, 8 a dare due ode di of the water of the Adda, giving a fall of 
calo per ogni ceto trabochi, 9 e in tal sito two inches in every hundred trabochi; and 

disegniamo torre la bocha 

I0 del nostro at that spot we propose to take the opening 
of our canal. 

C. A. 233 a; 700 a] 


ISe no ui si da fama che questo sia 
canale pu 2 blico, e'sara necessario pagare il 

If it be not reported there that this 
is to be a public canal, it will be necessary 

terreno, 3e lo paghera il re col lasciare to pay for the land; and the king will pay it 

li dazi d'un ano. 

by remitting the taxes for a year. 



for c 


2 J1 navilio che sia largo in fodo 3 brac- 
cia 16 e in bocca 20 , si potra dire 4 in 
so ma tutto largo braccia 18 , e se sara 
nais s profondo 4 braccia , a 4 dinari il qua- 
dretto , 6 costera il miglio cayatura sola 
7 due . 900 , essendo i quadreti di 8 comune 
braccio, ma se le braccia saranno 9 a vso 
di misura di terra , che ogni I0 4 . son 4 . 
e x /2 e se il miglio s'i"tede di tre mila 
braccia comuni, a tornar I2 in braccia- di- 
terra le sua 3000 braccia tor'^nano maco 
V 4 , che restano braccia ^2250, che a 
4 dinari il braccio, mota ' 5 il miglio 
ducati 675; a 3 dina l6 ri il quadretto mota 
il miglio ducati I7 5O6V 4 , che la cavatura 
di 30 mi l8 glia di navilio mota ducati 
1 5 187 '/* 


The canal which may be 16 braccia wide 
at the bottom and 20 at the top, we may 
say is on the average 18 braccia wide, and if 
it is 4 braccia deep, at 4 dinari the square 
braccia; it will only cost 900 ducats, to exca- 
vate by the mile, if the square braccio is 
calculated in ordinary braccia; but if the 
braccia are those used in measuring land, of 
which every 4 are equal to 4%, and 
if by the mile we understand three thousand 
ordinary braccia; turned into land braccia, 
these 3000 braccia will lack J / 4 ; there remain 
2250 braccia, which at 4 dinari the braccio 
will amount to 675 ducats a mile. At 3 
dinari the square braccio, the mile will 
amount to 506 V 4 ducats so that the exca- 
vation of 30 miles of the canal will amount 
to 1 5i87 T /2 ducats. 

1013. 2. necesario. 3. ello pagera . . lidati. 

1014. 2. chessia. 3. br. 16 . . boccha . . portra di. 4. tucto . . br. 18 essessara. 5. 4 br. a 4 . di. 6. chosstera. 7. quadrecti. 
8. br. masscllebr. sarano. 10. I /2 M sseil. n. mila br. 12. br. di . . comunitornar. 12. 3000 br. 13. restano br. 
14. il |br. id. due. 17. chella. 18. colasciare due. 

of Lecco overflowing at Tre Corni, in Adda, 
a permanent sluice). Near the second sketch, re- 
ferring to the sluice near Q: qui la chatena ttalie 
</'H peso (here the chain is in one piece). At M in 
the lower sketch: mo/' del fravagfia, nel cavare la 
contha U tereno ara ckotrapeso c9 fossa d'acgtia (Mill 
of Travaglia, in digging out the sluice the soil 
will have as a counterpoise a vessel of water). 

1013. 3. il re. Louis XII or Francis I of France. 
It is hardly possible to doubt that the canals here 
spoken of were intended to be in the Milanese. 
Compare with this passage the rough copy of a 
letter by Leonardo, to the "Presuiente dell 1 Ufficio 
regolatore deir aequa" on No. 1350. See also the 
note to No. 745, 1. 12. 





Br. M. 149 a] 


Per fare il gra 2 canale, fa prima ^il To make the great canal, first make the 

piccolo e dalli *!' acqua, che colla s r ota fara smaller one and conduct into it the waters 
il grade. which by a wheel will help to fill the great one. 

C. A. 72<5; 211,5] 

UPoni il uero mezzo di 


Indicate the centre of Milan. 

Moforte porta resa porta nova strada nova navilio porta cumana barco porta Notes on 
giovia porta vercellina porta sco Anbrogio porta Tesinese torre dell'Imperatore ul Miifn a ' 
porta Lodovica acqua. (1016-1019). 


Rifosso di Mila 2 no; 

3Canale * largo 2 sbraccia; 

6 Castello 7 con fossi ingor- 

8 Ingorgatione 9 de' fossi del 
I0 castello di Mila. 


The moat of Milan. 

Canal 2 braccia wide. 

The castle with the moats 

The filling of the moats of 
the Castle of Milan. 




2 Per iscaldare 1' acqua della stufa della 
3duchessa torrai 3 parti d' acqua cal ri da 
sopra 4 parti d' acqua fredda. 


To heat the water for the stove of the 
Duchess take four parts of cold water to 
three parts of hot water. 

1015. i 5 R. 3-. picholo. 4. lachq"a" che cholla. 

1016. i. mezo; barcho tore delomperatore porta lodovicha. 

1017. 7. co fossi. 1018. 2. lacq"a". 3. torai . . parte dacq"a" chal. 4. dacq"a". 

1016. See PI. CIX. The original sketch is here 
reduced to about half its size. The gates of the 
town are here named, beginning at the right hand 
and following the curved line. In the bird's eye 
view of Milan below, the cathedral is plainly recog- 
nisable in the middle ; to the right is the tower of San 
Gottardo. The square, above the number 9147, is 
the Lazzaretto, which was begun in 1488. On the 
left the group of buildings of the 'Castelld 1 will be 


noticed. On the sketched Plan of Florence (see 
No. 1004 note) Leonardo has written on the margin 
the following names of gates of Milan: Vercel- 
lina Ticinese Ludovica Romana Orientale 
Nova Beatrice Cumana. Compare too No. 1448, 

11. 5. I*- 

1018. Duchessa di Milano, Beatrice d'Este, wife of 
Ludovico il Moro to whom she was married, in 
1491. She died in June 1497. 



L. 15 ) 





In domo alia car- 
ruco*la del chiodo 
della croce; 

3 item. 

* Da mettere il 
5 corpo v r 6 nello .... 


In the Cathedral at 
the pulley of the nail 
of the cross. 


To place the mass 
v r in the . 

E. i a] 


3Vidi a Milano va saetta percuotere la 
4 torre della Credenza da quella parte Sche 
risguarda tramotana e disciese 6 con tardo 
moto per esso lato, e inmediate 7 si divise 
da essa torre, 8 e si ualse d'esso ^muro uno 
spa I0 tio di 3 braccia per o"gnivo e pro- 
I2 fondo due, e 'jquesto muro ^era grosso 
4 braccia, 15 ed era mura l6 to di sottili e 
I7 minuti matto l8 ni antichi, '9e questo fu 
ti 20 rato dal uacu 2I o, che la 22 fiama della 
2 3 saetta lascio 24 di se ecc. 




I saw, at Milan, a thunderbolt fall on 
the tower della Credenza on its Northern 
side, and it descended with a slow motion 
down that side, and then at once parted from 
that tower and carried with it and tore away 
from that wall a space of 3 braccia wide 
and two deep; and this wall was 4 braccia 
thick and was built of thin and small old 
bricks; and this was dragged out by the 
vacuum which the flame of the thunderbolt 
had caused, &c. 

Leic. 28 a 

lo sono gia stato a vedere tal mvltipli- 

I have already been to see a great 
variety (of atmospheric effects). And lately 
over Milan towards Lago Maggiore I saw a 

Remarks on catione (di aric) e gia 2 sopra a Milano in- 
n nomeL P ^n verso " a S Maggiore vidi vna nvuola in 

and near 

(1021. 1022). 1019. i. charucho. 2. ciodo. 6. nello s here the text breaks off. 

1020. i. uachuo. 2. isstate. 3. perchotere. 4. dacquella. 5. rissghuarda motana e dissciesse. 7. torre e porto chonsecho. 
8. essiulse. 10. 3. br. 13. cquesto. 14. 4 br. 18. antichi ec. 19. ecquessto. 20. uachu. 21. chella. 23. lasscio. 

1021. i. mvltiplicatione e ga. 2. magore . . motaggnia . . scoli. 3. infochati . . razi . . ga . . orizonte . . rossegaua . . 

. 1019. On this passage AMORETTI remarks (Me- 
morie Storiche chap. IX): NeWanno stesso lo veggiamo 
formare un congegno di carucole e di corde, con. cut tras- 
portare in piu venerabile e piu sicuro luogo, doe nel- 
r ultima arcata della nave di mezzo dtlla metropolitana, la 
sacra reliquia del Santo Chiodo, che rvi ancor si venera. 
Al fol. 15 del codice segnato Q. R. in 1 6, egli ci ha la- 
sciata di tal congegno una doppia figura, doe una di 
qttattro carucole, e una di tre colle rispettive corde, sog- 
Siugnandovi: in Domo alia carncola del Chiodo della 

AMORETTI'S views as to the mark on the MS. 
and the date when it was written are, it may be 

observed, wholly unfounded. The MS. L, in which 
it occurs, is of the year 1502, and it is very un- 
likely that Leonardo was in Milan at that time; 
this however would not prevent the remark, which 
is somewhat obscure, from applying to the Cathedral 
at Milan. 

1020. With reference to buildings at Milan see 
also Nos. 751 and 756, and PI. XCV, No. 2 (ex- 
plained on p. 52), PI. C (explained on pages 60 62). 
See also pages 25, 39 and 40. 

1021. di arie is wanting in the original but may 
safely be inserted in the context, as the formation 
of clouds is under discussion before this text. 

IO22. IO23-] 



forma di grandissima motagnia, piena di 
scogli 3 infocati, perche li razzi del sole, che 
gia era all'orizzonte che rosseggiava, la 
tigneano del suo colore, e questa tal nugola 
* attraeva a se tutti li nvgoli piccoli che in- 
torno li stavano, e la nugola grade no si 
mouea di suo loco, anzi risseruo nella sua 
sommita il lume del sole insino a una ora 
e mezzo di notte, tant'era la sua im- 
mesa gradezza; 6 e infra due ore di notte 
gienero si gran veto che fu cosa stupeda 
e inavdita. 

cloud in the form of an immense mountain 
full of rifts of glowing light, because the 
rays of the sun, which was already close to 
the horizon and red, tinged the cloud with its 
own hue. And this cloud attracted to it all 
the little clouds that were near while the large 
one did not move from its place; thus it retain- 
ed on its summit the reflection of the sunlight 
till an hour and a half after sunset, so immen- 
sely large was it; and about two hours after 
sunset such a violent wind arose, that it 
was really tremendous and unheard of. 



A dl 10 di diciembre a ore 15 2 fu 
appicato il fuoco; 

3 A dl 18 di dicembre 1511 a ore 15 
fu fatto questo ^secondo incendio da Suiz- 
zeri a Milano Sal luogo detto DCXC. 

On the io th day of December at 9 
o'clock a. m. fire was set to the place. 

On the 1 8 th day of December 1511 at 9 
o'clock a. m. this second fire was kindled by 
the Swiss at Milan at the place called DCXC. 

li. 58 ] 


Camini del castello di Pauia, 
2 ano 6 gradi di busi; e dalPuno 
^all'altro uno braccio. 

The chimneys of the castle of Note on 


Pavia have 6 rows of openings and 
from each to the other is one 

ecquesta. 4. asse . . picholi . . locho. 5. soraita . . mezo . . imesu gradeza. 6. stupete inavldita. 
ioaa. 15 (R). 2. apicato . . fuocho. 3. Lore. 4. suizeri. 5. alloguo dicto. 
1023. 2 - buse. 3. i br. 

1022. With these two texts , (1. I 2 and 1. 3 5 1023. Other notes relating to Pavia occur on 

are in the original side by side) there are sketches p. 43 and p. 53 (PI. XCVIII, No. 3). Compare No. 
of smoke wreaths in red chalk. H4&, 26. 





* JgC 

7*1 I024 ' 

A di 2 di febraro 1494 alia 2 Sforzesca On the 2 nd day of February 1494. 

i scalini 25 3 di 2 /3 di braccio 1'uno, At Sforzesca I drew twenty five steps, 2 / 3 
braccia 8. braccia to each, and 8 braccia wide. 

H. 38-) I025 ' 

Vignie di Vigevano 2 a dl 20 di marzo The vineyards of Vigevano on the 20 th 

1494 day of March 1494. 

H. i i a] 

Da serrare in chiave vno 

I.eic. 21 a] 


Icastro 2 a To lock up a butteris at Vigevano. 


Ancora se la infima parte dell'argine 
trauersalmete opposto al cor 2 so delle acque 
sara fatto in potenti e larghi gradi a uso 
di scala, 1' acque ^ c he nelP abassamento 
del lor corso sogliono perpendicularmente 
cadere dal termine di tale loco in infima 
sua bassezza e scalzare i fondameti d'esso 
argine, non poHran piu discendere con 
colpo di troppa valitudine; e lo esenpio 
dico fu a me quella 6 scala, onde cadea 
1'acqua de'prati della Sforzesca di Vige- 
uano, sulla quale ui cadea 7 1' acqua correte 
in 50 braccia d'altezza. 

Again if the lowest part of the bank 
which lies across the current of the waters 
is made in deep and wide steps, after the 
manner of stairs, the waters which, in their 
course usually fall perpendicularly from the 
top of such a place to the bottom, and wear 
away the foundations of this bank can no 
longer descend with a blow of too great a 
force; and I find the example of this in the 
stairs down which the water falls in the 
fields at Sforzesca at Vigevano over which 
the running water falls for a height of 50 

Leic. 320) 


Scala di Vigevano 2 sotto la Sforzesca 
di 130 3scaglioni, alti J /4 e lar*ghi x /2 brac- 
cio, per la qual s C ade 1'ac- 
qua e non 6 consuma niete 
nell' ultima percussione , e 
per 8 tale scala e disceso stanto 
terreno che a I0 ssecco vn pa- 
dule, cio"e riempl, 
n'e fat I2 to praterie da 
le di gra profondita. 

Stair of Vigevano below La Sforzesca, 
130 steps, */4 braccio high and '/ 2 braccio wide, 
down which the water falls, so as 
not to wear away anything at the 
end of its fall; by these steps 
so much soil has come down 
that it has dried up a pool; 
that is to say it has filled it up 
and a pool of great depth has 
been turned into meadows. 

1024. '3 R- i- alias. 2. sforzesscha . . schalini. 3. di br . . large br. 

ioaj. i2 R. i. vigievine. ioa6 12 R. i. asserare. 2. avigievine. 

1097. i. sclla . . pare . . oposto. 2. fatti . . ellarghi . . disscala lacqua. 3. 2 . delor soglian . . chadere. 4. tale infima . . 

basseza e dissalzare . . desse. 5. dissciendere . tropa . . ello . . foame colla. 6. pradi . . sforzessca di uigieuine la qual 

ui cadea su. 7. corete . . br. dalteza. 
ioa8. i. schala di uigeuine. 2. sforzessa di [too] 130. 3. ellar. 4. V* br . . 5. chade. 7. perchussione. 8. dissceso. 10. echo 

. . co. ti. rienpivto essene. 12. di padu. 

1024. See PL CX, No. 2. The rest of the notes on this page refer to the motion of water. On the 
lower sketch we read: 4 br. (four braccia) and giara (for ghiaja, sand, gravel). 

1025. On one side there is an effaced sketch in red chalk. 

PL. CX. 

" *-" - 


Imp Exidea 

1029. 1030.] 



Leic. ii 6} 


Come in molti lochi si trovano ve 2 ne 
d'acqua che sei ore crescono e sei ore 
calano, e io per me n' 6 veduto vna in sul 
lago di Como, detta fonte Pli^niana, la 
quale fa il predetto cresciere e diminuire 
in modo che, quando uersa, macina due 
mulini, e quado maca, *cala s * ch'egli e 
come guardare 1'acqua in vn profondo 


streams of Not son , thc 

SIX hOUrS and ebb Italian lakes 

In many places there 
water which swell for 
for six hours ; and I , for my part, have ( I02 9- I0 33)- 
seen one above the lake of Como called 
Fonte Pliniana, which increases and ebbs, 
as I have said, in such a way as to turn 
the stones of two mills; and when it fails it 
falls so low that it is like looking at water 
in a deep pit. 

c. A. 



sSu pel lago di Como, diuerso la Magnia, 
e valle Chiauenna doue la Mera fiume 
mette in esso tlago; qui si truovano mo- 
tagnie- sterili e altissime- con gradi scogli-; 
J queste motagnie s]i uccielli d'acqua sono 
detti maragoni; qui nascono abeti, larici 
e pini , daini, stabecchi, camoz 6 zi e terribili 

orsi ; no ci si puo motare , se non e a 
4 piedi ; vannoci i villani a'tepi delle 
7 nevi co gradi ingegni per fare trabocare 
gli orsi giv per esse-ripe; queste 8 motagnie 
strette mettono in mezzo il fiume , sono 
a destra e a sinistra per spatio ?di miglia 
20 . tutte a detto modo ; truovasi di miglio 
in miglio bone osterie ; su I0 per detto fiume 

si truovano cadute d'acqua di 400 braccia, 
le quali fanno bel vedere ; 1 1 e c' e bo uiuere 

a 4 soldi per scotto ; per esso fiume si 
coduce assai legniame. 


Sasina-viene diuerso la Italia.; 
questa e quasi di simile forma e natura; 
I4 nascie vi assai mappello , e ci sono gra 
ruine e cadute d'acque. 


Above the lake of Como towards Ger- 
many is the valley of Chiavenna where the 
river Mera flows into this lake. Here are 
barren and very high mountains, with huge 
rocks. Among these mountains are to be 
found the water-birds called gulls. Here 
grow fir trees, larches and pines. Deer, wild- 
goats, chamois, and terrible bears. It is impos- 
sible to climb them without using hands and feet. 
The peasants go there at the time of the snows 
with great snares to make the bears fall down 
these rocks. These mountains which very clo- 
sely approach each other are parted by the river. 
They are to the right and left for the distance of 
20 miles throughout of the same nature. From 
mile to mile there are good inns. Above on the 
said river there are waterfalls of 400 braccia 
in height, which are fine to see; and there is 
good living at 4 soldi the reckoning. This 
river brings down a great deal of timber. 


Val Sasina runs down towards Italy; this 
is almost the same form and character. There 
grow here many mappello and there are great 
ruins and falls of water [14]. 

1039. i. imolti . . trova. 2. cresscano essei . . chalano . . veduta . . sulago di chomo . . fonte pri. 3. cressciere macina piv 

mulina . . macha. 4. chalisi . . lacqua non . . pozo. 
1030. 2. ciauenna. 3. super., diuer . . ciauenna . . "fiume" mette. 4. truovamotagni . . chon. 5-dacquadette . . nasscie . . larice 

eppini . . sta becchechamo. 6. ze . . teribili . . po..delli. 7. cho grade ingiegi i . . trabochare. 8. metano . . mezo . . des- 

stra e assinistra . . isspatio. 9. imiglio. io. truova chadute . . br. le quale. u. uci bo . . ischotto per ess . . choduce. 

14. nasscievi . . ecci gra . . ecchadute. 15. valle ditrozzo. 16. ellarici. 17. tessta . . Voltolina elle . . leorme. 18. sepre 

1029. 2. 3. The fountain is known by this name 
to this day : it is near Torno, on the Eastern shore 
of Como. The waters still rise and fall with the 
flow and ebb of the tide as Pliny described it 
(Epist. IV, 30; Hist. Nat. II, 206). 

1030. 1031. From the character of the hand- 
writing we may conclude that these observations 

were made in Leonardo's youth; and I should infer 
from their contents, that they were notes made in 
anticipation of a visit to the places here described, 
and derived from some person (unknown to us) who 
had given him an account of them. 

14. The meaning of mappello is unknown. 




l6 Questa valle produce assai abeti 
pini e land , e doue Anbrogio Fereri fa 
7 venire il suo legniame ; in testa della 
Valtellina sono le motagnie di Bormio, 
I8 terribili e piene sepre di neve; qui na- 
scono ermellini. 


20 A riscontro a Bellaggio castello e il 
fiume Latte , el quale cade da alto 2I piv 
che braccia 100 dalla vena , donde nascie, 
a piobo nel lago co inestimabile strepito 
"e romore ; questa vena versa solamete 
agosto e settebre. 


^Valtellina-, com'e detto, valle circu- 
data d'alti e terribili moti, fa 2 5vini poteti 

e assai , e fa tanto bestiame che da pae- 
sani e concluso nascierui 2 5piv latte che 
uino ; questa e la ualle doue passa Adda, 
la quale prima corre 2 ?piv che 40 miglia 
per la Magnia ; questo fiume fa il pescie 
temolo, il quale 28 vive d'argieto , del quale 

se ne truova assai per la sua rena ; 29 J 
questo paese ognivno puo vedere pane . 
e vino, e'l uino vale al piv uno soldo si\ 
boccale e la libra della uitella uno soldo, 
e'l sale 10 dinari, e'l simile il burro, 3ed e 
la loro libbra 30 ocie e 1'oua uno soldo la 


This valley produces a great quantity of 
firs, pines and larches; and from here Am- 
brogio Fereri has his timber brought down; 
at the head of the Valtellina are the moun- 
tains of Bormio, terrible and always covered 
with snow; marmots (?) are found there. 


Opposite the castle Bellaggio there is 
the river Latte, which falls from a height of 
more than 100 braccia from the source whence 
it springs, perpendicularly, into the lake with 
an inconceivable roar and noise. This spring 
flows only in August and September. 


Valtellina, as it is called, is a valley 
enclosed in high and terrible mountains; it 
produces much strong wine, and there is so 
much cattle that the natives conclude that 
more milk than wine grows there. This is the 
valley through which the Adda passes, which 
first runs more than 40 miles through Ger- 
many; this river breeds the fish temolo which 
live on silver, of which much is to be found 
in its sands. In this country every one can 
sell bread and wine, and the wine is worth 
at most one soldo the bottle and a pound 
of veal one soldo, and salt ten dinari and 
butter the same and their pound is 30 ounces, 
and eggs are one soldo the lot. 

C. A. 211(5; 



2 A Bormio sono . i bagni ; sopraComo 
otto miglia e la Pliniana, ^ la quale crescie 
e discrescie ogni 6 ore, e'l suo cresciere fa 
4 acqua per 2 mvlina e n'avanza, e'l suo 
calare fa asciugare la fonte; 5 piu su 2 
miglia e Nesso terra, dove cade uno fiume 
co grade 6 enpito per una gradissima fes- 
sura di mote ; Queste gite so da 7 fare nel 
mese di maggio; E i maggior sassi scoperti 
che si truovano 8 in questi paesi sono le 
motagnie di Madello, vicine alle motagnie 
di ^Lecco e di Gravidona inverso Bellin- 


At Bormio are the baths; About eight miles 
above Como is the Pliniana, which increases 
and ebbs every six hours, and its swell 
supplies water for two mills; and its ebbing 
makes the spring dry up; two miles 
higher up there is Nesso, a place where a 
river falls with great violence into a vast 
rift in the mountain. These excursions are 
to be made in the month of May. And 
the largest bare rocks that are to be found 
in this part of the country are the mountains 
of Mandello near to those of Lecco, and 

nascie. 19. abbcllagio. 20 arischontro abbellagio . chastcllo . . fiume lacci"o" el. 21. nasscic a piobo ne gallo cho ini- 
stimabile strepido. 32. erromore. 23. valtolina. 24. chome . . circhudata . . etteribili. 25. vni . . eflfa . . besstiame . . 
paessani . . nasscicr ui. 26. ella . . ada . . chore. 27. pesscio temere it. 29. po . . i soldo, jo. bochale ella . . ! soldo 
ell . . burlo. 31. Ibra . . elloua. 

1031. abormi. 2. abormi . . ella priniana. 3. cresscie e disseresscie ogni . . cresscicrc. 4. assciugare. 5. piussu . . tera . . 
! fin ne cho. 7. del . . magio . . magior . . schoperti chessi truovno. 8. visine. 9. leche e di gravidonia . . mglia allecho 

1032. I033-] 



zona, a 30 miglia da Lecco, I0 e quelle di 
ualle di Chiavenna -, ma la maggiore e 
quella di Madello, "la quale-a nella sua 
basa vna buca diuerso il lago, la quale va 
sotto I2 2OO scalini-, e qui d'ogni tepo e 
ghiaccio e veto. 


**! Valsasina infra Vimognio et In- 
trobbio , a man destra entrado per uia di 
I5 Lecco, si trova la Troggia fiume-, che cade 
da uno sasso altissimo e cadedo entra 
16 sotto terra e 11 finisce il fiume ; 3 
miglia -piv la si truovano li edifiti ^della- 
vena del rame e dello argeto , presso a 
una terra detta Prato Santo, l8 e 
vene di ferro, e cose fantastiche ; la Grignia 
e piv alta motagnia ch'abbino ^questi 
paesi ed e pelata. 

of Gravidona towards Bellinzona, 30 miles 
from Lecco, and those of the valley of 
Chiavenna; but the greatest of all is that of 
Mandello, which has at its base an opening 
towards the lake, which goes down 200 steps, 
and there at all times is ice and wind. 


In Val Sasina, between Vimognio and 
Introbbio, to the right hand, going in by 
the road to Lecco, is the river Troggia 
which falls from a very high rock, and as 
it falls it goes underground and the river 
ends there. 3 miles farther we find the 
buildings of the mines of copper and silver 
near a place called Pra' Santo Pietro, and 
mines of iron and curious things. La Grigna 
is the highest mountain there is in this part, 
and it is quite bare. 

C. A. 2700:; 821 a] 


II lago di Pusiano 2 versa in nel lago 
3 di Segrino e d'Annone e di Sala; 5 I1 
lago d'Anone ha 22 braccia piu alta la 
pelle 6 della sua acqua che la pelle del- 
1'acqua ? del lago di Lecco, e 20 braccia 
e piu alto 8 il lago di Pusiano che'l lago 
d'Anone, 9le quali, giute colle braccia 22 
dette, fan braccia 42, I0 e quest e la mag- 
giore altezza che abbia la penile del lago 
di Pusiano sopra la pelle del la I2 go di 

The lake of Pusiano flows into the lake 
of Segrino [3] and of Annone and of Sala. 
The lake of Annone is 2 2 braccia higher at 
the surface of its water than the surface of 
the water of the lake of Lecco, and the lake 
of Pusiano is 20 braccia higher than the 
lake of Annone, which added to the afore 
said 22 braccia make 42 braccia and this is 
the greatest height of the surface of the 
lake of Pusiano' above the surface of the 
lake of Lecco. 



A Santa Maria nella valle 2 di Rava- 
gnate, ne' moti Briatia so le pertiche ^di 
castagne di 9 braccia e di 14 Pu 2 no 
in 100. 

s A Varallo di Ponbia presso a Sesto 

At Santa Maria in the Valley ofRavagnate 
in the mountains of Brianza are the rods of 
chestnuts of 9 braccia and one out of an 
average of 100 will be 14 braccia. 

At Varallo di Ponbia near to Sesto on 

6 sopra Tesino sono li cotogni biachi gra- the Ticino the quinces are white, large 
7 di e duri. and hard. 



o. ecquelle . . edavenna malla magiore ecquella. u. busa. 12. schalini . . diaggio. 14. ualsasina ifra . . desstra. 
5. leccho . . trosa . . chade . . da i . . chadedo. 16. elli finissce . . pivlla si truova. 17. arzeto . . prascto petro. 
8. fero . . chabbi. 19. edie. 

. ilago di pusia. 2. inel lagho. 3. di serio e dano. 5. lagho dano . . br . . alto. 6. chella. 7. lagho . . br. eppiu. 
. he il lagho. 8. pusta . . dano br. 20. 9. gute . . br. 22 . . br. 42. 10. ecqueste la magore alteza . . la pel . . Pusia. 
2. gho di lecho. 

. maria\\\\o nella. 2. di ranvagna .. briatia. 3. 9 br. e di 14 [et] 7 (?) lu. 4. re (? no) in 100 di 9 br. 5. a voral di pon- 
bio presso assesto. 6. licatini. 7. edduri. 

1032. This text has in the original a slight 1033. 2. Ravagnate (Leonardo writes Ravagna) 

sketch to illustrate it. 3. The statement about the in the Brianza is between Oggiono and Brivio, 

lake Segrino is incorrect; it is situated in the South of the lake of Como. M. Ravaisson 

Valle Assina, above the lake of Pusiano. avails himself of this note to prove his hypothesis 







Italy, visited 


Colobaia a Urbino a dl 30 2 di luglio Pigeon-house at Urbino, the 30 th day 

t: 1502. of July 1502. 



Fatta al mare di Pio- 


Made by the sea at 

L. 10 1\ 

Acquapendente e a Oruieto. 


Acquapendente is near Orvieto. 

L. 15 6] 

Rocca di Cesena. 

L. 19*] 



The rock of Cesena. 

Siena *a b braccia 3 4, *a c braccia 5 10; Siena, a b 4 braccia, a c 10 braccia. 

6 Scale d' Urbino. Steps at [the castle of] Urbino. 



Campana di Siena, cioe 2 il modo del 
suo moto ^e sito della dinodatura '"< del 
battaglio suo. 

The bell of Siena, that is the manner of 
its movement, and the place of the attachment 
of the clapper. 

1034. I. du vrbino. 2. luglio 1402. 
1039. i. coe. 3. essito. 

1035. Aquapendente. 

1037. rocha. 

1038. 2. l.r. 3. br. 

that Leonardo paid two visits to France. See 
Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1881 pag. 528: 

Au recto du menu feuillet, on lit encore une note 
relative a une vallie "nemonti brigatia" ; il me semble 
qtfil fagit bien des monts de Brian f on, le Brigantio des 
anciens. Brianfon est sur la route de Lyon en Italie. 
Ce fut par le mont Visa que passer ent, en aout 1515, 
les troupes franfaises qui aUaient remporter la victoire de 

Leonard de Vinci, ingenuur de Franfois I er , comme 
il Pavait ftf de Louis XII , aurait-il lie pour quelque 
chose dans le plan du ctlebre passage des Alpes, qui eut 
lieu en aout 1515, et a la suite duquel on le vit 
aceompaipter partout le ck^valeresque vainqueur ? Aurait- 
il M appele par le jeune roi, de Rome oit r artiste ttait 
alors, des son avcncment au trone? 

5. Varallo di Ponbia, about ten miles South of 
Arona is distinct from Varallo the chief town in the 
Val di Sesia. 

1034. An indistinct sketch is introduced with 
this text, in the original, in which the word 
Scolatoro (conduit) is written. 

1035. Below the sketch there are eleven lines 
of text referring to the motion of waves. 

1036. Acquapendente is about lo miles West of 
Orvieto, and is to the right in the map on PI. CXIII, 
near the lake of Bolsena. 

1037. See PL XCIV No. I , the lower sketch. 
The explanation of the upper sketch is given on p. 29. 

1038. See PI. CX No. 3 ; compare also No. 765. 

1039. The text is accompanied by an indistinct 


' \ 4* 

v i f .v '..,- :/; .' 

' .: ; 



h - .\t. ::: 

i :...: 

I , :- ; .. v x 



V." ' , 

, .. - . 


Imp . Eudes 


L. CXI1 

1040 1046.] ITALY. 241 

L. 36*] I0 40- 

El dl di Sata Maria mezz'agosto 2 a On St. Mary's day in the middle of August, 

Cesena 1502. at Cesena, 1502. 

L. 40 ] 

Scale del cote d'Urbino, saluatiche. Stairs of the [palace of the] Count of 

Urbino, rough. 

L. 46^] 1042. 

Alia fiera di Sco 2 Lorenzo a Cesena, At the fair of San Lorenzo at Cesena. 

31502. 1502. 

L 47*] I043- 

. Finestre da Cesena. Windows at Cesena. 

L. 666} IO 44- 

Porto Cesenatico a di 6 di set 2 tenbre At Porto Cesenatico, on the 6 th of Sep- 

1502, a ore 15; tember 1502 at 9 o'clock a. m. 

3 In che modo debbono ^iiscire bastioni The way in which bastions ought to 

fori delle smura delle terre per potere project beyond the walls of the towers to 

6 difendere 1'argini di fori, 7 acio no sieno defend the outer talus; so that they may not 

battuti coll' artiglieria. be taken by artillery. 

L. 6 7 a] 1045. 

La rocca del porto di Cesena sta a The rock of the harbour of Cesena is four 

Ce 2 sena per la 4 a di libeccio. points towards the South West from Cesena. 

L. 72 a] 1046. 

In Romagnia, capo d'ogni grossezza In Romagna, the realm of all stupidity, 

2 d'ingegno, vsano i carri di 4 rote, de qua- vehicles with four wheels are used, of which 

3 li O n'ario 2 dinanzi basse e due alte O tne two m front are small and two high 

l dirieto, la qual cosa e in gran disSfauore ones are behind; an arrangement which is 

di moto, perche in sulle 6 rote dinanzi si very unfavourable to the motion, because 

scarica piv peso, che 7 in su quelle dirieto, on the fore wheels more weight is laid than 

come mostrai 8 nella prima del 5 delli on those behind, as I showed in the first of 

elemeti. the 5 th on "Elements". 

1040. i. mezagossto. 2. [4] 502. 1044. 4. vsscire basstioni . . delle. 

1045. i. rocha. 2. pla . . libecco. 1046. i. grosseza. 2. rote equa. 7. mostai. 

1040. See PI. CX, No. 4. 1043. There are four more lines of text which 

1041. The text is accompanied by a slight refer to a slightly sketched diagram. 

sketch. 10441 An indistinct sketch, accompanies this 

VOL. ii. HH 




L. 77 

Uve portate 2 a Ciesena; 
3 II numero de' cavatori 


Thus grapes are carried at Cesena. 

de' fossi e The number of the diggers of the ditches 

is [arranged] pyramidically. 

i.. 760} 


UFassi vn armonia colle diuerse cadute 
M'acqua, come vedesti alia fonte di 
3 Rimini; come vedesti a dl 8 d'agosto 


There might be a harmony of the different 
falls of water as you saw them at the 
fountain of Rimini on the 8 th day of Au- 
gust, 1502. 



Fortezza d'Urbino. 

The fortress at Urbino. 

L. 884] 


Imola vede Bologna a s/s di ponente 
inverse 2 maestro con ispatio di 20 mi- 

^Castel san Piero e ueduto da Imola 
in J /2 4 infra ponente e maestro con ispatio 
di 57 miglia; 

6 Faenza sta con Imola tra leuate e 
scirocco ? in mezzo giusto a 10 miglia di 
spatio; 8 Forll sta co Faenza infra scirocco 
e leva^te in mezzo giusto con ispatio di 25 
miglia I0 da Imola e 10 da Faeza; 

1 ' Forlimpopoli fa il simile a 25 mi 12 glia 
da Imola; 

'^Bertinoro sta con Imola a s 
leva^te e scirocco a 27 miglia. 

Imola, as regards Bologna, is five points 
from the West, towards the North West, 
at a distance of 20 miles. 

Castel San Piero is seen from Imola at 
four points from the West towards the North 
West, at a distance of 7 miles. 

Faenza stands with regard to Imola be- 
tween East and South East at a distance of 
ten miles. Forli stands with regard to Faenza 
between South East and East at a distance of 
20 miles from Imola and ten from Faenza. 

Forlimpopoli lies in the same direction 
at 25 miles from Imola. 

Bertinoro, as regards Imola, is five points 
from the East towards the South East, at 27 miles. 

1047. i. vue. 1048. i. chadute. 3. addi. 1049. forteza. 

1050. i. invcr. 2. macsstro conisspatio . . migla. 4. maesstro. 6. facnta '. . esscirocho. 7. mczo gussto . . disspatio. 8. furli 
. . scirocho alletia. 9. mezo gussto. n. furinpopoli. 13. bertonora. 14. esscirocho. 

1047. A sketch, representing a hook to which two bunches of grapes are hanging, refers to these 
first two lines. Cesena is mentioned again Fol. 82 a: Carro da Cestna (a cart from Cesena). 
1049. In the original the text is written inside the sketch in the place here marked n. 




W. L. 229 a] 


Imola uede Bologna a s/ 8 di po 2 nente 
inuerso maestro con disstantia di miglia 20 ; 

"> Castel San Piero e veduto da Imo 5 la 
in mezzo infra ponente e mae 6 stro in di- 
stantia di miglia 7. 

7 Faenza e veduto da Imola infra leuante 
8 e scirocco in mezzo apunto in distantia 
9 di migla 10, e '1 simile fa Forli con Imo- 
I0 la con distantia di miglia 20, e Forlimpo- 
"poli fa il simile con Forli con distantia 
di I2 miglia 25; 

^Bertinoro si uede da Imola a 2 /s di 
leuante ^inverso scirocco con distantia di 
27 miglia. 

Imola as regards Bologna is five points 
from the West towards the North West at a di- 
stance of 20 miles. 

Castel San Pietro lies exactly North West 
of Imola, at a distance of 7 miles. 

Faenza, as regards Imola lies exactly 
half way between the East and South East at 
a distance of 10 miles; and Forli lies in the 
same direction from Imola at a distance of 
20 miles; and Forlimpopolo lies in the same 
direction from Forli at a distance of 25 miles. 

Bertinoro is seen from Imola two points 
from the East towards the South East at a 
distance of 27 miles. 

L. 94 6\ 


Da B6con 2 vento alia 3 Casa Nova 4 mi- 
glia TO, sdalla Casa No 6 va a Chiusi 7 miglia 
9 , 8 da Chiusi a Pe9rugia, da Peru I0 gia a 
Santa "Maria degli I2 Angeli, e poi '3 a from Chiusi to Perugia, from Perugia to Santa 

From Bonconventi to Casa Nova are 
10 miles, from Casa Nova to Chiusi 9 miles, 


Maria degli Angeli, and then to Fuligno. 


DI primo d'agosto 1502 2 in Pesaro la 

On the first of August 1502, the library 
at Pesaro. 

1051. written from left to right, i. blogna. 2. inuer maesstro con dis. 4. Chastel. 5. mezo . . emaes. 6. indisstantia . . migla 

7. veduta. 7. esscirrocho in mezo appunto in disstantia. 9. furli. 10. chon disstantia di migla . . furlinpo. n. furli . 
disstantia. 12. migla. 13. Bernotoro. 14. inver scilocho . . disstantia . . migla. 

1052. i. bochon. 8. aper. 10. assanta. 

1053. * di p"o". 

1051. Leonardo inserted this passage on the 
margin of the circular plan, in water colour, of 
Imola see PI. CXI No. I. In the original the 
fields surrounding the town are light green; the 
moat, which surrounds the fortifications and the 
windings of the river Santerno, are light blue. The 
parts, which have come out blackish close to the 
river are yellow ochre in the original. The dark 
groups of houses inside the town are red. At the 
four points of the compass drawn in the middle 
of the town Leonardo has written (from right to 
left): Mezzodi (South) at the top; to the left Scirocho 
(South east), levante (East), Greco (North East), Septan- 
trione (North), Maesstro (North West), ponente (West) 
Libecco (South West). The arch in which the plan 
is drawn is, in the original, 42 centimetres across. 

At the beginning of October 1502 Cesare Borgia 
was shut up in Imola by a sudden revolt of the 
Condottieri, and it was some weeks before he could 
release himself from this state of siege (see Grego- 
rovius , Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, 
Vol. VII, Book XIII, 5, 5). 

Besides this incident Imola plays no important 
part in the history of the time. I therefore think 
myself fully justified in connecting this map, which 
is at Windsor, with the siege of 1502 and with 
Leonardo's engagements in the service of Cesare 
Borgia, because a comparison of these texts, Nos. 
1050 and 1051, raise, I believe, the hypothesis to 
a certainty. 

1052. Most of the places here described lie 
within the district shown in the maps on PI. CXIII. 







'Scorta sulle sommita e in su' lati 'de' On the tops and sides of hills foreshorten 

colli le figure de' terreni e le sue <diuisi- the shape of the ground and its divisions, 

oni, e nelle cose uolte a te sfa le in pro- but give its proper shape to what is turned 
pia forma. towards you. 



In Candia di Lonbardia presso Ales- 
sandria della Paglia, facendosi per 2 messer 
[ Gualtieri di Candia vno pozzo, fu trovato 
vno principio di navilio grandissimo sotto 
terra, circa a braccia 10, e perche 3il leg- 
name era nero e bello, parue a esso messer 
Gualtieri di fare allungare tal bocca di pozzo 
in forma che i termini *di tal navilio si 

At Candia in Lombardy, near Alessandria 
della Paglia, in making a well for Messer 
Gualtieri of Candia, the skeleton of a very 
large boat was found about 10 braccia 
underground; and as the timber was black 
and fine, it seemed good to the said Messer 
Gualtieri to have the mouth of the well 
lengthened in such a way as that the ends 
of the boat should be uncovered. 

1054. 3. essere. 4. atte. 5. falle. 

1055. 2. pozo . . circha a br. 3. ebbello . . meser . . bocha di pozo. 4. navili si scoprissi. 

1054. This passage evidently refers to the 
making of maps, such as PL CXII, CXIII, and 
CXIV. There is no mention of such works, it is 
true, excepting in this one passage of MS. L. But 
this can scarcely be taken as evidence against 
my view that Leonardo busied himself very exten- 
sively at that time in the construction of maps; 
and all the less since the foregoing chapters 
clearly prove that at a time so full of events Leo- 
nardo would only now and then commit his obser- 
vations to paper, in the MS. L. 

By the side of this text we find, in the original, 
a very indistinct sketch, perhaps a plan of a posi- 
tion. Instead of this drawing I have here inser- 
ted a much clearer sketch of a position from the 
same MS., L. 82 b and 83 a. They are the only 
drawings of landscape , it may be noted , which 
occur at all in that MS. 

1055. 2. Messer Gualtitri, the same probably as is 
mentioned in Nos. 672 and 1344. 




Leic. iot>\ 


Alessandria della Paglia in Lombardia 
non a altre pietre 2 da far calcina, se no 
miste con infinite cose nate in mare, la 

At Alessandria della Paglia in Lombardy 
there are no stones for making lime of, but 
such as are mixed up with an infinite variety 

quale oggi e remota dal mare piv di 2OO of things native tp the sea, which is now 


more than 200 miles away. 


Monbracco, sopra Saluzzo, 2 sopra la 
Certosa vn miglo, al pie di mo Viso, 
3 a vna miniera di pietra ^faldata, la quale 
e biaca Scome marmo di Carrara, sanza 
6 macvle, ch'e della durez?za del porfido o 
piu; 8 della quale il conpare 9mio, maestro 
Benedet 10 to scultore, a in pro lj messo di 
darmene una I2 tavoletta per li colori, J 3a 
dl 2 di genaro 1511. 

At Monbracco , above Saluzzo, a mile The Alps 
above the Certosa, at the foot of Monte (I 57 ~ I 
Viso, there is a quarry of flakey stone, 
which is as white as Carrara marble, without 
a spot, and as hard as porphyry or even 
harder; of which my worthy gossip, Master 
Benedetto the sculptor, has promised to give 
me a small slab, for the colours, the second 
day of January 1511. 

Leic. ni\ 1058. 

Come son uene che per terremoti o 
altri accidenti subito nasco 2 no e subito 
macano ; E questo accade in vna motagnia 
in Sauoia, doue certi boschi sprofondarono 
e lasciarono vno 3 baratro profondissimo 
e lontano circa 4 miglia di 11 s'aperse il 
terreno in certa spiaggia di mote, e gitto 
vna 4 subita inodatione grossissima d'acqua, 
la quale netto tutta vna vallata di terreni 
lauorativi, vignie e case, e fece sgradissimo 
danno ovunque discorse. 

That there are springs which suddenly 
break forth in earthquakes or other convul- 
sions and suddenly fail; and this happened 
in a mountain in Savoy where certain forests 
sank in and left a very deep gap, and about 
four miles from here the earth opened itself 
like a gulf in the mountain, and threw out 
a sudden and immense flood of water which 
scoured the whole of a little valley of the 
tilled soil, vineyards and houses, and did 
the greatest mischief, wherever it overflowed. 

C. A. 86 6; 250,$] 


Riuiera d' Arua presso a Ginevra ; 2 J / 4 di 
miglio in Sauoia , doue si fa la fiera 3 in 
San Giovanni nel uillaggio di san Gervagio. 

The river Arve, a quarter of a mile from 
Geneva in Savoy, where the fair is held on 
midsummerday in the village 'of Saint Gervais. 

1056. Alesandria . . illonbardia. 2. mista . . il quale. 

1057. Lines i, 3 13 R. i. monbracho . . saluzo, 2. a pie . . uiso. 4. biacha. 5. carra"ra"sa. 6. machvle . . dure. 7. obpiu. 
8. delle quali. 9. maesstro benedec. n. messo con darmene. 

1058. i. nasca. 2. essubito . . Ecquesto acade nvna . . bosci profondorono ellasciorono. 3. baladro . . circha . . spiagga. 
4. tere . . effece. 5. ovunche. 

1059. 2 ' miglo. 3. batte in san govanni . . uilago . . cervagio. 

1057. Saluzzo at the foot of the Alps South of 

9. 10. Maestro Benedetto scultore; probably some 
native of Northern Italy acquainted with the place here 
described. Hardly the Florentine sculptor Benedetto 
da Majano. Amoretti had published this passage, 
and M. Ravaisson who .gave a French translation 
of it in the Gazette des Beaux Arts (1881, pag. 528), 
remarks as follows : Le maitre sculpteur que Leonard 
appelle son "comparf ne serait-il pas Benedetto da 
Majano, un de ceux qui jugerent avec lui de la place a 
donner au David de Michel-Ange, et de qui le Louvre a 
acquis recemment un buste d'apres Philippe Strozzi? 

To this it may be objected that Benedetto da 
Majano had already lain in his grave fourteen 
years, in the year 1511, when he is supposed to 
have given the promise to Leonardo. The colours 
may have been given to the sculptor Benedetto and 
the stone may have been in payment for them. 
From the description of the stone here given we 
may conclude that it is repeated from hearsay of 
the. sculptor's account of it. I do not understand 
how, from this observation, it is possible to conclude 
that Leonardo was on the spot. 

1059. An indistinct sketch is to be seen by 
the text. 






E questo vedra come vid'io, chi adra 
so pra Moboso, giogo delPAlpi che diuidono 
la Francia dalla Italia, la qual montagnia 
a la sua basa che parturisce 'li 4 fiumi 
che riga per 4 aspetti contnri tutta 1' Europa, 
e nessuna montagnia a le sue base in si- 
mile ahtezza ; questa si leua in tanta altura 
che quasi passa tutti li nuvoli e rare volte 
vi cade neve, ma sol gradi s ne d'istate 
quando li nvvoli sono nella maggiore al- 
tezza, e questa grandine vi si coserua in 
modo, che se no 6 fusse la reth. del caderui 
c del montarui nvuoli, che non accade 2 
volte in vna eta, egli ui sarebbe altissima 
quatita di ghiaccio inalzato dali gradi della 
gradine, il qua?le di mezzo luglio vi trouai 
grossissimo -, e vidi 1' aria sopra di me tene- 
brosa e '1 sole che percotea la mota 8 gnia 
essere piv luminoso quiui assai che nelle 
basse pianure, perche minor grossezza d' aria 
s'interpone in'Tra la cima d'esso monte 
e '1 sole. 

And this may be seen, as I saw it, by 
any one going up [5] Monbroso, a peak of 
the Alps which divide France from Italy. 
The base of this mountain gives birth to the 
4 rivers which flow in four different directions 
through the whole of Europe. And no 
mountain has its base at so great a height 
as this, which lifts itself above almost all the 
clouds; and snow seldom falls there, but 
only hail in the summer, when the clouds 
are highest. And this hail lies [unmeltedj 
there, so that if it were not for the absorp- 
tion of the rising and falling clouds, which 
does not happen more than twice in an age, an 
enormous mass of ice would be piled up there 
by the layers of hail, and in the middle of July 
I found it very considerable; and I saw the 
sky above me quite dark, and the sun as it 
fell on the mountain was far brighter here 
than in the plains below, because a smaller 
extent of atmosphere lay between the summit 
of the mountain and the sun. 



Truovasi nelle montagnie di Verona la 
sua pietra rossa mista tutta di nichi con- 
vertiti 2 in essa pietra , dalli quali, per la 
loro bocca, era gommata la materia d'essa 
pietra, ed erano in alcuna parte restati 
separati dalPaltra massa del sasso che 
li circundava; perche la scorza del nichio 
s'era interposta, e no li auea -Uasciati 
congiugniere; E in alcun altra parte tal 
gomma auea petrificate le invecchiate e 
quasi la scorza. 

In the mountains of Verona the red marble 
is found all mixed with cockle shells turned 
into stone; some of them have been filled 
at the mouth with the cement which is the 
substance of the stone; and in some parts 
they have remained separate from the mass 
of the rock which enclosed them, because 
the outer covering of the shell had inter- 
posed and had not allowed them to unite 
with it; while in other places this cement had 
petrified those which were old and almost strip- 
ped the outer skin. 

C. A. 231*; 6960] 

Ponte di Goritia 2 Vilpago. 


Bridge of Goertz Wilbach (?). 

1060. i. ecqiicsto. a. gogo . . diuitano la franca . . alia . . parturissce. 3. alle. 4. nvuoli . . chade. 5. magorc . . ecquesta 
. . Imodo chesse. 6. fussi "la reta del caderui e del montarui nvuoli" che non achade [del sj . . eta e. 7. mezo . . 
grossimo . . tenenebrosa ellsole. 8. luminosi . . grosseza. 

1061. 2. delli . . era gornata . . edera. 3. masa . . chelli circhundava . . lasscorza. 4. lassciati congugniere . . goma . . pe- 
trilicata le invegiate e quasi scorzo. 

1062. vilpagho. 

1060. I have vainly enquired of every available 
authority for a solution of the mystery as to what 
mountain is intended by the name Mom boso (Comp. 
Vol. I Nos. 300 and 301). It seems most obvious 
to refer it to Monte Rosa. Rosa is derived from the 
Keltic ros which survives in Breton and in Gaelic, 
meaning, in its first sense, a mountain spur, but which 
also like Horn means a very high peak ; thus 
Monte Rosa would 'mean" literally the High Peak. 

6. in una eta. This is perhaps a slip of the pen 
on Leonardo's part and should be read estate (summer). 
1062. There is a slight sketch with this text, 
Leonardo seems to have intended to suggest, with 
a few pen-strokes, the course of the Isonzo and 
of the Wipbach in the vicinity of Gorizia (Goerz). 
He himself says in another place that he had been 
in Friuli (see No. 1077 1. 19). 

1063 1065.] 





il Reno a tramo- 

Danoia a greco, 

Invmerabili fiumi 

Quella parte della terra s'e piv alienata 
dal centre 2 del modo, la qual s' e fatta piv 
lieve-;E quella parte della terra s'e fatta 
piv lieve, per la quale ^e passato maggior 
concorso d' acque, E si e aduque fatta piv 
lieue quella parte, donde scoria piv numero 
di fiumi, come 1' alpi, che diuidono la Magnia 
e la Francia dalla Italia, delle quali s e scie 
il Rodano a mezzodl, e 
tana , jl Danubio over 
e '1 Po a Ieua 6 te con 
che con loro s'accopagnano, i quali senpre 
corrono torbidi, dalla terra ^ da loro portata, 
al mare; 

Mouosi al continvo i liti marittimi inverse 
il mezzo del mare e lo 8 scaccia dal suo 
primo sito; Riseruerassi la piv bassa parte 
del Mediterrano per letto e cor^so del Nilo, 
fiume massimo, che versa in esso mare, E 
con lui s' accompagnieranno tutti li fiumi sua 
I0 adereti, che prima in esso mare le loro 
acque versar soleano, come far si uede al 
Po colli adereti "sua, li quali prima ver- 
saua nel mare che infra 1' Appennino e le 
Germaniche alpi si era vnito I2 col Mare 
Adriatico ; 

Come le alpi galliche son la piv alta 
parte delP Evropa. 


That part of the earth which was lightest The A PP C 
remained farthest from the centre of the 
world; and that part of the earth became 
the lightest over which the greatest quantity 
of water flowed. And therefore that part 
became lightest where the greatest number 
of rivers flow; like the Alps which divide 
Germany and France from Italy; whence 
issue the Rhone flowing Southwards, and 
the Rhine to the North. The Danube or Ta- 
noia towards the North East, and the Po to 
the East, with innumerable rivers which join 
them, and which always run turbid with the 
soil carried by them to the sea. 

The shores of the sea are constantly 
moving towards the middle of the sea and 
displace it from its original position. The 
lowest portion of the Mediterranean will be 
reserved for the bed and current of the Nile, 
the largest river that flows into that sea. 
And with it are grouped all its tribu- 
taries, which at first fell into the sea; as may 
be seen with the Po and its tributaries, which 
first fell into that sea, which between the 
Appenines and the German Alps was united 
to the Adriatic sea. 

That the Gallic Alps are the highest part 
of Europe. 



E di questi 6 ri 2 trovato nelli 3 sassi del- 

P alto * Appenino e 
della Verona. 

5 massime nel 6 sasso 

And of these I found some in the rocks 
of the high Appenines and mostly at the 
rock of La Vernia. 

E. 80 a] 

A Parma alia 
tebre 1514. 


Capana a dl 25 ^di set- 

At Parma , at ( La Campana' 
twenty-fifth of October 1514. 

on the 

1063. 2. lequella . . seffatta. 3. magor choncorso . . Essi aduque. 4. diuidano . . ella franca . . della qual. 5. attramotana 
. . danubbio . . tanoia a grecho . . alleu. 6. chon . . cholloro sacopagniano . . corra. 7. dallo portata . . movasi . . 
mezo . . ello. 8. scacca del . . mediterano. 9. ineso . . sachonpagniera. 10. solano . . colli adere. n. apenino 
elle . '. serava. 12. chol . . adriaticho . . le alpe le . . pivolta. 

1064. i. quessti. 2. trovati. 7. nia. 

1064. 6. Sasso della Vernia. The frowning rock 
between the sources of the Arno and the Tiber, as 
Dante describes this mountain, which is 1269 metres 
in height. 

This note is written by the side of that given 

as No. 1020; but their connection does not make 
it clear what Leonardo's purpose was in writing it. 

1065. 2. Capana, an Inn. 

A note on the petrifactions, or fossils near Parma 
will be found under No. 989. 

2 4 8 



C. A. IJ7S 4'4) 

Modo di seccare il padule 2 di Pion- 


A method for drying the marsh of 

K.I ta\ 


Fanno li pastori 2 in quel di Roma^gnia 
nelle radici < dell' Appenino certe sgrancon- 
cauita ne 6 ! monte a uso di cor?no e da 
parte commeftono vn corno, e q c 'uello 
piccol corno di I0 ueta vn mcdesimo col"la 

The shepherds in the Romagna at the 
foot of the Apennines make peculiar large 
cavities in the mountains in the form of 
a horn, and on one side they fasten a horn. 
This little horn becomes one and the same 

gia fatta concauita, 6 I2 de fa gradissimo with the said cavity and thus they produce 


by blowing into it a very loud noise. 

Leic. 31 f>\ 


Vedesi vna vena surgere in Sicilia, la 
'quale a certi tenpi dell' anno versa foglie 
di castagno in moltitudine, e in Sicilia no 
na^scono castagnie, e aduque necessario 
che tal uena esca d'alcu pelago dell' Italia 
e vada poi sotto il mare e sbocchi poi in 

A spring may be seen to rise in Sicily 
which at certain times of the year throws 
out chesnut leaves in quantities; but in 
Sicily chesnuts do not grow, hence it is 
evident that that s'pring must issue from some 
abyss in Italy and then flow beneath the sea 
to break forth in Sicily. 

1066. i. sechare. 

1067. 3. radice. 4. apenino. 5. chonchauita. 7. pare come. 8. tano vn chorno ecq. 9. pichol. 10. chol. n. ga. 12. sono. 

1068. i. cicilia. 2. accerti . . ano. 3. chasstagno . . moltitudile 3. scie chastagnie . . chettal esscha dalchu pellagho. 
4. dia poi essbochi . . cicilia. 

1066. There is a slight sketch with this text 

in the original. Piombino is also mentioned in 

Nos. 609, 1. 5558 (compare PI. XXXV, 3, below). 
Also in No. 1035. 

1067. As to the Romagna see also No. 1046. 

1046. The chesnut tree is very common in Si- 
cily. In writing cicilia Leonardo meant perhaps 


'in r<f ^f- f, W/ 

Si ,2g*- 

'2+^1^ r-* ~ r*^ 'I flfc-~ ~, Twr^/T" 7 T < fr< 

.jY^iMgL -*' 

-~- ?*t&'?i7^ r^'Ljr v 




r :4j^Bp& 


PI. . CXIY. 




C. A. 353^; nosJ] 


2 a. Austria, 
3b. Sassonia, 
4 c. Norimberga, 
. Fiandra; 



a. Picardia, 

b. Normandia, 

c. Delfmato; 


7 a. Biscaglia, 
8 b. Castiglia, 
9 c. Galitia, 
10 d. Portogallo, 
"e. Tarragona, 
I2 f. Granada. 


a. Austria. 

b. Saxony. 

c. Nuremberg. 

d. Flanders. 


a. Picardy. 

b. Normandy. 

c. Dauphine. 


a. Biscay. 

b. Castille. 

c. Galicia. 

d. Portugal. 

e. Taragona. 

f. Granada. 

C. A. 358,*; 1124^] 


Perpigniana ; 
2 Roana, 

3 Lione, 

4 Parigi, 

5 Guato, 
6 Brugia, 
7 Olanda. 








1069. In the original the three columns are parallel. i. alamania franca spognia. 4. nolinberg dalfinato. 5. flandra. 
7. bisscaglia. 8. casstiglia. n. taragona. 12. granata. 

1070. 3. lione. 

1069. Two slightly sketched maps, one of Europe (Rodumna) on the upper Loire, Lyonnais (Dep. du 
the other of Spain, are at the side of these notes. Loire). This town is now unimportant, but in 

1070. Roana does not seem to mean here Leonardo's time was still a place of some conse- 
Rouen in Normandy , but is probably Roanne quence. 







Come in Bordea presso a Guascognia 
alza il mare circa a 40 braccia pel suo 
reflus'so, e '1 suo fiume ringorga 1'acque 
salze piv di cento cinquata miglia, e li 
nauili, che ^si debbono calafatare, restano 

At Bordeaux in Gascony the sea rises 
about 40 braccia before its ebb, and the 
river there is filled with salt water for more 
than a hundred and fifty miles; and the 
vessels which are repaired there rest high 

alti sopra vn alto collo sopra dello abassato and dry on a high hill above the sea at 


low tide. 



El Rodano esce dal lago di Ginevra e 
corre prima 2 a ponente, e poi a mezzodl, 
con corso di 400 miglia, e versa le sue 
acque nel mare mediterrano. 

The Rhone issues from the lake of 
Geneva and flows first to the West and then 
to the South, with a course of 400 miles 
and pours its waters into the Mediterranean. 

K.3 too] 

c ^/giardino di Bles ; 
2 a b il codotto di 
Bles, fatto I spracia 
da Fra Giocodo, b c 
& il 4 macameto dell' al- 
tezza di tal cdsdotto, 
c d e 1'altezza del 
giar 6 dino di Bles , e f 
i la caduta ?della c i~ 
cognola, b c, e /, / g 
8 e dove tal cicognola 
versa nel 9 fiume. 



e c 

c d is the garden at 
Blois; a b is the con- 
duit of Blois ,. made in 
France by Fra Giocon- 
do, b c is what is want- 
ing in the height of 
that conduit, c </is the 
height of the garden at 
Blois, <r/isthe siphon 
of the conduit, b c , e 
fy f S i j where the si- 
phon discharges into the 

1071. i. guasscogna . . circha a 40 br . . refru. 2. elli. 3. deano . . chollo. 
1073. i. essce del lagho. 2. mezodi . . mediterano. 

1071. 2. This is obviously an exaggeration 
founded on inaccurate information. Half of 150 
miles would be nearer the mark. 

1073. The tenor of this note (see lines 2 and 3) 
seems to me to indicate that this passage was not 
written in France, but was written from oral infor- 
mation. We have no evidence as to when this 
note may have been written beyond the circumstance 
that Fra Giocondo the Veronese Architect left France 
not before the year 1505. The greater part of the 
magnificent Chateau of Blois has now disappeared. 
Whether this note was made for a special purpose is 
uncertain. The original form and extent of the 
Chateau is shown in Androvet , Les plus excellent! 
Bastimtnts de France, Paris MDCVII, and it may be 
observed that there is in the middle of the 
garden a Pavilion somewhat similar to that shown 
on PL LXXXVIII No. 7. 

See S. DE LA SAUSSAYE, Histoire du Chateau de Blois 
edition Blois et Paris p. 175: En mariant sa 

fille ainee a Frangois, comte d'Angouleme, Louis XII lui 
avail constitut en dot les comtes de Blois, d'Asti, de Couey, 
de Montfort, d'Etampes et de Vertus. Une ordonnance 
de Francois I. lui laissa en 1516 I 'administration du 
comte de Blois. 

Le roi Jit commeticer, dans la meme annee, les travaux 
de celte belle partie du chateau, conmte sous le nom 
d'aile de Francois /, et dont nous avons donnl la 
description au commencement de ce livre. Nous trouvons 
en effet, dans les archives du Baron de Joursanvault, 
une puce qui en fixe parfaitement la date. On y lit: 
"Je, Baymon Philippeaux, commis par le Roy a tenir le 
compte et fair le payement des bastiments, ediffices et 
reparacions qne le dit seigneur fait fair e en son chastu 
de Blois, confesse avoir eu et re(eu . . . la somme de 
trots mille livres tournois .... le cinquieme jour de 

juillel, Fan mil ring cent et seize. P. 24: Les jar dim 
avaient ete decorls avec beaucoup de luxe par les different! 

possesseurs du chateau. II ne reste de tous les batimenb 
y eleverent que ceux des officiers cfiargis de Cad- 

* .<* 



*if^i A '< 
pfrwp^. kffff,*! 

*"*/fil fAAhi/i!W 

*T ^ 

: v 


Imp Eudo 

10/4- I075-] 



Br. M. 269^] 


Loira fiume 2 d'Ambosa. 

3 II fiume e piu 4 alto dentro a! 5 l'argine 
b d che 6 fuori d'essa ar7gine; 

8 Isola dove e ^vna parte I0 d'An- 

11 II fiume Loira che passa per Anbosa 
passa per a b, c d, e poiche e passato il 
pote, I2 ritorna contro al suo avenimento 
per il canale d e, b f in contatto dell'argine 
'5 che si interpone infra li due moti con- 
trari del predetto fiume a b, c d, d e, b f; 
T 4 di poi si riuolta in giii per il canale f /, 
g h, n m, e si ricongiugnie col fiume dode 
I5 prima si diuise, che passa per k n, che 
fa k m, r t; ma quado il fiume e l6 grosso, 
allora elli corre tutto per uno solo verso, 
passado 1'argine b d. 

The river Loire at Amboise. 

The river is higher within the bank b d 
than outside that bank. 

The island where there is a part of 

This is the river that passes through 
Amboise ; it passes at a b c d, and when it 
has passed the bridge it turns back, against 
the original current, by the channel d e, b f 
in contact with the bank which lies between 
the two contrary currents of the said river, 
a b, c d, and d e, b f. It then turns down 
again by the channel f I, g h, n m, and 
reunites with the river from which it was at first 
separated, which passes by k n, which makes 
k m, r t. But when the river is very full it flows 
all in one channel passing over the bank b d. 

Br. M. 269 <$] 


L'acque sieno rin 2 gorgatesopra 3 il termine 
di Ro^morontino in tasta altezza, ch'elle 6 fac- 
cino poi nel 7 loro discieso molHe molina; 

The water may be dammed up above 
the level of Romorantin to such a height, that 
in its fall it may be used for numerous mills. 

1073. i. gardino. 4. alteza. 5. ellalteza del gar. 6. ella. 

1074. i. Loera. 2. da[n]bosa. 3. gocodo. 3. eppiu. 8. fiume era che. 13. chessi . . infralli . . controri . . predecto. 14. ess 
richongiugnie. 15. diuise [eppa] che . . cheffa. 

1075. i. Lacqua sia rio. 2. ghorghata. 5. alteza. 7. : uo disscieso. 9. uilla, 10. francha. n. docto a romolo. 12. del 

ministration et de ta culture des jar dins, et un pavilion 
carre en pierre et en brique fianque de terr asses a chacun 
de ses angles. Quoique defigure par des mesures clevees 
sur les terrasses , cet edifice est tres-digne d'interet par 
Poriginalile du plan, la decoration architectural et le 
souvenir d'Anne de Bretagne qui le fit construire. Feli- 
bien describes the garden as follows : Le jardin Jiaut 
etait fort bien dresse par grands compartimens de toutes 
sortes de figures, avec des allees de meuriers blancs et 
des palissades de coudriers. Deux grands berceaux de 
charpenterie separoient toute la longueur et la largeur du 
jardin, et dans les quatres angles des allees, ou ces 
berceaux se croissent, il y auoit 4 cabinets, de mesme 
charpentene ... II y a pas longtemps qrfil y auoit dans 
ce mesme jardin , a Fendroit ou se croissent les allees du 
milieu, un edifice de figure octogone, de plus de 7 thoises 
de diametre et de plus de neuf thoises de haut; avec 4 
enfoncements en form? de niches dans les 4 angles des 
allees. Ce bastiment .... estoit de charpente mais d'un 
extraordinairement bien travaille. On y voyait parti- 
culierement la cordiliere qui regnait tout autour en forme 
de cordon. Car la Reyne affectait de la mettre non- 
seulement a ses armes et a ses chiffres mais de la faire 
representer en divers manures dans tous les ouvrages 
qifon lui faisait pour elle . . . le bastiment estait convert 
en forme de dome qui dans son milieu avait encore un 
plus petit dome, ou lanterne vitree au-dessus de laquelle 
estait une figure doree representant Saint Michel. Les 

deux domes estoient proprement couvert d'ardoise et de 
plomb dore par dehors; par dedans Us estoient lambrissez 
d'une menuiserie tres delicate. Au milieu de ce Salon il 
y avait un grand bassin octogone de marbre blanc, dont 
toutes les faces estoient enrichies de differentes sculptures, 
avec les armes et les chiffres du Roy Louis XII et de la 
Reine Anne. Dans ce bassin il y en avait un autre 
pose sur un piedestal lequel auoit sept piedz de diametre. 
II estait de figure ronde a godrons , avec des masques et 
(fai{tres ornements tres sgauamment taillez. Du milieu 
de ce deuxiesme bassin s'y levoit un autre petit piedestal 
qui portait un troisiesme bassin de trois pieds de diametre, 
aussy parfaitement bien faille; c 1 estoit de ce dernier bassin 
que jallissoit Veau qui se rependoit en suitte dans les 
deux autres bassins. Les beaux ouvrages fails d^im 
marbre esgalement blanc et poli, furent brisez par la 
pesanteur de tout F edifice, que les injures de Pair renver- 
serent de fond en comble. 

1074. See PI. CXV. Lines I 7 are above, lines 
8 10 in the middle of the large island and the 
word Isola is written above d in the smaller island; 
a is written on the margin on the bank of the river 
above 1. I ; in the reproduction it is not visible. 
As may be seen from the last sentence, the obser- 
vation was made after long study of the river's 
course, when Leonardo had resided for some time 
at, or near, Amboise. 



[1076. I07J 

9 II fiume di Villa I0 franca sia co^dotto 
a Romor6 12 tino, e sia fatto dal suo '3po- 
polo, e li legni^ami, che conpo'Sgono le 
lor case, l6 sie per barche co'Motte a Ro- 
moro l8 tino; e '1 fiume ^sia ringorga 20 to in 
tata altez 2I za, che 1'acqua "si possa co 
co^modo discie 24 so riduciere 2S a Romo- 

The river at Ville Tranche may be con- 
ducted to Romorantin which may be done by 
the inhabitants; and the timber of which 
their houses are built may be carried in 
boats to Romorantin [ 1 8]. The river may 
be dammed up at such a height that the 
waters may be brought back to Romorantin 
with a convenient fall. 

Br. M. 


S'elli e meglio che 1'acqua 2 vada tutta 
in alto in una so^la volta, o veramete 
in due? 

Rispodesi che in vna sola volsta la 
rota no potreb 6 be sostenere tutta 1'acqua 
7ch'ella leua in due volte, per 8 che. nella 
mezza volta della 9 rota leverebbe 100 libbre, 
I0 e no piu, e s'ell' auesse a leua"re le 
200 libbre la uolta inte I2 re, non le leverebbe, 
se I3 tal rota no raddoppiasse il dia I4 metro, 
e raddoppiando tal 'Sdiametro raddoppie- 
reb l6 be il tenpo; aduque e meglio J 7e piu 
comodita di spesa a fare l8 tal rota sub 
2 a che 2 la ecc. 

'9 II descieso del mozzo non s'ab- 
20 bassa insino alia pelle dell'acqua, 2I per- 
che toccado 1'acqua diminuireb 22 be il 
peso suo. 

23 E se per 1'aversario 24 s' ingrossasse il 
2 sfugatore dell'ac 26 qua dieci tan 2 ?ti piu, 
che la 28 canna dell' 2 9acqua fuggie"3te d'essi, 
se li 3 1 dieci tanti 3 2 men moto 33 che a que- 
sto, 34 che vfitio sareb^be il suo? Ri3 6 spo- 
desi per la 37o, a di questo 3che dice, che 
1'acqua 39 S ' a lzerebbe *la decima parte di 
quel che prima s'alzava * T nell'altezza di 
quella canna donde prima sur 42 gieua. 

As to whether it is better that the water 
should all be raised in a single turn or 
in two? 

The answer is that in one single turn the 
wheel could not support all the water that it 
can raise in two turns, because at the half turn 
of the wheel it would be raising 100 pounds 
and no more; and if it had to raise the whole, 
200 pounds in one turn, it could not raise them 
unless the wheel were of double the diameter 
and if the diameter were doubled, the time of 
its revolution would be doubled; therefore it 
is better and a greater advantage in expense 
to make such a wheel of half the size (?) &c. 

The going down of the nave of the wheel 
must not be so low as to touch the surface 
of the water, because by touching the water 
its momentum will be lessened. 

And if on the contrary the conduit 
for the water were ten times the size of 
the pipe for the water escaping from it, 
and if it had ten times less motion, what 
would be its office ? This is answered by the 
9 th of this which says that the water would 
rise in the pipe whence it first flow, to a 
tenth part of its original height. 

Br. M. 270<5] 


Se'l fiume m n, ramo del fiume Loira, 
si manda nel 2 fiume di Romorontino colle 
sua acque torbide, esso Pgrassera le can- 

If the river m n, an affluant of the river 
Loire, were turned with its muddy waters, into 
the river [of Romorantin, this would fatten 

13. elli. 14. conpo. 15. ghano. 17. aremolo. 19. ringhorgha. 21. chellacqua. 23. disscie. 25. romolotino. 
107*. i. selli . . chellacq"a". 2. alto nuna. 4. nvna. 6. bono sosstcnere . . lacq"a". 7. chella. 8. meza. 10. essellauessi 

allcua. 12. nolle leverebbe [se el] se. 13. raddopiassi. 14. mitro [e in] e. 15. [tempo] diamitro radoppiereb. 17. affare. 

19. disscicso . . mozzo nossab. 20. acqu"a". 21. tochado lacqu"a". 23. Esse. 24. singrossassi. 25. fughatore. 27. chella. 

28. channa della. 30. te dessi se li. 31. dieci tanta. 32. men moto. 33. che acque sto. 34. che vfitio sareb. 35. be il 

suo Ris. 37. quessto. 38. chellacqua. 40. che p"a". 41. channa donde p"a" sue. 42. giena. 
1077. i. fiume [era] Era | si. 2. romolontino . . torbite. 3. essesso. 5. eflara chanale navichabile e merchatile. n. Quella. 

1075. 1 8. Compare No. 744. 

1076. The topographical interest of this passage arises from the circumstance that it is written on 
the reverse of the sheet on which we find the text relating to Romorantin, No. 1074. 




pagnie sopra le quali esso adaque 4 ra, e 
redera il paese fertile da nutrire li aSbi- 
tatori, e fara "canale navicabile e mer- 

6 Modo che'l fiume 7 col suo corso 8 netti 
il fondo del 9 fiume. 

IO Per la nona 
del 3; T 'Quello 
ch'e piu velo I2 cie, 
piu cosuma il ^suo 
fondo, e per la co- 
^versa : 1'acqua ch' e 
piu j starda piv la- 
scia l6 di quel che 
la intorbi^da; 

18 E facciasi il serraglio mobile, che io 
or J 9dinai nel Friuli, del quale, aperto vna 
caterat 20 ta, 1'acqua che di quella vsciva 
cavo il fondo; 2I addunque nelli diluui de' 
fiumi si debbono aprire le cate 22 ratte de'mo- 
lini, accioche tutto il corso del fiume si 
renda per ca 23 teratta in ciascu molino; sieno 

molte, accioche 2 4si faccia mag- 

giore Ipeto, e cosl nettera tutto il fiume; 
2 Se infra le due poste de' moli 26 ni sia vna 
delle dette caterat 2 7te; sia vna d'esse poste 
di tal cate 28 ratte infra 1'uno e Pal 29 tro 

the land which it would water and would 
render the country fertile to supply food 
to the inhabitants, and would make navi- 
gable canals for mercantile purposes. 

The way in which the river in its flow 
should scour its own channel. 

By the ninth of the 
third; the more rapid 
it is, the more it wears 
away its channel; and, 
by the converse pro- 
position, the slower 
the water the more 
it deposits that which 
renders it turbid. 

And let the sluice be movable like the one 
I arranged in Friuli [i 9], where when one sluice 
was opened the water which passed through 
it dug out the bottom. Therefore when the 
rivers are flooded, the sluices of the mills 
ought to be opened in order that the whole 
course of the river may pass through falls 
to each mill; there should be many in order 
to give a greater impetus, and so all the 
river will be scoured. And below the site 
of each of the two mills there may be one 
of the said sluice falls; one of them may be 
placed below each mill. 

C. A. 329 6; 993 a] 


Vno trabocco e quattro braccia e vno 
miglio e tre mila d' esse braccia ; E '1 brac- 
cio si diuide in 12 ocie; 2 e 1'acqua de'ca- 
nali a di calo in ogni ceto trabocchi 2 delle 
dette oncie; aduque 14 oncie $di calo son 
neciessarie a due mila ottoceto braccia di 
moto ne'detti canali; seguita che 15 oncie 
*di calo danno debito moto alii corsi del- 
1'acque dei predetti canali, cioe uno braccio 
e T / 2 s per miglio ; E per questo cocluderemo 
che 1'acqua che si toglie dal fiume di Villa 

A trabocco is four braccia, and one mile 
is three thousand of the said braccia. Each 
braccio is divided into 12 inches; and the 
water in the canals has a fall in every 
hundred trabocchi of two of these inches; 
therefore 14 inches of fall are necessary in 
two thousand eight hundred braccia of 
flow in these canals; it follows that 15 
inches of fall give the required momentum 
to the currents of the waters in the said 
canals, that is one braccio and a half in the 
mile. And from this it may be concluded 
that the water taken from the river of Ville- 

14. cheppiu. 15. lasscia. 16. chella. Lines 617 are written in the margin. 18. effaciasi. 19. nel frigholi del. 20. lacq- 
"a"che . . vssciva cav"o". 21. si debbe apr \\\\\\\\\\\\\ . 22. ratte demolini . . del fiume si \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ . 23. ciasscu . . . 
accioche \\\\\\\\\\\\\ . 24. sapra effacci magiore . . tutto if \\\\\\\\\\\\ . 25. infralle . . posste. 27. posste. 28. rate molini in- 
fralluna ellal. Lines 25 29 stand in the original above line 18. 

1078. i. traboccho. 2. br. e I . . El br. [s] si . . ocie\\\\\\. 2. ellacqua . . addi chalo . . trabochi . . 14 o di. 3. di chalo . . 
adumila . . br. di moto [de de] ne . . 15 o di. 4. di chalo . . corsi [de detti o] dell . . de . . cioe i br. 5. quessto 

1077. 19. This passage reveals to us the fact that 
Leonardo had visited the country of Friuli and that 

he had stayed there for some time. Nothing 
whatever was known of this previously. 






Franca e si 6 presta al fiume di Romoron- 
tino vuole . . . Dove Pu fiume mediante la 
sua bassezza no ?puo entrare nell'altro, e 
neciessario ringorgarlo in tale altezza che 
possa disciedere 8 in quel che prima era 
piv alto. 

9 1JVigilia di Sco Anto I0 nio tornai da 
Romo^rotino in Abuosa, If I2 e '1 re si parti 
due I3 dl innanti da Romoro^tino. 

T sDa Romorontino insino al l6 pote a 
Sodro | si chiama Soudro; ^e da esso pote 
insino a Tours l8 si chiama Schier. 

T 9parai saggio del 20 liuello di quel ca- 
21 nale che si a a codur 22 re dalla Loira a 
Romo 23 lontino con vn ca 24 nale largo vn 
braccio e 2 5profondo vn braccio. 

franche and lent to the river of Romorantin 

will Where one river by reason of its 

low level cannot flow into the other, it will 
be necessary to dam it up, so that it may 
acquire a fall into the other, which was 
previously the higher. 

The eve of Saint Antony I returned from 
Romorantin to Amboise, and the King went 
away two days before from Romorantin. 

From Romorantin as far as the bridge at 
Saudre it is called the Saudre, and from that 
bridge as far as Tours it is called the Cher. 

I would test the level of that channel 
which is to lead from the Loire to Romo- 
rantin, with a channel one braccio wide and 
one braccio deep. 

Br. M. 263 1] 



2 Alia quarta di mezzodl verso scirocco ; 
3 alia terza di mezzodl verso scirocco; 
4 alia quarta di mezzodl verso scirocco; 
5 alia quinta di mezzodi verso scirocco; 
6 Tra libeccio e mezzodl; ?a leuante par- 
ticipando di mezzodl; 8 tra mezzo giorno 
verso leuante J /85 9 Da. poi verso ponente; 
I0 tra mezzodl e libeccio; JI a mezzodl. 


At T /4 from the South to the South East. 
At */3 from the South to the South East. 
At T / 4 from the South to the South East. 
At x /s from the South to the South East. 
Between the South West and South, to the East 
bearing to the South; from the South towards 
the East - J /8 ; thence to the West, between the 
South and South West; at the South. 

cocludereno chellacqua chessi . . francha essi. 6. pressta . . remolontino vole .... mediante [la ba] la sua. 
7. ringhorgharlo . . alteza . . dissciedere \\\\\\\ . 12. el re [di fran] si. 13. innanti . Lines 1518 are written 
from left to right. 15. Romorantino. 17. [po] e da. 20. cha. 21. chessa a chodur. 22. rre dalliraa remo. 23. cha. 
24. largho vn br. 25. vn br. 

1079. written from left to right: i. dorleons. 2. de mezo syroccho. 3. de mezo . . syroccho. 4. mezo . . syrocco. 5. mezo 
. . syrocco. 6. lybeccio e mezodi. 6. mezo. 7. mezo. 8. ponte. 9. mezo . . lybeccio. 10. mezo. 

1078. Lines 6 18 are partly reproduced in the 
facsimile on p. 254, and the whole of lines 19 25. 

The following names are written along the rivers 
on the larger sketch, era f (the Loire) scier f (the 
Cher) three times. Pote Sodro (bridge of the Soudre). 
Villa francha (Villefranche) banco (sandbank) Sodro 
(Soudre). The circle below shows the position of 
Romorantin. The words 'orologio del sole 1 written 
below do not belong to the map of the rivers. 
The following names are written by the side of the 
smaller sketch-map: tors (Tours), jfbosa (Amboise) 
bres for Bles (Blois) mo rica \\\\ (Montrichard). Lione 
(Lyons). This map was also published in the 
'Saggio' (Milano, 1872) PI. XXII, and the editors 
remark : Forse la linia retla che va da Amboise a 
Romorantin segna Fandamento proposto d'tm Canale, che 
poi sembra prolutigarsi in giu fin dove sta scritto Lione, 

M. Ravaisson has enlarged on this idea in the 
Gazette des Beaux Arts (1881 p. 530): Les-traces de 
Leonard permettent d'entrevoir que le canal commengant 
soit aiipres de Tours, soit aiipres de Blois et passant par 
Romorantin, avec port d'embarquement a Villefranche, 
devait, au dela de Bourges, traverser I'Allier au-dessous 
des affluents de la Dore et de la Sioule, aller par 
Moulins jusfu' a Digoin; enfin , sur Pautre rive de la 
Loire, depasser les monts du Charolais et rejoindre la 
Saone aupres de Mdcon. It seems to me rash, however, 
to found so elaborate an hypothesis on these sket- 
ches of rivers. The slight stroke going to Lione is 
perhaps only an indication of the direction. With 
regard to the Loire compare also No. 988. 1. 38. 

1079. The meaning is obscure; a more important 
passage referring to France is to be found under 
No. 744. 


[1080 1082. 



Modo come i Tedeschi ingarbugliano 
on the e tessano, seradosi Isieme, 2 le loro targhe 
lunghe cotro a nemici , abassandosi e 
mettedo 3 vna delle teste a terra, tenedo il 
resto in mano. 

The way in which the Germans closing up 
together cross and interweave their broad 
leather shields against the enemy, stooping 
down and putting one of the ends on the 
ground while they hold the rest in their hand. 

B. 63 J] 


Vsano i Germani annegare castellani co 
fumo di pivma, solfo 2 e risagallo-, e fanno 
durare detti fumi 7 e 8 ore; acora la 
3pula del frumeto fa assai e durabil fumo; 
e letame secco ancor lui , 4 ma fa sia 
mischiato colla sasa, cioe vliue tratte nel' 
olio, o vuoi morchia sd'olio. 

The Germans are wont to annoy a garrison 
with the smoke of feathers, sulphur and realgar, 
and they make this smoke last 7 or 8 hours. 
Likewise the husks of wheat make a great 
and lasting smoke; and also dry dung; but 
this must be mixed with olive husks, that is 
olives pressed for oil and from which the oil 
has been extracted. 




Come le ualli furo gia coperte in gra parte 
da laghi, inperoch senpre il suo terreno fece 
argine a fiumi, e da mari, i quali poi colla 
perseueratione de' fiumi 2 segarono li monti, e 
li fiumi coi lor vagabundi corsi portarono via 
le altre pianvre incluse dalli moti, e le sega- 
ture de'mqti so3no note per le falde delle 
pietre, che si corrispondono nelle lor taglia- 
ture fatte dalli detti corsi de' fiumi; *I1 Monte 
Emus che riga la Tratia e la Dardaria e 
si congiugne col Monte Sardonius, el quale, 
seguendo 5 a ponete, muta il nome di Sardus 
in | Rebi nel toccare la Dalmatia, poi se- 
guendo a ponete riga li Illirici 6 oggi detta 
Schiavonia, e mvta nome di | Rebi in | Al- 
banus, e seguendo pure a ponete si muta 
nel Mote Ocra ? a tramotana, e a mezzodl 
sopra all'Istria si nomina | Caruancas e si 
congiugne a ponete sopra 1' Italia col Mote 

That the valleys were formerly in great 
part covered by lakes the soil of which 
always forms the banks of rivers, and by seas, 
which afterwards, by the persistent wearing of 
the rivers, cut through the mountains and the 
wandering courses of the rivers carried away 
the other plains enclosed by the mountains; 
and the cutting away of the mountains is 
evident from the strata in the rocks, which 
correspond in their sections as made by the 
courses of the rivers [4]. The Haemus moun- 
tains which go along Thrace and Dardania 
and join the Sardonius mountains which, 
going on to the westward change their 
name from Sardus to Rebi, as they come near 
Dalmatia; then turning to the West cross 
Illyria, now called Sclavonia, changing the 
name of Rebi to Albanus, and going on 
still to the West, they change to Mount Ocra 
in the North; and to the South above Istria they 
are named Caruancas ; and to the West above 
Italy they join the Adula, where the Danube 
rises [8], which stretches to the East and has a 

1080. 2. chome i tedesci ingarigliano ettessano. 2. large lunge. 3. dele . . attera . . imano. 

io3l. i. anegare chastclani. 2. risalgalo efiano. 3. elletame secho. 4. ovoi morcha. 

1082. i. laghi "inperche senpre il suo terreno fece argine afiumi" e da mari. 2. segorono . . elli fiumi co . . portorono . . 
moti elle. 3. chessi conrisspondano. 4. emus . . tratia ella dardaria essi congvgne . . monte [scardus] Sardonius. 5. nel 
cottare la. 6. sciavonia . . ponente [segue] si muta. 7. attramotana e mezodi . . isstria . . essi congugne. 8. nasscie il reno 

1080. Above the text is a sketch of a few lines 
crossing each other and the words de ponder ibus. The 
meaning of the passage is obscure. 

1081. There is with this passage a sketch of a 
round tower shrouded in smoke. 

1082. 4. Emus, the Balkan ; Dardania, now Servia. 




Adula, 8 doue nascie il Danubio, il quale 
s'astende a leuante con corso di 1500 mi- 
glia, e la sua linia breuissima e circa 
^mille miglia, e altrettanto o circa e'l ramo 
del Monte Adula mutato ne'predetti nomi 
di moti; sta a tramon I0 tana il monte 
Carpatus, il quale termina la larghezza della 
valle del Danubio, la qual, come dissi, 
s'astende "a leuate co lunghezza di circa 
mille miglia, ed e larga doue 200 e doue 
300 miglia; questa si mette pel I2 mezzo il 
Danvbio, primo fiume d' Europa per magni- 
tudine, il qual Danvbio si lascia per mezzo 
di *3 Austria e Albania e per tramotana 
Bauaria, Polonia, Ungheria, Valachia e 
Bosnia; versaua adunque il Danubio | over 
Da 14 noia nel mare di Ponto, il quale 
s'astendea insino vicino all' Austria e occu- 
paua tutta la pianvra che oggi 'Sdiscorre 
esso Danvbio, e'l segno dico ne mostrano 
1' ostriche e li nichi e bovoli e cappe e ossa 
di gra pesci, che an l6 cora in molti lochi si 
trouano nell'alte coste de'predetti moti; ed 
era tale mare fatto per la ringorgatione 
delli ra^mi del Monte Adula, che s'asten- 
deano a leuante e si congiugneano colli 
rami del Mote Tauro, che s'astendono a 
po l8 nete, e circa alia Bitinia versaua 1'acque 
d'esso Mare di Poto nel Propontico, ca- 
dendo nel Mare Egeo cioe '9 Mar Mediter- 
rano, doue poi il lungo corso spicco li rami 
del Mote Adula dalli rami del Mote Tauro ; 
li Mare 20 di Poto s'abasso e scoperse la 
Val di Danubio colle prenominate provincie, 
e tutta TAsia Minore di la dal monte Ta- 
2I vro per tramotana e la pianvra ch'e 
da Mote Caucasso al mare di Ponto 
per ponete, e la pianura del Ta 22 nai 
dentro alii monti Rifei cioe a' piedi loro; 
Ecco che '1 mare di Ponto abbasso circa 
a braccia 1000 2 -5nello scoprire di tanta 

course of 1500 miles; its shortest line is 
about 1000 miles, and the same or about 
the same is that branch of the Adula mountains 
changed as to their name, as before mentioned. 
To the North are the Carpathians, closing in 
the breadth of the valley of the Danube, 
which, as I have said extends eastward, 
a length of about 1000 miles, and is some- 
times 200 and in some places 300 miles 
wide; and in the midst flows the Danube, 
the principal river of Europe as to size. The 
said Danube runs through the middle of 
Austria and Albania and northwards through 
Bavaria, Poland, Hungary, Wallachia and Bos- 
nia and then the Danube or Donau flows 
into the Black Sea, which formerly extended 
almost to Austria and occupied the plains 
through which the Danube now courses; and 
the evidence of this is in the oysters and 
cockle shells and scollops and bones of 
great fishes which are still to be found in 
many places on the sides of those mountains; 
and this sea was formed by the filling up of 
the spurs of the Adula mountains which then 
extended to the East joining the spurs of the 
Taurus which extend to the West. And 
near Bithynia the waters of this Black Sea 
poured into the Propontis [Marmora] falling 
into the ^Egean Sea, that is the Mediterranean, 
where, after a long course, the spurs of the 
Adula mountains became separated from 
those of the Taurus. The Black Sea 
sank lower and laid bare the valley of 
the Danube with the above named coun- 
tries, and the whole of Asia Minor beyond 
the Taurus range to the North, and the 
plains from mount Caucasus to the Black Sea 
to the West, and the plains of the Don this 
side that is to say, at the foot of the Ural 
mountains. And thus the Black Sea must 
have sunk about 1000 braccia to uncover 
such vast plains. 

il quale . . alleuante conchorio . . ella . . circha. 9. circha . . attramon. 10. largeza. n. alleuate co lungeza . . 
largha [dalle do] doue. 12. mezo . . danvbbio . . danvbbio si lasscia per mezo. 13. vngeria . . ebboxnia . . danubbio 
over da. 14. sasstendea . . ochupaua. 15. disscorre . . losstriche elli . . e bovoli e chappe . . pessci. 17. chessastendeano 
alleuante essi congugneano . . taruro chessastendanoal. 18. circha allabettima versaua . . proponticho chadendo . . egeocoe. 
19. mediterano . . spicho. 20. esscoperse la ual di danv | "bbio" . . province ettutta . . minore dala dal. 21. ella . . . cha- 
vcaso . . ella. 22. coe . . Ecchochel . . circha a br. 1000. 23. isscoprire. 

8. Danubio, in the original Reno; evidently a mistake as we may infer from come dissi 1. 10 &c. 




A. 57 "1 



2 1! II fiume d' equal profon- 
dita avra tanto piv fuga 
nella minore larghezza 3 C he 
nella maggiore , quanto la 
maggiore larghezza avanza 
la minore;! 

i Questa propositione si 
pruova . chiaramete per ragione 
coferma sdalla sperienza-, jn- 
peroche, quando per uno ca- 
nale d'uno miglio di larghezza 
passe 6 ra uno miglio -di lugh- 
ezza d'acqua, dove il fiume- 
fia- largo 5 migli, ciascuno 7de 
5 migli quadri mettera Vs 
di se per ristaurare il mi 8 glio 
quadro d'acqua macato nello 
pelago, 9 e dove il fivme fia 
lar I0 go 3 miglia -, ciascu"no 
d'essi migli quadri I2 mettera di 
se lo terzo ^ di sua quatita per 
lo maHcare che fecie il mi'Sglio 
quadro dello stret l6 to , come si 
dimo^stra -m-f-g-h I8 per lo 
miglio n. 




A river of equal depth runs 
with greater speed in a narrow 
space than in a wide one, in 
proportion to the difference be- 
tween the wider and the narrower 

This proposition is clearly 
proved by reason confirmed 
by experiment. Supposing that 
through a channel one mile 
wide there flows one mile in 
length of water; where the river 
is five miles wide each of the 
5 square miles will require 
Vs of itself to be equal to 
the square mile of water re- 
quired in the sea, and where 
the river is 3 miles wide each 
of these square miles will re- 
quire the third of its volume 
to make up the amount of the 
square mile of the narrow part; 
as is demonstrated in f g h at 
the mile marked n. 

1083. * chorete . . chaltro"ve". 2. ara . . fugha . . largheza. 3. chenella . . quancto . . largheza. 4. [perissperienza] per . . 
choferma. 5. dallissperienza . . per 1 chanale. 6. ra i miglio di lugezza dacq"a" . . ciaschuno. 7. ciasscun "de 5" 
migli[o] quadr[o] i mettera [per ristaurare il ma] '/ di se. 8. dacq-a" machato . . pelago A. 9. ^ e dove. 10. gho 
. . ciaschu. 14. chare cheffecie. 15. stre. 16. chome. Lines 918 are written in the margin. 

1083. In the place marked A in the diagram 
Mare Medtterano (Mediterranean Sea) is written in 

the original. And at B, stretto di Spagna (straits 
of Spain, i. e. Gibraltar). Compare No. 960. 




C. A. 212 b; 6266] 1084. 


2 La ragio si e , che se tu metterai in- 
sieme-le boche de'fiumi che mettono in 
questo Mare Mediterrano, tu tro^verai 
essere maggiore sorha d'acqua ch'e 
quella che uersa esso mare per lo stretto 
in nell'oceano mare; 4 tu vedi 1' Africa sca- 
ricare i sua fiumi che corrono a tramo- 
tana inesso mare ifra i quali 5 e il Nilo -, 
che riga 3000 miglia dell' Africa , e vi e 
il- flume Bagrada, -e '1 Mavretano, e altri 
simili; 6 1' Euro-pa vi versa il Tanai e '1 Da- 
nvbio , il Po e '1 Rodano, Arno e Teuere, 
siche chiaramente questi fivmi insieme co?n 
Ifiniti fivmi di minor fama fanno mag- 
giore larghezza e profodita e corso , e 
non e il mare stretto 18 miglia 8 che nel 
ultima terra di ponete diuide 1'Europa 
daP Africa. 


The reason is that if you put together 
the mouths of the rivers which discharge 
into the Mediterranean sea, you would find 
the sum of water to be larger than that 
which this sea pours through the straits into 
the ocean. You see Africa discharging its 
rivers that run northwards into this sea, and 
among them the Nile which runs through 
3000 miles of Africa; there is also the 
Bagrada river and the Schelif and others. 
Likewise Europe pours into it the Don and 
the Danube, the Po, the Rhone, the Arno, 
and the Tiber, so that evidently these rivers, 
with an infinite number of others of less 
fame, make its great breadth and depth and 
current; and the sea is not wider than 18 
miles at the most westerly point of land where 
it divides Europe from Africa. 

Leic. 106] 1085. 

II 2 seno mediterrano come pelago ri- 
cevea 1'acque regali del' Africa, Asia ed 
Europa, che a esso erano volte, 3e le sue 
acque veniano alle piaggie de'monti, che 
le circudavano, e 11 faceano argine, e le 
time idello Apennino stauano in esso mare 
in forma d'isole, circudate dalle acque salse, 
Se ancora 1' Africa dentro al suo Mote Ata- 
lante non mostraua al celo scoperta la 
terra delle sue gra pianvre co circa 6 a 
3000 miglia di lunghezza, e Mefi risedeua 
in sul lito di tal mare, e sopra le pianvre 
della Italia, doue oggi ?vola li ucielli a 
turme, soleano discorrere i pesci a gradi 

The gulf of the Mediterranean, as an 
inland sea, received the principal waters 
of Africa, Asia and Europe that flowed 
towards it; and its waters came up to the 
foot of the mountains that surrounded it and 
made its shores. And the summits of the 
Apennines stood up out of this sea like is- 
lands, surrounded by salt water. Africa again, 
behind its Atlas mountains, did not expose 
uncovered to the sky the surface of its 
vast plains about 3000 miles in length, and 
Memphis [6] was on the shores of this sea, 
and above the plains of Italy, where now 
birds fly in flocks, fish were wont to wander 
in large shoals. 

Leic. 27 6] IO86. 

Co 2 me sopra Tunisi e il maggior ri- 
flusso che faccia il Mare Mediterrano che 
son circa 2 braccia ^e I / 2 , e a Venezia 
cala 2 braccia; e in tutto il resto di tal 
Mare Mediterrano cala poco o ni^ente. 

The greatest ebb made anywhere by the Tunis. 
Mediterranean is above Tunis, being about two 
and a half braccia and at Venice it falls two 
braccia. In all the rest of the Mediterranean 
sea the fall is little or none. 

1084. magiore . . chorete . . inver. 2. settu . . mettano. 3. magiore . . dacq"a" . . inell. 4. lafricha scharichare . . chorano 
attramotana . . equali. 5. dellafricha . ini . il fiume bagrada. 6. levropia . . siche ciaro . . cho. 7. fano magiore lar- 
geza . . chorso . . moglia. 8. nelutimatera . . leeropa . . africha. 

1085. i. nel. 2. seno [mediteranol mediterano il quale come pelagho . . regali [di circha 300 fiumi regali] "delafrica asia edeu- 
ropa, che acso erano volte". 3. e cholle . . acque veniano ale piagge . . chello . . elli faceano . . elle cime. 4. apennino 
[in forma di sole] stauano in eso . . circhudate. 5. lafricha [non mos] dentro . . attalante no mostraua . . celo "scoperta 
la terra de" le sue . . circha. 6. lungeza e men . . sulito . . mare "e sopra" le. 7. [disora] vola . . atturme solea . . 
pessci a grade. 

1086. 2. tuniti . . magor . . refrusso . . mediterano . . circha 2 br. 3. vinegia chala . . meditera . . pocho. 

1084. 5. Bagrada (Leonardo writes Bragada) in Tunis, now Medscherda; Mavretano, now Schelif. 

1085. 6. M'efi. Leonardo can only mean here the citadel of Cairo on the Mokattam hills. 




F. 6s a] 


Descriui li moti de' flessibili aridi, cioe 
u>y- della 'creatione dell'onde della rena portate 
dal ue^to, e de'sua moti e colli, come 
accade nella LHbia; 1'esenplo ne vedrai 
sulli gra renaj sdi P di Tesino o altri 
gra fiumi. 

Describe the mountains of shifting deserts; 
that is to say the formation of waves of sand 
borne by the wind, and of its mountains and 
hills, such as occur in Libya. Examples 
may be seen on the wide sands of the Po 
and the Ticino, and other large rivers. 



Circufulgore e vna macchina navale 
Majorca, fu invetione di quelli di Majolica. 

Circumfulgore is a naval machine. It was 
an invention of the men of Majorca. 

Ah. II. I2) !O8g. 

Alcuni nel Mare Tirreno vsarano questo 
The modo, cioe 2 appiccauano vn acora a Tuna 
y sea ene delle stremita dell'atena, ^e dall'altra vna 
corda che I basso s'appiccava a vn acora, 
4 e nel pugniare attacavano detta acora ai 
remeggi dell' oSposito navilio, e per forza 
d' argano quello madavano alia bada 6 e 
gittavano sapon tenero e stoppa Ipeciata 
Ifocata sulla 7prima bada dou'era 1' acora 
attaccata, accioche, per fugir detto 8 foco, i 
difenditori d'esso navilio avessino a fugire 
da 1' op9posita bada, e faciedo cosi facievano 
avmcto allo spugnia I0 tore, perche la galera 
piv facilmete per lo cotrapeso "andava 
alia bada. 

Some at the Tyrrhene sea employ this 
method; that is to say they fastened an anchor 
to one end of the yard, and to the other a 
cord, of which the lower end was fastened to 
an anchor; and in battle they flung this anchor 
on to the oars of the opponent's boat and by 
the use of a capstan drew it to the side; 
and threw soft soap and tow, daubed with 
pitch and set ablaze, on to that side 
where the anchor hung; so that in order 
to escape that fire, the defenders of that ship 
had to fly to the opposite side; and in doing 
this they aided to the attack , because the 
galley was more easily drawn to the side 
by reason of the counterpoise. 

1087 i. desscriui . . fressibili. 3. cholli . . 1088. maccina . . macolica. 

1089. i. tircno. 2. apichauano nacora [chorda che ibaso sapienvavacora] "aluna delle slremita dellatena". j. chorda . . sapi- 

cava. 4. decta uchora ai remigi. 5. ala. 6. stopa Ipegolata . . sula. 7. boda lacoratachata acio. 8. affugire dallo. 

9. effaciedo. 10. galea. 

io8S. The machine is fully described in the MS. 
and shown in a sketch. 

1089. This text is illustrated in the original by 
a pen and ink sketch. 



Leic. 31 a] 


Truovasi nelle riue del Mare Mediter- 
rano versare fiumi 300, 2 e porti 40 mila 200, 
e esso mare e di lunghezza miglia 3000; 
Molte volte s'e accozza3to 1' accrescimeto 
de'mari del riflusso suo e'l soffiare delli 
venti occidental! al diluuio del Nilo, ed alii 
fiumi che uersa dal mare di Poto, ed auere 
alzato tanto li mari che so s co gradissimi di- 
luvi discorsi per molti paesi, e questi di- 
luui accadono nel tenpo, che '1 sole 6 distrugie 
le neui delli alti moti d'Etiopia che si le- 
uano alia fredda regio dell' aria, e si 7 mil- 
mete fa I'appressameto del sole alii moti 
della Sarmatia Asiatica e quella d'Europa, 
8 in modo che P accozzameto di queste 3 
dette cose sono, e sono state cagione di 
gra^dissimi diluui, doe il riflusso del mare, 
e li uehti occidentali, e la distrutio delle 
nevi; e ogni cosa I0 ringorgata nella Siria, 
Samaria, la Giudea infra Sinai e il Libano, 
e '1 resto della Siria infra "il Libano e Mote 

On the shores of the Mediterranean 300 The Lava 
rivers flow, and 40, 200 ports. And this sea tine Sea 
is 3000 miles long. Many times has the in- 
crease of its waters, heaped up by their back- 
ward flow and the blowing of the West winds, 
caused the overflow of the Nile and of the rivers 
which flow out through the Black Sea, and have 
so much raised the seas that they have spread 
with vast floods over many countries. And 
these floods take place at the time when the 
sun melts the snows on the high mountains 
of Ethiopia that rise up into the cold regions 
of the air; and in the same way the approach 
of the sun acts on the mountains of Sarmatia 
in Asia and on those in Europe; so that the 
gathering together of these three things are, 
and always have been, the cause of tremendous 
floods : that is, the return flow of the sea with 
the West wind and the melting of the snows. 
So every river will overflow in Syria, in 
Samaria, in Judea between Sinai and the 
Lebanon, and in the rest of Syria between 
the Lebanon and the Taurus mountains, and 
in Cilicia, in the Armenian mountains, and 
in Pamphilia and in Lycia within the hills, 

logo. i. mediterano. 2. porti [5] 40 mila 200 . . langeza . . seacoza. 3. lacresscimeto . . refrusso. 4. del mare . . ponto aveuere. 
5. luui disscorsi . . ecquesti . . achagiano. 6. le neue . . chessi . . freda . . essi. 7. lapressameto . . asiaticha ecquella. 
8. chellacogamito . . chagione. 9. coe il refrusso . . ocidentali ella. 10. soria someria la gudea . . sinai e e libano . . 
soria. u. elibano . . ella cilicia . . motermini ella . . litia dentrali. 12. ellegitto . . attalante . . lagho . . chade. 




Tauro, e la Cilicia dentro alii moti Armeni 
e la Pamfilia e Licia dentro alii moticelli 
"e 1'Egitto insino al mote Atlante; H seno 
di Persia, che gia fu lago gradissimo del 
Tigris e cade'^a nel mare d* India, ora a 
consumato il mote- che li facea argine, e 
si e ragguagliato coll'altezza I +dello Oc- 
ceano Indico; E se '1 Mare Mediterrano se- 
quiva il moto suo nel se d'Arabia, acor 
facieva il simile, 'Scio^ che si ragguagliava 
1'altezza Mediterranea colla altezza d'esso 
Mare Indico. 

and in Egypt as far as the Atlas mountains. 
The gulf of Persia which was formerly a 
vast lake of the Tigris and discharged into 
the Indian Sea, has now worn away the 
mountains which formed its banks and laid 
them even with the level of the Indian 
ocean. And if the Mediterranean had con- 
tinued its flow through the gulf of Arabia, it 
would have done the same, that is to say, 
would have reduced the level of the Medi- 
terranean to that of the Indian Sea. 



Verso 1'acqua Mediterrana lungamente 
The Red pel Mare Rosso , el quale e 2 largo cento 
IOQI^*^). miglia e lungo mille cinque cento; e tutto 
pieno di scogli, e a consumato li Ia3ti del 
Mote Sinai, la qual cosa testifica, no da 
inodatione del Mar d'India, che in tali liti 
percuo 4 tesse, ma da una ruina d'acqua, la 
qual portaua con seco tutti li fiumi che 
soprabbonsdauano al Mare Mediterrano, e 
oltre a questo il riflusso del mare; 6 e poi, 
essendo tagliato nel ponente, 3 mila miglia 
remoto da questo loco, il mote Calpe e 
s 7 piccato dal Mote Abila, e fu tal taglio 
fatto bassissimo nelle pianure che si tro- 
uaua infr.i Abila 8 e 1'oceano a pie del monte 
in loco basso, aiutato dal concauameto di 
qualche vallata fatta 9 da alcun flume che 
quiui passasse; venne Ercole ad aprire il 
mare nel poncte, e allora I0 l'acque ma- 
rine cominciarono a uersare nell'oceano 
occidentale, e per la gra. bassezza, il Mare 
"Rosso rimase piv alto, onde 1'acque anno 
abbandonato il corso di quiui; senpre anno 
poi versa I2 to 1'acque per lo Stretto di 

For a long time the water of the Medi- 
terranean flowed out through the Red Sea, 
which is 100 miles wide and 1500 long, and 
full of reefs ; and it has worn away the sides 
of Mount Sinai, a fact which testifies, not to 
an inundation from the Indian sea bearing 
on these coasts, but to a deluge of water 
which carried with it all the rivers which 
abound round the Mediterranean, and besides 
this there is the reflux of the sea; and then, 
a cutting being made to the West 3000 miles 
away from this place, Gibraltar was separated 
from Ceuta, which had been joined to it. And 
this passage was cut very low down, in the 
plains between Gibraltar and the ocean at 
the foot of the mountain, in the low part, 
aided by the hollowing out of some valleys 
made by certain rivers, which might have 
flowed here. Hercules came to open the sea 
to the westward and then the sea waters 
began to pour into the Western Ocean ; 
and in consequence of this great fall, 
the Red Sea remained the higher ; whence the 
water, abandoning its course here, ever after 
poured away through the Straits of Spain. 

C. A. 321 b; 9710] 


La superfitie del Mare Rosso e in li- The surface of the Red Sea is on a level 

uello coll'oceano. with the ocean. 

13. chelli . argine edessi ragualgliato . . alteza. 14. indicho Esse . . mediterano. 15. coe chesi ractialgliaua laltezza medi- 

teranea . . alteza . . indicho. . 

1091. i. mediterana lunghamente. 2. largho . . ellungho . . cinquecento tutto. 3. de moti sinai . . liti percho. 4. tessi . . con- 

secho . . soprabon. 5. dauono . . mediterano e oltre adiquesto il refrusso. 6. chalpe es. 7. pichato . . abile effii . . 

ches&i trovaua . . abile. 8. ellocceano . . locho . . chonchauameto. 9. passassi . . erchole. 10. comincorono . . occeano 

. . perlla . . basseza. n. lacque anbandonato. 
1099. i. mare [so] rosso e illiuello. 2. chaduta . . esserrato [elj la bocha. 3. mediterano. 4. rlghorghato. 5. fralli . . ghade- 

1091. 9. Leonardo seems here to mention to the reader an allusion to the legend of the pillars 
Hercules half jestingly and only in order to suggest of Hercules. 




2 Puo esser caduta vna motagnia e, ser- 
rato la bocca 3 del Mare Rosso, e proibito 
1'esito al Mediterrano, e co^sl rigorgato tal 
mare abbia per esito il trasito Pfra li gioghi 
Gadetani, perche similmente abbia 6 veduti 
alii nostri tepi cadere v monte di sette 
7 miglia e serrare vna valle e fame lago, e 
cosl so 8 fatti la maggior parte de'laghi da 
moti come Lago di ?Garda di Como e Lu- 
gano, e '1 lago Maggiore; I0 il Mediterrano 
poco s'abbasso per il taglio Gaditano ne TI li 
cofini della Siria e assai in esso taglio, perche 
pri I2 ma che tal taglio si creasse, esso mare 
versaua per scirocco, I3 e poi s'ebbe a fare 
la calata, che corresse a tal Gaditano. 

14 In a cadea 1'acqua 'Sdel Mediterrano 
nel oce l6 ano. 

^IfTutte le pianure che son l3 dalli 
mari-alli moti, sono T 9gia state coperte 
dall'acque salse;Tf 

20 TfOgni valle e fatta dal suo fiu 2I me e 
tal proportione e da valle a va! 22 le, quale 
e da fiume a fiume; If 

2 3lfll massimo fiume del nostro modo e 
2 'il Mediterrano fiume, If 

25 If che si move dal principio 26 del Nilo 
all'Oceano occide 27 tale, If 

28 e la sua suprema altezza 29 e nella 
Mavretania este3riore, e a di corso 10 
mila 3I miglia, prima che si ripatrii 3 2 col suo 
Oceano, padre delle acque, 

34Cioe 3000 il Mediterrano, 3000 35 il 
Nilo scoperto, e 3000 il Nilo 3 6 che corre 
a oriete ecc. 

A mountain may have fallen and closed 
the mouth of the Red Sea and prevented 
the outlet of the Mediterranean, and the 
Mediterranean Sea thus overfilled had for 
outlet the passage below the mountains of 
Gades; for, in our own times a similar thing 
has been seen [6]; a mountain fell seven 
miles across a valley and closed it up and 
made a lake. And thus most lakes have been 
made by mountains, as the lake of Garda, 
the lakes of Como and Lugano, and the Lago 
Maggiore. The Mediterranean fell but little 
on the confines of Syria, in consequence of the 
Gaditanean passage, but a great deal in this 
passage, because before this cutting was made 
the Mediterranean sea flowed to the South 
East, and then the fall had to be made by its 
run through the Straits of Gades. 

At a the water of the Mediterranean fell 
into the ocean. 

All the plains which lie between the sea 
and mountains were formerly covered with 
salt water. 

Every valley has been made by its own 
river; and the proportion between valleys is 
the same as that between river and river. 

The greatest river in our world is the 
Mediterranean river, 

which moves from the sources of the 
Nile to the Western ocean. 

And its greatest height is in Outer Mau- 
ritania and it has a course of ten thous- 
and miles before it reunites with its ocean, 
the father of the waters. 

That is 3000 miles for the Mediterranean, 
3000 for the Nile, as far as discovered and 
3000 for the Nile which flows to the East, &c. 

tani . . simile abbia. 6. veduta. 7. serare . . effarne lagho. 8. magiore laghi de moti . . lagho. 9. gharda [lac] di coino 
ellughano ellagho magiore. 10. mediterano pocho sabasso . . ghaditano. n. soria. 12. chettal . . scirocho. i3. affare 
. . choressi . . Gadetano. 14. chadea. 15. mediteraneo nel. 17. chesson. 19. dallacq. 20. effatta. 21. ettal pro"ne". 
22. he daffiume affiume. 23. del "nostro" mode he. 24. mediterano [fatto] fiume. 25. [di] chessi . . occieano. 28. ella . . 
supprema. 29 he . . esste. 32. occieano. 34. mediterano. 36. chorre [da] a oriete. 

1092. See PI. CXI 2, a sketch of the shores of 
the Mediterranean Sea, where lines II to 1 6 may 
be seen. The large figures 158 are not in Leonardo's 
writing. The character of the writing leads us 
to conclude that this text was written later than the 
foregoing. A slight sketch of the Mediterranean is 
also to be found in MS. I', 47 a . 

6. Compare also No. 1336, 11. 30, 35 and 36. 
Paolo Giovio, the celebrated historian (born at 

Como in 1483) reports that in 1513 at the foot of 
the Alps, above Bellinzona, on the road to Switzer- 
land, a mountain fell with a very great noise, in 
consequence of an earthquake, and that the mass 
of rocks, which fell on the left (Western) side 
blocked the river Breno (T. I p. 218 and 345 
of D. Sauvage's French edition, quoted in ALEXIS 
PERCY , Memtire des tremblements de terre de la pcnin- 
sule italique; Acadcmie Roy ale de Belgique. T. XXII). 

26 4 


[1093 1096. 

C. A. 94'; 


Aduque cocluderemo quelle motagnie Therefore we must conclude those moun- 

me Nile essere di maggiore altura, 2 sopra delle . tains to be of the greatest height, above 

(1093-1098). q ua jj . fioccando I'origine -del Nilo dai nu- which the clouds falling in snow give rise 

voli casca. to the Nile. 

B. 61 1\ 


Gli Egiziani, gli Etiopi e gli Arabi nel The Egyptians, the Ethiopians, and the Arabs, 

passare il Nilo vsano ai cameli 2 appiccare in crossing the Nile with camels, are accustomed 

ai lati del busto 2 baghe cioe otri I questa to attach two bags on the sides of the camel's bo- 

forma di sotto. dies that is skins in the form shown underneath. 

^ In queste 4 maglie di re 4 te mettono i In these four meshes of the net the camels 

pie i cameli s di carriaggi. for baggage place their feet. 



II Tigri passa per 1'Asia Minore, il 
quale ne porta 2 con seco 1'acqua di 3 pa- 
duli, F un dopo F altro di uarie altezze, de' 
quali il piv alto e Munace, e '1 mezzano 
e Pallas, 3 e '1 piu basso & Triton; ancora 
el Nilo diriua di 3 altissimi paduli in Eti- 
opia, il quale corre a tramotana e versa 
nel mare d'Egitto con corso di 4000 miglia, 
e la sua breuissima e diritta linia *e 3000 
miglia; di quel che s'a notitia escie de' 
moti della luna con diuersi e incogniti pri- 
cipi, e tro 6 vasi li detti laghi alti sopra la 
spera dell'acqua circa a 4000 braccia cio& 
vn miglio e l / 3 , a dare ?vn braccio di ca- 
duta al Nilo per ogni miglio. 

The Tigris passes through Asia Minor 
and brings with it the water of three lakes, 
one after the other of various elevations; 
the first being Munace and the middle 
Pallas and the lowest Triton. And the Nile 
again springs from three very high lakes in 
Ethiopia, and runs northwards towards the 
sea of Egypt with a course of 4000 miles, 
and by the shortest and straightest line it is 
3000 miles. It is said that it issues from 
the Mountains of the Moon, and has various 
unknown sources. The said lakes are about 
4000 braccia above the surface of the sphere 
of water, that is i mile and J /j , giving to 
the Nile a fall of i braccia in every mile. 

Leic. 2i i] 


Moltissime volte il Nilo e gli altri fiumi 
di gra ma 2 gnitudine anno versato tutto 
F elemeto dell' acqua e reduto al mare. 

Very many times the Nile and other very 
large rivers have poured out their whole ele- 
ment of water and restored it to the sea. 

1093. i. [aduque chocluderemo quelle motagnie essere di magiore altura]. ?. [sopra delle quali loriginc del nilo dai nvvoli 

fiochando cade], 3. sopra delle quali | "fiochando del nilo . dai nvvoli . cade". 4. chocuderano . . magiore 5. fiochando 
. . nvuoli casscha. 

1094. i. egiti. t. apichare . . bage. 4. mettano. 5. cariagi. 

1095. i. come trigon il quale passa per la minore africha il quane ne. 2. consecho lacq"a" . . alteze . . mezano. 4. attramo- 
tana . . ella sua . . ediritti. 5. he 3000 . . quel chessa notitio esscie. 6. vasi . . soppra lasspera dellacq"a" circha 4000 br. 
coe. 7. vn br. di. 

1094. Unfortunately both the sketches which 
accompany this passage are too much effaced to 
be reproduced. The upper represents the two 
sacks joined by ropes, as here described, the other 

shows four camels with riders swimming through 
a river. 

1095. 5. Incogniti prindpio. The affluents of the 
lakes are probably here intended. Compare, as 
to the Nile, Nos. 970, 1063 and 1084. 

1097 noo.] 



Leic. 22a] IO 97- 

Perche il Nilo inoda Testate e vie da Why does the inundation of the Nile occur 

paesi focosi? in the summer, coming from torrid countries? 


Leic. 32 6} 

No si nega che '1 2 Nilo al continvo 
3 non etri torbido 4 nel mare d' Egitto, s e 
che tal turbule 5 tia non sia ca?vsata dal 
terre, 8 che esso fiume Ie9ua al continvo 
da' I0 lochi, onde passa, IT il qual terre I2 mai 
ritorna in ^dirieto nel ma I4 re che lo ricieue, 
X 5se no lo ributta al l6 li sua liti; vedi ^il 
mare areno l8 so dirieto al mo^te Atlante, 
doue gia 20 fu coperto d'acqua 2I salsa. 

It is not denied that the Nile is con- 
stantly muddy in entering the Egyptian sea 
and that its turbidity is caused by soil 
that this river is continually bringing from 
the places it passes; which soil never 
returns in the sea which receives it, unless 
it throws it on its shores. You see the 
sandy desert beyond Mount Atlas where 
formerly it was covered with salt water. 

B. 6*6] 


Gli Assiri e quelli di Evbea vsano ai 
loro cavalli 2 portare sacchi da potere a lor 
posta epiere di ueto , 3 i quali portano in 
scabio di bandella della sella di sopra *e 
d'accanto, e bene e coperta di piastre 
di corame cotto, saccioche '1 saettame 
non le fora, si che non ano in cvore la 
6 fuga sicura che la uittoria icierta; vno 
cavallo 7 C osl fatto passa 465 omini a v 

The Assyrians and the people of Euboea Customs of 
accustom their horses to carry sacks which Nairn's 
they can at pleasure fill with air, and which ( I0 99- Iio ). 
in case of need they carry instead of the 
girth of the saddle above and at the side, 
and they are well covered with plates of cuir 
bouilli, in order that they may not be perforated 
by flights of arrows. Thus they have not on 
their minds their security in flight, when the 
victory is uncertain; a horse thus equipped 
enables four or five men to cross over at need. 

B. 62 1] 




2 Le navicule apresso all Assiri furono 
fatte di uirghe sottili di salice *e tessute 
sopra pertiche pur di salice, ridotte I forma 
di barchetta, ilotate *di poluere sottile in- 
beuerata d'olio, o di tremetina ridotta I 
natura 5 di fango, la qual facieva resistetia 
al' acqua, e perche il pino n'isfendea per 6 senpre 
stava fresca ci essere vesti detta sorte di navi- 
cule-di pelle bouine 7 nel passare Sicuris-, 
fiume di Spagnia, secodo ne testifica Lu- 

The small boats used by the Assyrians 
were made of thin laths of willow plaited 
over rods also of willow, and bent into the 
form of a boat. They were daubed with fine 
mud soaked with oil or with turpentine, and 
reduced to a kind of mud which resisted the 
water and because pine would split; and always 
remained fresh; and they covered this sort 
of boats with the skins of oxen in safely 
crossing the river Sicuris of Spain, as is 
reported by LucanCy]. 

1097. lastade . . dipaesi. 

1098. i. negha. 5. chcttal. 6. cha. 9. de. n. equal. 14. re lo. 15. nollo rebutta. 19. attalante. 20. dacq"a". 

1099. i. ecquelli . . cavagli. 3. schabio. 4. dacanto. 5. acciochel saettumel fora si che non ano inecare (?) la. 
6. uettoria. 

noo. i. navichula. 2. navichula . . sali\\\\\\\. 3. ettessute. 4. o di tue metina ridotta. 5. alacqua e pechel pinonis fede aper. 
6. fresca ci essere vesti detta sorte di navicule . di pele bouine. 8. lissciti elli . . voliono. 9. aligano li gratici . . bage 

noo. 7. See Lucan's Pharsalia IV, 130: 
Utque habuit ripas Sicoris camposque reliquit, 
Primum cana salix made/ado vimine parvam 
Texitur in puppim, calsogue inducto juvenco 
Vedoris patiens tumidum supernatat amnem. 
Sic Venetus stagnante Pado, fusoque Britatinns 
Navigat oceano, sic cum tenet omnia JVtlus, 
Conseritur bibida Memphitis cymbo papyro. 


His ratibns transjecta manus festinat utrimque 

Succisam cavare nemus cS-v. 

Caesar (de bello civ. I, 54) has the same remark 
about the Britanni (confirmed by Pliny, hist. nat. 
IV, 15) which Leonardo here makes about the 
Assyrians. This and the foregoing text are illu- 
strated by slight sketches. 




flIOI 1103. 

L'Ispani -, li Sciti e li Arabi , quado The Spaniards, the Scythians and the 

vogliono fare vn subito pote, 9 a lligano-H Arabs, when they want to make a bridge in 

graded fatti di salice sopra le baghe overo haste, fix hurdlework made of willows 

11- i ;_- ._ \ ~~~~* oi^ufi bags of ox-hide, and so cross in 

otri di pelli bouine, 

3 e cosl passa sicura- 



Leic. .*| 

Nello ottanta 9 fu vno terremoto nel 
mar di Atalia presso a Rodi, il quale aperse 

-il mare cioe il fondo, 'nella qual apritura 

' . 
si sommerse tanto diluuio d acque, cne per 

piv di 3'- ore si scoperse il fondo del mare 
dair acque, che 3 di quiui si spogliarono, e 
poi si richiuse al primo grado. 

In [fourteen hundred and] eighty nine 
there was an earthquake in the sea of Atalia 

n f ea ' * hodes > ^ lch P e . ned the sea - that 1S 
its bottom and into this opening such a 
torrent of water poured that for more than 

three hours the bottom of the sea was un- 
covered by reason of the water which was lost 
in if and ^en it closed to the former level. 

L. o'J 

Rodi a detro 5000 case. 


Rhodes has in it 5000 houses. 

W. XVIIal 




2 Farai le scale da 4 faccie, per le quali You must make steps on four sides, by 

Cyprus si pervenga a un prato fatto dalla natura which to mount to a meadow formed by 

1103. "<M)- SO p ra vn sasso, 3 il quale sia fatto vuoto e nature at the top of a rock which may be 

sostenvto dinanzi con pilastri , e sotto tra- hollowed out and supported in front by pi- 

forato con magno portico, ne! 4 li quali uada lasters and open underneath in a large portico, 

il mare co" el fondo [del mare]. 2. somerse tane diluuio . . mare dellacqua. 

ovrotri . . pelle. 10. passa. 
noi. i mare disatalia preso . . aperse 

3. spogliorono. 
1103. 2. lesscale . . pervena . . prato [for] fatto [sopr] dalla. 3. voto essoslenvta . . pilasstri essctto . . conmagnio porticho, ne. 

iioi. Nello ottanto 9. It is scarcely likely that 
Leonardo should here mean 89 AD. Dr. H. MULLER- 
STROBING writes to me as follows on this subject: 
"With reference to Rhodes Ross says {Rase auf den 
Gruchischen Inseln, III 70 ff. 1840), that ancient his- 
tory affords instances of severe earthquakes at 
Rhodes, among others one in the second year of 
the 138 th Olympiad=27O B. C. ; a remarkably 
violent one under Antoninus Pius (A. D. 138 161) 
and again under Constantine and later. But Leo- 
nardo expressly speaks of an earthquake "nel mar 
di Atalia fresso a Rodi n t which is singular. The 
town of Attalia, founded by Attalus, which is what 
he no doubt means, was in Pamphylia and more 
than 150 English miles East of Rhodes in a straight 
line. Leake and most other geographers identify it 
with the present town of Adalia. Attalia is rarely 
mentioned by the ancients, indeed only by Strabo 
and Pliny and no earthquake is spoken of. I think 
therefore you are justified in assuming that Leonardo 
means 1489"." In the elaborate catalogue of earth- 
quakes in the East by Selale Dshelal eddin Sayouthy 

(an unpublished Arabic MS. in the possession of 
Prof. SCHEFER, (Membre de 1'Institut, Paris) mention is 
made of a terrible earthquake in the year 867 of 
the Mohamedan Era corresponding to the year 
1489, and it is there stated that a hundred persons 
were killed by it in the fortress of Kerak. There 
are three places of this name. Kerak on the sea 
of Tiberias , Kerak near Table on the Libanon, 
which I visited in the summer of 1876 but neither 
of these is the place alluded to. Possibly it may 
be the strongly fortified town of Kerak = Kir Moab, 
to the West of the Dead Sea. There is no notice 
about this in ALEXIS PERCY, Ml 'moire sur la 
tremblements de terres ressentis dans la feninsule turco- 
hillenique et en Syrie (Memoires couronnes et memoires 
des savants etrangers, Academie Royale de Belgique, 
Tome XXIII). 

1103. See PL LXXXIII. Compare also p. 33 
of this Vol. The standing male figure at the side 
Is evidently suggested by Michael Angelo's David. 
On the same place a slight sketch of horses seems 
to have been drawn first; there is no reason for 




1'acqua in diuersi vasi di graniti porfidi 
e serpetini, dentro a emicicli, e spaSda 
1'acqua in se medesimi, e dintorno a tal 
portico inverso tratnotana sia un lago con 
vna isoletta 6 in mezzo, nella quale sia vn 
folto e obroso bosco; 1'acque in testa ai 
pilastri sie uersate in uasi ai pie ?de' sua 
inbasameti, de' quali si spargano piccoli 
riuetti ; 

8 Partendosi dalla 9riviera di Cilitia in- 
verso meridio si scopre I0 la bellezza dell'isola 
di Cipri. 

in which the water may fall into various vases 
of granite, porphyry and serpentine, within semi- 
circular recesses ; and the water may overflow 
from these. And round this portico towards the 
North there should be a lake with a little island 
in the midst of which should be a thick and 
shady wood; the waters at the top of the pila- 
sters should pour into vases at their base, from 
whence they should flow in little channels. 

Starting from the shore of Cilicia towards 
the South you discover the beauties of the is- 
land of Cyprus. 

W. XVII<5] 


Dalli meridionali lidi di Cilitia si 
uede per australe la bell'isola 2 di Cipri, 
la qual fu regnio della dea Venere, e 
molti incitati dalla sua bellezza 3 anno 
rotte le loro navili e sarte infra li scogli 
circundati dalle vertiginose ode; 4 quiui la 
bellezza del dolce colle invita i vagabundi 
navicanti a re^crearsi infra le sue fiorite 
verdure, fralle quali i ueti ragioradosi en- 
piono I'i 6 sola e '1 circustante mare di suaui 
odori; o quate naui quiui gia son sommerse! 
o quanti ^ navili rotti negli scogli ! quiui si po- 
trebbero vedere invmerabili navili; chierotto 
e mezzo 8 coperto dall' arena, chi si mostra da 
poppa, e chi da prua, chi da carena e chi 
da costa, e para 9 a similitudine d'ungiudi- 
zio, chevoglia risuscitare navili morti; tant'e 
la somma di quelli, die I0 copre tutto il lito 
settentrionale; quiui i uenti d'aquilone 
resonado fan uari e paurosi "soniti. 

From the shore of the Southern coast of The Caspian 
Cilicia may be seen to the South the beau- (lI05 Se f Io6) _ 
tiful island of Cyprus, which was the realm 
of the goddess Venus, and many navigators 
being attracted by her beauty, had their ships 
and rigging broken amidst the reefs, sur- 
rounded by the whirling waters. Here the 
beauty of delightful hills tempts wande- 
ring mariners to refresh themselves amidst 
their flowery verdure, where the winds 
are tempered and fill the island and the 
surrounding seas with fragrant odours. Ah! 
how many a ship has here been sunk. 
Ah! how many a vessel broken on these 
rocks. Here might be seen barks without 
number, some wrecked and half covered 
by the sand; others showing the poop and 
another the prow, here a keel and there the 
ribs; and it seems like a day of judgment 
when there should be a resurrection of dead 
ships, so great is the number of them co- 
vering all the Northern shore ; and while the 
North gale makes various and fearful noises 

C. A. 256*; 773 a] IIO5 

Scriui a Bartolomeo turco del flusso e 
2 riflusso del mar di Ponto, e che intenda, 
3se tal flusso e riflusso e nel Mare Ircano 
4 over Mare Caspio. 

Write to Bartolomeo the Turk as to the 
flow and ebb of the Black sea, and whether 
he is aware if there be such a flow and ebb 
in the Hyrcanean or Caspian sea. 

4. vada lacque in diuersi [5] vasi . . esspa. 3. attal . .si lago. 6. mezo . . testa a pilastri . . uasi a pie. 7. sparga picholi 
riuetti. 8. dalla riuiera [di lie di cilitia] "jpartendosi. 9. cilitia [si scopr] inver meridio si co. 10. beleza . . cipri la qua. 

1104. i. dalla riuiera dalli. 2. della sa belleza. 3. an rotte lor navili essarte . . delle ruertinali ode. 4. belleza del del dolce 
callo invita [invita] i. 5. infralle . . fral . . enpiano. 6. adori . . ga son somerse. 7. roti nelgli . . potrebe . . roto e mezo 
8. arena [altri] chissi . . popa . . charena e qui. 9. assimilitudine dun giudizi che volglia risucitare nvavili . . tantella 
soma. io. varie. n. chopre . . settantironale [sopra] quiui e uenti . . pauro. 

1105. i. turcho . . frusso. 2. refrusso. 3. settal frusso e refrusso. 4. casspio. 

assuming that the text and this sketch, which have 

no connection with each other, are of the same date. 

Sito di Venere. By this heading Leonardo appears 

to mean Cyprus, which was always considered by 

the ancients to be the home and birth place of 
Aphrodite (KOnpi; in Homer). 

1105. The handwriting of this note points to a 
late date. 




F. y>\ 



+ Dallo stretto di Gibilterra al Tanai e 
migli s a 3500, ede alto vn miglio e x /6, dando 
vn braccio 6 per miglio di cala a ogni acqua 
che si move me 7 diocremete, e il Mar Caspio 
e assai piu a! 8 to ; e nessu de' moti d' Europa 
si leua vn 9 miglio sopra la pelle delli nostri 
mari; adu I0 que si potrebbe dire, che T acqua 
ch'e nelle "time de' nostri moti, venisse 
dall'altezza d'essi I2 mari e de' fiumi che 
vi versano, che so piu alti. 


From the straits of Gibraltar to the Don 
is 3500 miles, that is one mile and '/6> 
giving a fall of one braccio in a mile to any 
water that moves gently. The Caspian sea 
is a great deal higher ; and none of the 
mountains of Europe rise a mile above the 
surface of our seas; therefore it might be 
said that the water which is on the summits 
of our mountains might come from the height 
of those seas, and of the rivers which flow 
into them, and which are still higher. 

K. 68 ( 



Qui seguita che '1 Mare della Tana, che 
The sea of 2 con fi na col Tanai, e la piu alta parte 3 che 
abbia il Mare Mediterrano, il qua 4 le e re- 
moto dallo Stretto di Gibilterra 5 35OO mi- 
glia, come mostra la carta da 6 nauicare; 
e a di calo 3500 braccia, cioe uno ? miglio 
e '/65 e e piu alto adunque que 8 sto mare 
che mote che abbia 1'occidcte. 

Hence it follows that the sea of Azov is 
the highest part of the Mediterranean sea, 
being at a distance of 3500 miles from the 
Straits of Gibraltar, as is shown by the map 
for navigation; and it has 3500 braccia of 
descent, that is, one mile and */6j therefore 
it is higher than any mountains which exist 
in the West. 

Leic. -,i 


In nello stretto di Tratia il Mare di 
The P6 2 to senpre versa nel Mare Egeo, e mai 
:s 'l'Egeo in lui, e questo diriua, che '1 Mare 
Caspio, che co 400 miglia sta per leuate 
colli 3 fiumi che I lui versano, senpre versa 
per cave sotterrane in esso Mar di Poto, 
e '1 simile fa il Tanai *co\ Danvbio, in 
modo che senpre esse acque Potiche son 
piv alte che quelle dello Egeo, s e per cio 
le piv alte senpre discendono nelle basse, 
e no mai le basse nelle alte. 

In the Bosphorus the Black Sea flows always 
into the Egean sea, and the Egean sea never 
flows into it. And this is because the Caspian, 
which is 400 miles to the East, with the rivers 
which pour into it, always flows through sub- 
terranean caves into this sea of Pontus; and 
the Don does the same as well as the Da- 
nube, so that the waters of Pontus are always 
higher than those of the Egean; for the 
higher always fall towards the lower, and 
never the lower towards the higher. 

1106. i. lacq"a". 5. 3500006 on miglio . . vn br. 6. acq"a" chessi. 7. e mar casspio. 9. pele. 10 chellacqua. n. venissi 
. . nlteza. 12. vivsano. 

1107. 2. clla. 3. mediterano. 5. mosstra. 6. navicare che . . 3500 br. coe t. 7. e '/e etc e piu. 

1108. 2. ccquesto . . caspio "che co [3] 400 (?) mili sta per leuate" colli. 3. cave socterrane. 4. danvbbio . . chessenpre. 
5. perco le . . dissedano. 


The passage before this, in the original, treats of the exit of the waters from Lakes in 



L. 66 a] 


Ponte da Pera a Costantinopoli largo The bridge of Pera at Constantinople, Constan- 

2 40 braccia, alto dall'acqua braccia 70, 40 braccia wide, 70 braccia high above the tmople - 

lungo 3 braccia 600, cioe 400 sopra del 
mare, e 200 4 posa in terra, faciendo di se 
spalle a se Smedesimo. 

water, 600 braccia long; that is 400 over 
the sea and 200 on the land, thus making 
its own abutments. 

Leic. 28 a] 


Se si voltera il fiu 2 me alia rottura piv 
3 inati, mai ritorne^ra nel corpo della 5 terra, 
come fa 1' Eu 6 frates fiume, e co?sl faccia, a 
chi a Bo 8 lognia rlcresce Ii 9sua fiumi. 

If the river will turn to the rift farther T he 
on it will never return to its bed, as the 
Euphrates does, and this may do at Bologna 
the one who is disappointed for his rivers. 

C. A. 94 ; 276(1] 


Mons Caucasus Comedorum e Paro- 
panisi insieme cogivti, 2 che tra Batriana e 
India nascono Oxus fiume , che in essi moti 
nascie 3e corre 500 miglia a tramotana e 
altrettate a ponete e versa le sue acque 
nel Mare Ircano * e co seco s' accopagnia 
Osus , Daagodos , Arthamis , Xariaspis, 
Dragamaim , Ocus , Margus, s fi um i gra- 
dissimi; dall' opposita parte uerso mezzodl 
nasce jl gra fiume Indo il quale di 6 rizza 
le sue ode per 600 miglia inverse meridio, 
e per questa linia s' accopagnia co seco i 
fiumi Xaradrus , Bibasis , ? Vadris , Vanda- 
bal , Bislaspus per leuate , Suastus e Coe 
per ponete -, e incorporati tali fiumi colle 
8 sue acque si uolta corredo miglia 800 per 
ponete , e ribattedosi ne' Moti Arbeti uno 
gomito, e' si volta 9 a mezzodl, per la quale 
linia -infra 500 miglia truova il mare d'ln- 

Mounts Caucasus, Comedorum, and Paro- 
pemisidae are joined together between Bactria 
and India, and give birth to the river Oxus 
which takes its rise in these mountains and 
flows 500 miles towards the North and as 
many towards the West, and discharges its 
waters into the Caspian sea; and is accom- 
panied by the Oxus, Dargados, Arthamis, Xari- 
aspes, Dargamaim, Ocus and Margus, all very 
large rivers. From the opposite side towards 
the South rises the great river Indus which 
sends its waters for 600 miles Southwards 
and receives as tributaries in this course the 
rivers Xaradrus, Hyphasis, Vadris, Vandabal 
Bislaspus to the East, Suastes and Coe to 
the West, uniting with these rivers, and with 
their waters it flows 800 miles to the West; 
then, turning back by the Arbiti mountains 
makes an elbow and turns Southwards, where 


nog. i. gostar.tinopoli. 2. 40 br . . br. 70. 3. br. 600 coe. 4. spalle asse. 

mi. i. mo caucassus comedoru. 2. nasscano [oduss] oxus . . nasscie. 3. e chSsecho sacopagnia. 4. attramotana. 5. dallo- 
posita parte [nass] uer mezodi nasscie. 6. riza . . inver . . sachopagnia. 7. biilasspus . . suasstus hecoe per . . incho- 
porate. 8. chorrendo . . arbeti [assalij i gomito. 9. mezodi . . somergie. 10. nasscie. ii. mezodi. 12. sscirocho . . he 
13. sarabas diaravna (?) e so as esscilo. 14. mare | "indo" per molte boche. 

1109. See PI. CX No. i. In 1453 by order of 
Sultan Mohamed II. the Golden Horn was crossed 
by a pontoon bridge laid on barrels (see Joh. Dukas' 
History of the Byzantine Empire XXXVIII p. 279). 
The biographers of Michelangelo, Vasari as well 
as Condivi, relate that at the time when Michel- 
angelo suddenly left Rome, in 1506, he entertained 
some intention of going to Constantinople, there to 
serve the Sultan, who sought to engage him, by 
means of certain Franciscan Monks, for the purpose 
of constructing a bridge to connect Constantinople 
with Pera. See VASARI, Vite (ed. Sansoni VII, 168): 
Michelangelo, veduto questa furia del papa, dubitando di 
lui, ebbe, secondo che si dice, voglia di andarsene in 
Gostantinopoli a servire il Turco, per mezzo di certi frati 

di San Francesco, che desiderata averlo per fare un ponte 
che passassi da Gonstantinopoli a Pera. And CONDIVI, 
Vita di M. Buonaroti chap. 30: Michelangelo allora 
vedendosi condotto a questo, temendo delPira del papa, 
pensd d'andarsene in Levante; massimamente essendo 
stato dal Turco ricercato con grandissime promesse per 
mezzo di certi frati di San Francesco, per volersene servire 
in fare un ponte da Costantinopoli a Pera ed in altri 
affari. Leonardo's plan for this bridge was made 
in 1502. We may therefore conclude that at about 
that time the Sultan Bajazet II. had either announced 
a competition in this matter, or that through his 
agents Leonardo had first been called upon to carry 
out the scheme. 




dia doue per sette rami in quello si som- 


lo Neiraspetto del medesimo mote nascie 
il magnio "Gagie, il quale fiume corre per 
mezzodl miglia 500 I2 e per scirocco mille 
e Sarabas Diarnvna e Soas ^e Scilo- 
Codranvnda li fano copagnia ; ^ versa in 
mare Indo per molte bocche. 

after a course of about 100 miles it finds the 
Indian Sea, in which it pours itself by seven 
branches. On the side of the same mountains 
rises the great Ganges, which river flows 
Southwards for 500 miles and to the South- 
west a thousand . . . and Sarabas, Diarnuna, 
Soas and Scilo, Condranunda are its tributaries. 
It flows into the Indian sea by many mouths. 

C. A. 384*; 1189*1 

Li omini nati in 'paesi caldi 
9n the amano 3 la notte, perche li rifre^sca, 

natives of hot . . .. 

countries. e an o in odio la 5 luce, perche h n- 
sca! 6 da, e per6 sono del cohere della 
notte cio 8 e neri | e ne' paesi sfreddi 
ogni cosa e 10 per 1' opposite. 


Men born in hot countries love 
the night because it refreshes them and 
have a horror of light because it burns 
them; and therefore they are of the 
colour of night, that is black. And in 
cold countries it is just the contrary. 

ma. 2. chaldi amaftg. 3. perche le. 6. perosino. 9. cosa he. 

ni2. The sketch here inserted is in MS. H3 55 ''. 


Naval Warfare. Mechanical Appliances. Music. 

Such theoretical questions, as have been laid before the reader in Sections XVI 
and XVII, though they were the chief subjects of Leonardo's studies of the sea, did not 
exclusively claim his attention. A few passages have been collected at the beginning of 
this section, which prove that he had turned his mind to the practical problems of 
navigation, and more especially of naval warfare. What we know for certain of his 
life gives us no data, it is true, as to when or where these matters came under his 
consideration', but the fact remains certain both from tJiese notes in his manuscripts, and 
from the well known letter to Ludovico il Moro (No. 1340), in which he expressly states 
that he is as capable as any man, in this very department. 

The numerous notes as to the laws and rationale of the flight of birds, are scattered 
through several note-books. An account of these is given in the Bibliography of the 
manuscripts at the end of this work. It seems, probable that the idea which led him 
to these investigations was his desire to construct a flying or aerial machine for man^ 
At the same time it must be admitted that the notes on the two subjects are quite 
unconnected in the manuscripts, and that those on the flight of birds are by far the 
most numerous and extensive. The two most important passages that treat of the 
construction of a flying machine are those already published as Tav. XVI, No. I and 
Tav. XVIII in the "Saggio delle opere di Leonardo da Vinci" (Milan 1872;. The 
passages Nos. 1 120 1 125 here printed for the first time and hitherto unknown refer 
to the same subject and, with the exception of one already published in the Saggio 
No. 1126 they are, so far as I know, the only notes, among the numerous observations 
on the flight of birds, in which the phenomena are incidentally and expressly connected 
with the idea of a flying machine. 

The notes on machines of war, the construction of fortifications, and similar matters 
which fall within the department of the Engineer, have not been included in this work, 
for the reasons given on page 26 of this Vol. An exception has been made in favour of the 
passages Nos. 1127 a>id 1128, because they have a more general interest, as bearing on 


the important question: whence the Master derived his knowledge of these matters. 
Though it would be rash to assert that Leonardo was the first to introduce the science 
of mining into Italy, if may be confidently said that he is one of the earliest writers 
who can be proved to have known and understood it; while, on the other hand, if is 
almost beyond doubt that in the East at that time, the whole science of besieging towns 
and mining in particular, was far more advanced than in Europe. This gives a peculiar 
value to the expressions used in No. 1127. 

/ have been unable to find in the manuscripts any passage wJiatever which throws 
any light on Leonardo's great reputation as a musician. Nothing therein illustrates 
VAS ART'S well-known statement: Avvenne che morto Giovan Galeazzo duca di Milano, 
e create Lodovico Sforza nel grado medesimo anno 1494, fu condotto a Milano con 
gran riputazione Lionardo al duca, il quale molto si dilettava del suono della lira, 
perche sonasse; e Lionardo porto quello strumento ch'egli aveva di sua mano fabbricato 
d'argento gran parte, in forma d'un teschio di cavallo, cosa bizzarra e nuova, acciocche 
1'armonia fosse con maggior tuba e piu sonora di voce; laonde super6 tutti i musici 
che quivi erano concorsi a sonare. 

The only notes on musical matters are those given as Nos. 1129 and 1130, wJiicJi 
explain certain arrangements in instruments. 

G. 54 ] 




4 Anno li nostri antichi vsato diuersi in- 
Sgiegni per vedere che viaggio faccia v 
navilio per ci 6 ascuna ora, infra li quali Vi- 
truvio ne po 7 ne vno nella sua opera d'Ar- 
chitettura, il qua 8 le modo e fallace insieme 
cogli altri ; e que^sto e vna rota da mulino 
tocca dall'onde I0 marine nelle sue stremita, 
e mediante le "intere sue revolutioni si 
descrive vna linia I2 retta che rappresenta 
la linia circufere^tiale di tal rota ridotta 
in rettitudine; ^Ma questa tale inventione 
non e valida, T 5se no nelle superfitie piane 
e immobili de' l6 laghi; Ma se 1'acqua si 
move insieme col ^navilio con equal moto, 
allora tal rota re l8 sta inmobile, e se 1'acqua 
e di moto piu o me ^velocie che '1 moto 
del nauilio, ancora tal ro 20 ta non a moto 
equate a quel del navilio, in 2I modo che 
tale inventione e di poca valitudine; "Ecco 
vn altro modo fatto colla sperietia d'uno 
2 3spatio noto da una isola a vn altra, e 
questo si 2 * fa con un asse o lieua percossa 
dal ueto, che la percuote o piu o 2 5men 
velocie, e questo e in Battista Alberti; 


The ancients used various devices to The ship's 
ascertain the distance gone by a ship each ^^ "J v f i- 
hour, among which Vitruvius [6] gives one Alberti 'and 
in his work on Architecture which is just as ofLeonardo 
fallacious as all the others; and this is a , 
mill wheel which touches the waves of the 
sea at one end and in each complete revolu- 
tion describes a straight line which represents 
the circumference of the wheel extended to a 
straightness. But this invention is of no 
worth excepting on the smooth and motion- 
less surface of lakes. But if the water 
moves together with the ship at an equal 
rate, then the wheel remains motionless; 
and if the motion of the water is more or 
less rapid than that of the ship, then nei- 
ther has the wheel the same motion as the ship 
so that this invention is of but little use. 
There is another method tried by experiment 
with a known distance between one island 
and another; and this is done by a board or 
under the pressure of wind which strikes on 
it with more or less swiftness. This is in 
Battista Alberti [2 5]. 

1113. 2. cogniossciere. 4. nosstri. 6. asscuna . . infralli . . vetruvio. 7. darchitectura. 8. effallacie . . ecque. 9. tocha dallonde. 
ii. desscrive. 12. circhufere. 13. diridotta. 14. Macquessta. 15. inmobile. 16. Massellacqua. 17. rota res. 18. essellacqua. 
19. anchora. 20. nona . . acquel. 21. chettale . . pocha. 22. Ecci . . cholla. 23. ecquesto. 24. fa vasse lieva perchossa 
. . chella perchote eppiuo. 25. ecquesto . . balissta abrti. 26. batissta. 27. albertiche effat. 28. lassperi. 31. issola. 

1113. 6. See VlTRUVlus, De Architecture/, lib. X. 
C. 14 (p. 264 in the edition of Rose and Miiller- 
Strubing). The German edition published at Bale in 
1543 na s, on fol. 596, an illustration of the con- 
trivance, as described by Vitruvius. 

25. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, De Architedura lib. V., 
c. 12 treats 'de le navi e parti loro\ but there is no 

VOL. U. 

reference to the machine, mentioned by Leonardo. 
Alberti says here : Noi abbiamo trattato lungamente in 
altro hiogo de 1 modi de le navi, ma in questo luogo ne 
abbiamo detto quel tanto che si bisogna. To this the 
following note is added in the most recent Italian 
edition: Questo libra e tuttora inedito e porta il tilolo, 
secondo Gesnero di 'Liber navis'. 




6 I1 modo di Battista 2 ?Alberti e 
fat'Ho sopra la speri'sentia d'uno spa3tio 
noto da vn-'a isola a un altra; 3 2 Ma tale 
inventi'tone no riesce, 34 se no a vn navi- 
3Slio simile a quel J 6 dove e fatto tale 37spe- 
rictia, ma ^bisognia che sia j^col medesimo 
<carico, e me^'desima vela, 42 e medesima 
situ^atio di vela, e ^medesime gradezze 
d'onde; ma ^ 6 il mio modo ser?ve a ogni 
navi1io, si di remi co 49 me vela, e sia pi- 
sccolo o grade, 5o lugo e alto, 52 o basso, 
sepre serve. 

Battista Alberti's method which is made 
by experiment on a known distance between 
one island and another. But such an inven- 
tion does not succeed excepting on a ship 
like the one on which the experiment was 
made, and it must be of the same burden 
and have the same sails, and the sails in the 
same places, and the size of the waves must be 
the same. But my method will serve for any 
ship, whether with oars or sails; and whether 
it be small or large, broad or long, or high 
or low, it always serves [52]. 

Leic. 22 1] 


Come con otricoli 1'esercito debbe pas- 
Methodi of'sare i fiumi a noto; ... Del modo del 
'movlrf *in d notare de' pesci ; del modo 3 del lor saltare 
water fori delle acque, come far si uede a delfini, 
che par cosa marauigliosa for*mare salto 
sopra la cosa che non aspetta, anzi si 
fugge; Del notare delli animali di luSga 
figura, come anguille e simili; Del modo 
del notar contro alle cored e gra 6 cadute 
de' fiumi; Del modo come notino li pesci 
di retoda figura; Come li animali 7 che non 
anno lunga fessa non sa notare; Come 
tutti li altri animali naturalmente sa 8 no 
notare , auendo li piedi colle dita, saluo 
che 1'omo; In che modo I'omo debbe in- 
para're a notare; Del modo del riposarsi 
sopra delle acque; Come I'omo si debbe 
difen I0 dere dalle revertigini over retrosi 
delle acque che lo tirano in fondo; Come 
I'omo ti :i rato in fondo abbia a cercare 
del moto riflesso, che lo gitti fori della 
profondita; Co I2 me si debe passeggiare 
colle braccia ; come si debbe notare river-, 
scio; Come, e come non ^si puo star sotto 
1' acque-, se non quando si puo ritenere lo 
alitare; Come molti stie I4 no con istrumeto 
alquato sotto 1' acque; Come e perche io 
non scrivo il mio modo di I5 star sotto 
1'acqua, quato io posso star sanza man- 
giare, e questo no publico o diuolgo per 
le ma l0 le nature delli omini, Ji quali vse- 
rebbero li assasinameti ne' fondi de' mari 

How an army ought to cross rivers by 
swimming with air-bags . . . How fishes 
swim [2] ; of the way in which they jump 
out of the water, as may be seen with 
dolphins; and it seems a wonderful thing 
to make a leap from a thing which does not 
resist but slips away. Of the swimming of 
animals of a long form, such as eels and 
the like. Of the mode of swimming against 
currents and in the rapid falls of rivers. Of 
the mode of swimming of fishes of a round 
form. How it is that animals which have not 
long hind quartres cannot swim. How it is that 
all other animals which have feet with toes, 
know by nature how to swim, excepting man. 
In what way man ought to learn to swim. 
Of the way in which man may rest on the 
water. How man may protect himself 
against whirlpools or eddies in the water, 
which drag him down. How a man dragged 
to the bottom must seek the reflux which 
will throw him up from the depths. How 
he ought to move his arms. How to swim 
on his back. How he can and how he can- 
not stay under water unless he can hold his 
breath[i3]. How by means of a certain ma- 
chine many people may stay some time under 
water. How and why I do not describe my 
method of remaining under water, or how 
long I can stay without eating; and I do not 
publish nor divulge these by reason of the 
evil nature of men who would use them as 

32. Mattale. 33. riesscie. 35. acque]. 36. effatto. 37. essperietia. 38. chessia. 39. chol. 40. charicho. 45. dere . . 
M"a". 47. a "o"gni. 48. cho. 49. essia. 50. c"j"colo ogrande star. 51. do ollugho. 52. obbasso. 

1114. i. otricolli lessercito . . pa. 2. pessci. 3. adalfini. 4. fuge. 5. essimili De. 6. pessci. 7. nona. 8. colle chcllomo 
riposarsi lomo sopra. io. delle revertigini. io. ctielli tirano. n. refresso . . che gitti. 12. passegare colle br . . Come 
e non. 13. si postar . . quanto si po. 14. isscrivo. 15. qi ato tposso . . magare ecquesto. 16. vserebono. 17. son- 

52. Leonardo does not reveal the method in- 
vented by him. 

1114. 2. Compare No. 821. 

1.. 13 19 will also be found in Vol. I No. i. 



col ronpere I7 i navili in fondo, e sommer- 
gierli insieme colli omini che ui son dentro, 
e beche io insegni l8 delli altri, quelli no 
son di pericolo, perche di sopra all'acqua 
apparisce la bocca della canna, 'S 
alitano, posta sopra li otri o sughero. 

means of destruction at the bottom of the. sea, 
by sending ships to the bottom, and sinking 
them together with the men in them. And 
although I will impart others, there is no 
danger in them; because the mouth of the 
tube, by which you breathe, is above the 
water supported on bags or corks [19]. 

Ash. II. 4 6] 

Se sara in pugnia naui e galee , es- 
sendo vincitori le naui per le loro alte 
gaggie, 2 si de' tirare 1' antena -per Isino 
quasi alia sommita 
dell'albero, 3 e abbi 
nella stremita di detta 
atena, cioe quella ch' e 
sporta sopra * il nemi- 
co, appiccato va gag- 
gietta fasciata, e di 
sotto e ditorno uno 
5 grosso materasso 
pieno di babagia, ac- 

Supposing in a battle between ships and On naval 
galleys that the ships are victorious by reason ( Ir ^ s arf iii 6 ) 
of the high of their tops, you must haul the yard 
up almost to the top 
of the mast, and at 
the extremity of the 
yard, that is the end 
which is turned tow T 
ards the enemy, have 
a small cage fastened, 
wrapped up below and 
all round in a great 
mattress full of cotton 

cio no sia offesa dalle bobardelle, 6 poi tira 
col'argano 1 basso 1'opposita parte d'fessa 
antena, e la gaggia 7 O pposita andra tato 

in alto , ch' ella di gra luga avazera la 
gaggia de! 8 la nave, e potrassi facilmete 
cacciare li omini che detro ui sono; 9 ma 
bisognia che gli omini che sono nella galea 

vadino dall'opposita banda, I0 accio-fac- 
cino contrapeso al carico delli omini posti 
detro alia gaggia "della antena. 

so that 'it may not be injured by the bombs; 
then, with the capstan, haul down the oppo- 
site end of this yard and the top on the oppo- 
site side will go up so high , that it will be far 
above the round-top of the ship, and you will 
easily drive out the men that are in it. But 
it is necessary that the men who are in the 
galley should go to the opposite side of it so 
as to afford a counterpoise to the weight of 
the men placed inside the cage on the yard. 

mergierli . . ebece. 18. aparissce la bocha. 19. ossugero. 

1115. i. sara . . gagie. 2. si de [mettere] tirare . . somita. 3. abi . . Itena . . che [apichata] sporta. 4. apichato va gagietta 
fassciatta . . dltoruo dino. 6. chol . . ella gagia. 7. oposita andera . . gagia de. 8. chaciare. 9. chessono . . ghalea . - 
daloposita. io. chontrapeso . . charicho . . gagia. n. antena. 



Ah. II. 6] 


Se vuoli fare vna armata marittima, vsa 
di questi navili per sfondareUe navi, 2 cio6 
fa navili di 100 pie, e larghi piedi 8, ma 
fa che i remi sinistri abino i loro 
nel lato destro del na- 
vilio, e cosl i destri nel 
sinistro come appare in 
M, accioch& lo lieve de' 
remi *sia piv lugo , e 
detto navilio sia grosso 
pie uno e l / 2 - cio6 fatto 

If you want to build an armada for the 
sea employ these ships to ram in the enemy's 
ships. That is, make ships 100 feet long 
and 8 feet wide, but arranged so that the 
left hand rowers may t have 
their oars to the right side 
of the ship, and the right 
hand ones to the left side, 
as is shown at M, so that 
the leverage of the oars 
may be longer. And the 

di travi fermi di 5 fuori e di detro con asse 
con cotrari liniameti; e questo navilio avra, 

said'ship may be one foot and a half thick, that 
is made with cross beams within and without, 

sotto 6 l'acqua vn piede, appiccato vno 
sputone ferrato di peso e grossezza d'un 

with planks in' contrary directions. And this 
ship must have attached to it, a foot below the 

'n6. J. isfondare. a. cheremi . . ilor. 3. nelato". . sinistro "come apare in M" aciochelo. 4. sieno piv luge . . pie 1 e . . 
facto di trav ferm. 5. fori . . chon asse cho cotrari . . navilio avc sotto. 6. lacq"a" vn piedi apuchato . . feralo adi 

Ill/ 1119.] 



acudi 7 ne e questo per forza di remi potra, 
dato il primo colpo, tornare idirietro, 8 e 
co furia ricacciarsi inati e dare il colpo 
secodo, e poi il terzo, e tati che ropa 
detto navilio. 

water, an iron-shod spike of about the weight 
and size of an anvil; and this, by force of 
oars may, after it has given the first blow, be 
drawn back, and driven forward again with 
fury give a second blow, and then a third, 
and so many as to destroy the other ship. 

B. 8i<5] 



Bisognia avere va vesta 2 di corame 
ch'abbi doppio i labri del petto per spatio 
d' vno dito, e cosl sia doppio 3 dalla citura 
Tsino al ginocchio , 
e sia corame si euro 
dallo esalare ; E 
quado 4 bisognasse 
saltare I mare , sgo- 
fia per li labri del 
petto le code del 
tuo vestito, s e salta 
in mare , e lasciati 
guidare all' onde ; 
quado no vedi vi- 
cina riva, 6 ne abbi 
notitia del mare , e 

ti ni sempre I bocca la canna dell' aria che 
va nel vestito, ?e quado per una volta o 
2 ti bisognasse trare dell' aria comvne, e 
la schiuma t'inpedisce, 8 tira per bocca di 
quella del vestito. 


Have a coat made of leather, which must The use of 
be double across the breast, that is having a SW bS!" s 
hem on each side of about a finger breadth. 
Thus it will be double 
from the waist to 
the knee; and the 
leather must be quite 
air-tight. When you 
want to leap into the 
sea, blow out the 
skirt of your coat 
through the double 
hems of the breast; 
and jump into the sea, 
and allow yourself 
to be carried by the 

waves; when you see no shore near, give 
your attention to the sea you are in, and 
always keep in your mouth the air-tube which 
leads down into the coat; and if now and 
again you require to take a breath of fresh 
air, and the foam 'prevents you, you may 
draw a breath of the air within the coat. 

s. K. M. m. 25 


Se '1 mare si pesa sul suo fondo, 2 vn 
omo, che giacesse sopra esso 3 fondo e 
avesse 1000 braccia d' acqua 4 a dosso, 
n'avrebbe a scoppiare. 

If the weight of the sea bears on its bottom, On the 
a man, lying on that bottom and having v ^ te | 
1000 braccia of water on his back, would 
have enough to crush him. 

C. A. 7 a; 19 a] 

D'andar sotto acqua; 

2 Modo di caminare 3 sopra 1' acqua. 


Of walking under water. 
Method of walking on water. 

Diving appa- 
ratus ;md 

peso . . grosseza. 7. ecquesto . . forza adi remi . . Tdirieto. 8. richaciarsi. 

1117. 2. dopio . ."peto perispatio dono . . dopio. 3. aginochio essiasicuro dello. 4. biscognassi . . schofia. 5. essalta imare ellassciati . . 
visina. 6. abi . . ettieni . . bocha la cana. 7. per I . . bisognassi trare dellaria partly indistinct i sciuma tlpedissi. 8. boca. 

1118. 2. diaciessi. 3. avessi 1000 br dacu 4 asscopiare. ing. 2. chomin. 3. sop acq"a". 

1117. AMORETTI, Memorie Storiche, Tav. II. B. 
Fig. 5, gives the same figure, somewhat altered. 
6. La canna del? aria. Compare Vol. I. No. I. Note. 

ing. The two sketches belonging to this passage 
are given by AMORETTI, Memorie Storiche. Tav. II, 
Fig. 3 and 4. 




Aih. II. 


Siccome per lo fivme ghiacciato uno omo 
corre 2 sanza mvtatione di piedi , cosl vn 
carro fia 'possibile fare che corra per se 

Just as on a frozen river a man may run 
without moving his feet, so a car might be 
made that would slide by itself. 

s. K. M. in. 46*1 


Definitione perch vno 2 che sdrucciola 
sopra il ghiaccio 3 no cade. 

A definition as to why a man who slides 
on ice does not fall. 

On Flying 


(i 122 1126) 

Mz. 3 a (6)J 

L'uomo ne' volatili a a stare libero 
dalla cintura insu 2 per potersi bili- 
care > come fa in barca accid che '1 
ce^tro della grauita di lui e dello 
strumeto si possa ^bilicare e trasmu- 
tarsi, dove necessita il dimada salla 
mutatione del centre della sua resi- 


Man when flying must stand free 
from the waist upwards so as to be able 
to balance himself as he does in a boat 
so that the centre of gravity in him- 
self and in the machine may counter- 
balance each other, and be shifted as 
necessity demands for the changes of 
its centre of resistance. 

Mz. i2<i (16)] 


Ricordati siccomejl tuo vccello non debbe 
imitare 2 altro che '1 pipistrello per cavsa che 
i pannicoli fano 3armadura over collegatione 
alle armadure, cioe ma 4 estre delle ali; 

Remember that your flying machine must 
imitate no other than the bat, because the 
web is what by its union gives the armour, 
or strength to the wings. 

5E se tu imitassi Palie delli vccelli pen- 
nvti, esse 6 son di piv potete nervatura, per 
essere esse 7 traforate cioe che le lor penne 
so disunite e passa 8 te dall'aria; Ma il pipi- 
strello e aivtato dal pannisculo che lega il 
tutto, e non e traforato. 

If you imitate the wings of feathered 
birds, you will find a much stronger structure, 
because they are pervious; that is, their feathers 
are separate and the air passes through them. 
But the bat is aided by the web that connects 
the whole and is not pervious. 

iiao. i. sichome . . diacciato 1 omo core. z. chosi vn charo. 3. possiuile. 3. chora. 
1131. i. definition. 2. strusi . . diaccio. 

nw. i. volatili asstare. 2. barcha. 4. bilichare e strassmutarsi. 5. ressistetia. 

1133. ' sichome. 2. pipisstrello . . chavsa che panichuli. 3. chollcgacione . . coe. 4. esstre . . alie. 5. essettu. 6. enervatura 
* 7. coe chelle . . eppassa. 9. chulo chellega. 

1120. The drawings of carts by the side of this ziai. An indistinct sketch accompanies the pas- 

text have no direct connection with the problem as sage, in the original, 
stated in words. Compare No. 1448, 1. 17. 

1124 1 1 26.] 



Mz. 9* ('3)1 



2 Puo accadere la ruina di tali strumeti 
per 2 modi, de' quali 3il primo e del 
ronpersi lo strumeto, secondario fia qua^do 
lo strumento si uoltasse per taglio o vicino 
a esso taglio, Sperche senpre debbe di- 
scendere per grande obbliquita e quasi 
6 per la linia dell'equalita; In quanto al 
primo, 7 del ronpersi lo strumeto, si ripa- 
rera col farlo di somma for 8 tezza, per 
qualunche linia esso si potesse voltare, e 
assai distante 1'un centro dall'altro, cioe 
ne! 9 lo strumeto di 30 braccia di lunghezza 
essi centri sieno distanti 4 braccia 1'un 


Destruction to such a machine may occur 
in two ways ; of which the first is the breaking 
of the machine. The second would be when 
the machine should turn on its edge or nearly on 
its edge, because it ought always to descend 
in a highly oblique direction, and almost 
exactly balanced on its centre. As regards 
the first the breaking of the machine ,that 
may be prevented by making it as strong as 
possible ; and in whichever direction it may 
tend to turn over, one centre must be very 
far from the other; that is, in a machine 30 
braccia long the centres must be 4 braccia 
one from the other. 

Mz. 13 a\ 


Baghe dove 1'omo in 6 braccia 2 d'al- 
tezza cadendo no si fac- 
cia male, 3 cadendo cosl 
in acqua come 4 in terra; 
e queste baghe leSgate 
a vso di paternostri s' avvo! 6 gino altrui ad- 

Bags by which a man falling from a height 
of 6 braccia may avoid 
hurting himself, by a fall 
whether into water or on 
the ground; and these 

bags , strung together like a rosary, are to 

be fixed on one's back. 

C. A. 37 25; 1158 ] 


Tata forza si fa colla cosa icotro al- 
1'aria, quato 1'aria alia cosa; 2 Vedi 1'alie 
percosse cotro all' aria fanno sostenere la 
pesante aquila sulla suprema sottile aria 3vi- 
cina all'elemeto del fuoco; Ancora vedi la 
mossa aria sopr'al mare ripercossa 4 nelle 
gofiate vele far correr la carica e pesate 
nave; siche per queste demostrastive e as- 
segnate ragioni potrai conosciere 1'uomo 
colle sua cogiegniate e gradi ale, 6 facciedo 
forza cotro alia resistete aria, vincedo po- 
terla soggiogare a Ie 7 varsi sopra di lei. 

An object offers as much resistance to 
the air as the air does to the object. You 
may see that the beating of its wings against 
the air supports a heavy eagle in the 
highest and rarest atmosphere, close to the 
sphere of elemental fire. Again you may 
see the air in motion over the sea, fill the 
swelling sails and drive heavily laden ships. 
From these instances, and the reasons 
given, a man with wings large enough and 
duly connected might learn to overcome the 
resistance of the air, and by conquering it, 
succeed in subjugating it and rising above it. 

1124. i. pericholo. 2. achadere . . tale. 3. sechondario. 4. losstrumento si uoltassi. 4. vicico. 5. disscendere. 7. losstrumeto. 
8. teza. 8. potessi . . disstante . . coe. 9. br di lungeza . . 4 br lii. 

1125. i. 6 br. 2. dalteza . . facca. 3. chedendo. 4. ecque,te. 5. paternosstri savol. 6. glino . . adosso. 

1126. i. [vo] tata . . cholla chosa I chotro . . chosa. 2. perchosse chotro . . fassosstenere . . sulla "suplema" sottile. 3. fuocho 
Anchora . . riperchossa. 4. ghofiate . . chorrer la charicha . . qsste [asse] demosstra. 5. chonossciere . . cholle . . cho- 
giegniate. 6. chotro . . resisstete aria [potersi e] e vincedo poterla sogiogare alle. 

1124. Compare No. 1428. 

1126. A parachute is here sketched, with 
an explanatory remark. It is reproduced on 
Tav. XVI in the Saggio, and in : Leonardo da Vinci 

ah Ingenieur etc., Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der 
Technik und der indiiktiven Wissenschaften , von Dr. 
Hermann Groihe, Berlin 1874, p. 50. 



[1127. 1128. 

Of mining. 

Ash. II. 4") 


Se tu vuoi sapere doue una caua 
faccia suo corso, metti vno taburo 2 in tutti 
quelli lochi, dove tu sospetti si facci la 
cava , e sopra detto tabu^ro metti vno 
pajo di dadi -, e quado sarai apresso al 
loco dove si caua, i dadi risalneranno 
alquato sopra del taburo per lo colpo che 
si da sotto terra nel cavare. 

If you want to know where a mine runs, 
place a drum over all the places where you 
suspect that it is being made, and upon this 
drum put a couple of dice, and when you 
are over the spot where they are mining, the 
dice will jump a little on the drum at every 
blow which is given underground in the 





sSono alcuni che per auere comodita 
d'u fiume o di padule 6 alle lor terre, anno 
fatto apresso di quel loco, doue sospettano 
si faccia 7 la cava, vno gra riserbo d'aqua, 
e cauato in cotra il nemi 8 co e, quel tro- 
uato, anno sboccato il bottino e annegato 
nella 9 cava gra popolo. 

There are persons who, having the con- 
venience of a river or a lake in their lands, 
have made, close to the place where they 
suspect that a mine is being made, a great 
reservoir of water, and have countermined 
the enemy, and having found them, have 
turned the water upon them and destroyed a 
great number in the mine. 

Tr. 48) 



2 Tolli carbon di salcio, e sale nitro, e 
or Greek acquavite , e sulfore , 3 pegola con icieso, 
e cafora, e lana etiopica e fa bollire ogni 
cosa isieme ; questo fuoco e di tanto desi- 



Take charcoal of willow, and saltpetre, 
and sulphuric acid, and sulphur, and pitch, 
with frankincense and camphor, and Ethiopian 
wool, and boil them all together. This 

1197. i. settu vuoli . . * cha faccia . . chorso. a. tussosspetti . . essopra. 3. vno pa di. 4. terano . . chessi da . . tera. $. cho- 

modita. 6. tere . . facci. 7. riserbo daq"a" e chauato. 8. ano isboccato . . anegatti. 
1138. T. fuocho grecho. 2. charbon di salco essale . . essulfore. 3. chafera elana etiopicha effa. 4. onichosa . . focbo . . dessi- 

1 1 29.] 



derio di bruSciare, che seguita il legniame 
sin sotto 1'acque; 6 e se aggivgnierai in 
essa conpositione vernice liquida, ?e olio 
petrolio, e tremetina, e acieto forte, 
mischia 8 ogni cosa isieme, e secca al sole 
o nel forno quado n'e trat^to'l pane, e 
poi volta intorno alia stoppa di canapa o 
altra, I0 riduciedola in forma rotonda, e 
ficcati da ogni pa IT rte i chiodi acutissi- 
mi, solamete lascia I detta palla vn I2 buco 
come razzo; poi la copri di colofonio e 
di solfo; 

13 Ancora questo foco appiccato in 
sommita d'una lunga asta, J Ua quale 
abbi uno braccio di puta di ferro 
accio no sia bruciato da det I5 to foco, 
e bono per evitare e proibire Ifra le 
naui ostili, per I6 non essere sopra- 
fatti _da Ipito; 

I7 Acora gittati vasi di uetro pieni di 
pegola sopra I8 li aversi navili, itendenti 
li omini di quelli alia battaglia , ^e poi 
gittato dirieto simili palle accese anno 
poteza a brucia 20 re ogni navilio. 

fire is so ready to burn that it clings to 
the timbers even under water. And add 
to this composition liquid varnish, and bitu- 
minous oil, and turpentine and strong 
vinegar, and mix all together and dry it in 
the sun, or in an oven when the bread 
is taken out; and then stick it round hempen 
or other tow, moulding it into a round form, 
and studding it all over with very sharp 
nails. You must leave in this ball an 
opening to serve as a fusee, and cover it 
with rosin and sulphur. 

Again, this fire, stuck at the top of 
a long plank which has one braccio 
length of the end pointed with iron 
that it may not be burnt by the said 
fire, is good for avoiding and keeping 
off the ships, so as not to be over- 
whelmed by their onset. 
Again throw vessels of glass full of pitch 
on to the enemy's ships when the men 
in them are intent on the battle; and then by 
throwing similar burning balls upon them you 
have it in your power to burn all their ships. 



Tanburo di tacche, fregate 2 da rote di 
molle ; 

A drum with cogs working by wheels with O f Music 
springs [2]. (" 2 9- "3)- 

derio. 5. sare che seghuita ilegniame . . lacq"e". 6. esse agivg . . chonpositione. 7. eraiscia. 8. oni . . essechai . . ne 
forno quado ne tra. 9. e po volta . . ala stopa. 10. retonda efficchati da ongni. n. achutissimi lassa Tdetta balla. 12. buso 
chomaraza poi . . colofonia. 13. quessto . . appichato in somita . . asste. 14. abi 5 br di . . fefo acio . . brusato da de 
15. eviare . . ne nave. 17. gittate. 18. Itenti . . queli ala. 19. gitato . . simile . . acese ano poteza a brusa. 20. oni. 
nag. 2. molle. 5. cholla. 8. coe. 9. sicorae. 10. fa boci. 13. quesste. 16. uoce. 17. tassti . . esserrano bichi di gra disstatie 

1128. Venturi has given another short text about 
the Greek fire in a French translation (Essai % XIV). 
He adds that the original text is to be found in 
MS. B. 30 (?). Libri speaks of it in a note as follows 
(Histoire des sciences mathematiques en Italie Vol. II 
p. 129): La composition du feu grlgeois est ttne des 
chases qui ont ete les plus cherchtes et qui sont encore les 
plus douteuses. On dit qu'il fut invente au septieme 
siecle de fere chretienne par Varchitede Callinique (Con- 
stantini Porphyrogenetae opera, Lugd. Batav. 1617, 
z'-8 vo ; p. 172, de admin, imper.exp. 48), et il se trouve 
louvent mentionne par les Historiens Byzantins. Tantbt 
on le langait avec des machines, comme on lancerait une 
bouche, tantot on le soufflait avec de longs tubes, comme 
on soufflerait un gaz ou un liquide enflamme (Annae 
Comnenae Alexias, p. 335, lib. XL Aeliani et Leonis, 
imperatoris tactica, Lugd.-Bat. 1613, in-4. part. 2 n , 
p. 322, Leonis tact. cap. 19. Joinville, histoire du Saint 
Louis colled. Petitot torn. II, p. 235). Les ecrivains 
contemporains disent que I'eau ne pouvait pas eteindre ce 
feu, mais qu'avec du vinaigre et du sable on y parvenait. 


Suivant quelques historiens le feu gregeois etait compose 
de soufre et de resine. Marcus Graecus (Liber ignium, 
Paris, 1 804, in-4) donne plusieurs manieres de le faire 
qui ne sont pas tres intelligibles , mais parmi lesquelles 
on trouve la composition de la poudre a canon. Leonard 
de Vinci (MSS. de Leonard de Vinci, vol. B. f. 30^ dit 
git 1 on le faisait avec du charbon de saule, du salpetre, de 
I'eau de vie, de la resine f du soufre, de la poix et du 
camphre. Mais il est probable que nous ne savons pas 
qu'elle etait sa composition, surtout a cause du secret 
qrfen faisaient les Grecs. En effet, Fempereur Constantin 
Porphyrogenete recommende a son fils de ne jamais 
en donner aux Barbares , et de leur ripondre, s'ils en 
demand^ient, qrfil avail ete apporte du del par un ange 
et que le secret en avait ete confie aux Chrltiens (Con- 
stantini Porphyrogennetae opera, p. 26 27, de admin, 
imper., cap. 12). 

1129. This chapter consists of explanations of the 
sketches shown on PL CXXI. Lines I and 2 of the text 
are to be seen at the top at the left hand side of 
the first sketch of a drum. Lines 3 5 refer to the 




[II30. II3I. 

JTanburo quadro, del quale 4 si tira e 
allenta la sua carsta colla lieua a b\ 

6 Tanburo a cosonaza; 

?Vna tabella a cosona 8 za, cio6 3 tabellc 

^Siccome vn medesimo 10 tanburo fa 
voci "graui e acute, I2 secondo le carte piu 
o me 1J tirate, cos) queste carte, ' 'variamente 
tirate sopra 'Svn medesimo corpo di ta- 
I0 buro, fara uarie uoci; 

'7Tasti stretti e serrano; bicchi di gra 
clistatie infra loro, l8 e sono al proposito 
della tronba prossima di sopra; 

'90 entri in loco dell'ordinarie posite 
ao che anno i partici ne' lor busi de' zufoli. 

A square drum of which the parchment may 
be drawn tight or slackened by the lever a b{^\. 

A drum for harmony [6]. 

[7] A clapper for harmony; that is, three 
clappers together. 

[9] Just as one and the same drum makes 
a deep or acute sound according as the parch- 
ments are more or less tightened, so these 
parchments variously tightened on one and 
the same drum will make various sounds [i 6]. 

Keys narrow and close together; (bicchi) 
far apart; these will be right for the trumpet 
shown above. 

a must enter in the place of the ordinary 

keys which have the in the openings 

of a flute. 

llr. M. 136*] II3 O ' 

Tanpani sona 2 ti come il mo^nacordo 4 o 
voi dolzeSmele;- 

6 Qui si fa una rotadi canne 
a vso 7 di tabelle con vn circulo 
mvsicale det 8 to canone, che si 
canta a quattro e ^ciascu can- 
tore canta tutta la rota, e pero 
10 fo io qui vna rota co 4 denti 
che ogni "dente per se fa 1'ofitio d'un 

225? ?> 

Tymbals to be played like the monochord, 

or the soft flute. 

[6] Here there is to be a 
cylinder of cane after the 
manner of clappers with a mu- 
sical round called a Canon, 
which is sung in four parts; each 
singer singing the whole round. 

Therefore I here make a wheel with 4 teeth 

so that each tooth takes by itself the part 

of a singer. 

B. 4 a] 

Pani biachi e cielesti, 
2 tessuti a scacchi -5 per 
fare uno apparecchio; 

* Pani tirati s in a b 
c-d-e-f'g-h'i' k; 
6 da fa?re uno ciclo a uno 
ap 8 parecchio. 




> L. . 1. m 

White and sky-blue 
cloths, woven in checks 
to make a decoration. 

Cloths with the threads 
drawn at a b c d e f g 
h i k, to go round the 

infrallo. 19. illoco . . posste. 1130. 6. channe . . circul. 7. chon. 8. chessi . . acquattro he. 

1131. 2. schachi. 3. i aparechio. 6. daffa. 7. re i cielo a i a. 8. parechio. 

sketch immediately below this. Line 6 is written as 
the side of the seventh sketch, and lines 7 and" 8 at 
the side of the eighth. Lines 9 16 are at the 
bottom in the middle. The remainder of the text 
is at the side of the drawing at the bottom. 

1130. In the original there are some more 
sketches, to which the text, from line 6, refers. 
They are studies for a contrivance exactly like the 
cylinder in our musical boxes. 


Philosophical Maxims. Morals. Polemics and 


Vasari indulges in severe strictures on Leonardo's religious views. He speaks, 
among other things, of his "capricci nel filosofar delle cose natural!" and says on this 
point: "Per il che fece nell'animo un concetto si eretico che e' non. si accostava a qualsi 
voglia religione, stimando per avventura assai piu lo esser filosofo che cristiano" (see the 
first edition of 'Le Vite'/ But this accusation on the part of a writer in the days of 
the Inquisition is not a very serious one and the less so, since, throughout the manu- 
scripts, we find nothing to support it. 

Under the heading of "Philosophical Maxims''' I have collected all the passages 
wJiich can give us a clear comprehension of Leonardo's ideas of the world at large. 
It is scarcely necessary to observe that there is absolutely nothing in them to lead to 
the inference that he was an atheist. His views of nature and its laws are no doubt 
very unlike those of his contemporaries, and have a much closer affinity to those which 
find general acceptance at the present day. On the 'other hand, it is obvioiis from 
Leonardo's will (see No. 1566^ that, in the year before his death, he had professed to 
adhere to the fundamental doctrines of the Roman Catholic faith, and this evidently 
from his own personal desire and impulse. 

The incredible and demonstrably fictitious legend of Leonardo's death in the arms 
of Francis the First, is given, with others, by Vasari and further embellished by this 
odious comment: "Mostrava tuttavia quanto avea offeso Dio e gli uomini del mondo, non 
avendo operato nell' arte come si conveniva." This last accusation, it may be remarked, 
is above all evidence of the superficial character of the information which Vasari was 
in a position to give about Leonardo. It seems to imply that Leonardo was disdainful 
of diligent labour. With regard to the second, referring to Leonardo's morality and 
dealings with his fellow men, Vasari himself nullifies it by asserting the very contrary 
in several passages. A further refutation may be found in the following sentence from 


tJie Utter in which Melzi, the young Milanese nobleman, announces the Master's death 
to Leonardo's brothers: Credo siate certificati della morte di Maestro Lionardo fratello 
vostro, e mio quanto optimo padre, per la cui morte sarebbe impossibile che io potesse 
esprimere il dolore che io ho preso; e in mentre che queste mia membra si sosterranno 
insieme, io possedero una perpetua infelicita, e meritamente perche sviscerato et arden- 
tissimo amore mi portava giornalmente. E dolto ad ognuno la perdita di tal uomo, 
quale non e piu in podesta della natura, ecc. 

// is true that, in April 1476, we find the names of Leonardo and Verrocchio 
entered in the "Libro degli Uffiziali di notte e de' Monasteri" as breaking the laws; 
but we immediately after find the note "Absoluti cum condizione ut retamburentur" 
(Tamburini was the name given to the warrant cases of the night police). The acquittal 
therefore did not exclude the possibility of a repetition of the charge. It was in fact 
repeated, two months later, and on this occasion the Master and his pupil were again 
fully acquitted. Verrocchio was at this time forty and Leonardo four-and-twenty. 
The documents referring to this affair are in the State Archives of Florence ; they have 
been withheld from publication, but it seemed to me desirable to give the reader this 
brief account of the leading facts of the story, as the vague hints of it, which have 
recently been made public, may have given to the incident an aspect .which it had not 
in reality, and which it does not deserve. 

The passages here classed under the head "Morals" reveal Leonardo to us as a 
man whose life and conduct were unfailingly governed by lofty principles and aims. He 
could scarcely have recorded his stern reprobation and unmeasured contempt for men 
who do nothing useful and strive only for riches, if his own life and ambitions had 
been such as they have so often been misrepresented. 

At a period like that, when superstition still exercised unlimited dominion 
over the minds not merely of the illiterate crowd, but of the cultivated and learned 
classes, it was very natural that Leonardo's views as to Alchemy , Ghosts, Magicians, 
and the like should be met with stern reprobation whenever and wherever he may have 
expressed them; this accounts for the argumentative tone of all his utterances on such 
subjects which I have collected in Subdivision HI of this section. To these I have 
added some passages which throw light on Leonardo's personal views on the Universe. 
They are, without exception, characterised by a broad spirit of naturalism of which 
the principles are more strictly applied in his essays on Astronomy, and still more on 
Physical Geography. 

To avoid repetition, only such notes on PhilosopJiy, Morals and Polemics, have been 
included in this section as occur as independent texts in the original MSS. Several 
moral reflections have already been given in Vol. I, in section "Allegorical represen- 
tations, Mottoes and Emblems'". Others will de found in the following section. Nos. 9 
to 12, Vol. I, arc also passages of an argumentative character. It did not seem 
requisite to repeat here these and similar passages, since their direct connection zvith 
t/ie context is far closer in places where they have appeared already, than it would 
be here. 

S. K. M. III. 64 1] 



Io t'ubidisco, Signore, prima per 1'a- I obey Thee Lord, first for the love I Pra ^ r d s to 

2 more che ragionevolmente portare 3 ti debo, ought, in all reason to bear Thee; secondly (ii 32 . n 33 ). 

secodariamente che tu sai 4 a bbreviare o for that Thou canst shorten or prolong the 

prolungare le uite Sali omini. lives of men. 

W. An. IV. i 7 2<r] H33 

2 Tu o Iddio ci vendi 3tutti li beni per 


prez 4 zo di fatica.H 

Thou, O God, dost sell us all good things 
at the price of labour. 



O mirabile givstitia di te, primo motore, O admirable impartiality of Thine, Thou T ^ f e N p a t ^ r e e rs 

tu non ai voluto macare a nessuna first Mover; Thou hast not permitted that (11341139). 

2 potetia F ordine e qualita de' sua necies- any force should fail of the order or quality 

sari effetti. of its necessary results. 

S. K. M. III. 49 a] "35- 

La neciessita e maestra 2 e tutrice 
della natura ; 

3 La neciessita e tema e in^ventrice 
della natura Se freno e regola eterna. 

Necessity is the mistress and guide of 

Necessity is the theme and the inventress, 
the eternal curb and law of nature. 

1138. 3. sechondaria. 4. abrieviere. H33- 2- "tu" | o idio [che] ci vende. 3. per pre. 4. faticha. 

1134. J - machare a nessuna [creata chosa]. 2. "equalita" de sua. 

1135. i. he maesstra. 2. ettutrice. 3. ettema. 5. effrno. 




Tr. 75) 


Molte volte una medesima cosa e tirata In many cases one and the same thing 

da2violetie, * cioe neciessita e potentia ; is attracted by two strong forces, namely 

i i~, ~ K:,, Necessity and Potency. Water falls in rain; 

1'acuua oiove, la terra lassorbisce, 3 per j> . ] 

r the earth absorbs it from the necessity for 

neciessiU d'omore-, e '1 sole la sveglie no moisture; and the sun evaporates it, not from 

per neciessita, ma per potetia. necessity, but by its power. 

s. K. M. n.a 43< i) "37- 

La gravita, la forza e'l moto acciden- 

tale insieme co! 2 la percussione son le gether with resistance , are the 

quatro accidentali potentie , 3 colle quali nal powers in which all 

tutte 1' euidenti opere de' mortali 4 anno- actions of mortals have their 
loro essere e loro morte. 

Weight, force and casual impulse, to- 

four exter- 
the visible 
being and 
their end. 

Tr. 70] 


Till corpo nostro e sottoposto al cielo, 
e lo cielo e sottoposto allo spirito.1 

Our body is dependant on heaven and 
heaven on the Spirit. 

H.3 93*1 

II moto e causa d' ogni vita. 


The motive power is the cause of all life. 



E tu uomo, che consideri in questa 
Psychology 2 mia fatica 1' opere mirabili della ^natura, 
("40 "47)- se giudicherai essere cosa *nefanda il dis- 
truggerla, or pesa 5 essere cosa nefandis- 
sima il torre la 6 vita all' omo, del quale, 
se questa ?sua copositione ti pare di ma- 
rauiglio 8 so artifitio, pensa questa essere 
9nulla rispetto all' anima che in I0 tale 
architettura abita, e vera'Mnente, quale 
essa si sia, ella e I2 cosa diuina, sicche lascia 
X 3la abitare nella sua opera a suo be I4 ne- 
placito, e no volere che la tua j sira o 
malignita distrugga l6 una tata vita, che 
ve^ramete, chi non la l8 stima, non la 

And you, O Man, who will discern in 
this work of mine the wonderful works of 
Nature, if you think it would be a criminal 
thing to destroy, it, reflect how much more 
criminal it is to take the life of a man; and 
if this, his external form, appears to thee 
marvellously constructed, remember that it is 
nothing as compared with the soul that 
dwells in that structure; for that indeed, be 
it what it may, is a thing divine. Leave it 
then to dwell in His work at His good 
will and pleasure, and let not your rage 
or malice destroy a life for indeed, he 
who does not value it, does not himself de- 
serve it [19]. 

1136. i. volte ya medesima chosa ettirata. 2. losorbisscie. 3. sole lassuele. 

1137. i- cbol. 3. cholli . . tucte. 4. clloro. 

1138. i. essottoposto. 2. cllo . . essottoposto. 

1139. ^- chausa. 

1140. i.' quessta. 3. gudicherai. 4. desstrugerla. 7. sua co (sa] positions. 12. diuina [sig] che [si) lasscia. 13. a>suo. 
14. chella. 13. distrugha. 17. chi nolla. The list seven lines are very indistinct. 20. si pa"r"te dal. 21. corpo e ben. 
22. reto chol su. 23. o piauto e ch. 24. ore no sia. 25. anza [g] ca. 26. one. 

1140. This text is on the back of the drawings reproduced on PI. CVII. Compare No. 798, 35 note 
on p. II I. Compare also No. 837 and 838. 

19. In MS. I 1 15" is the note: chi no sfima la vita, non la merita. 

1 1 4 1 1 1 46-] PHILOSOPHICAL MAXIMS. 287 

Tr. 78] H4 1 - 

L'anima mai si puo corropere nella The soul can never be corrupted with 

corruttio del corpo, ma fa nel corpo 2 a the corruption of the body, but is in the 

similitudine del ueto che cavsa il suono del body as it were the air which causes the 

organo, 3 C he guastadosi vna canna, no sound of the organ, where when a pipe bursts, 

resultava per quella del ueto ^buono tne wind would cease to have any good 

effetto. effect. 

C. A. s8a; iSort] 

Ogni parte a inclinatio 2 di ricogiugnersi The part always has a tendency to reunite 

al suo 3tutto per fugire dalla 4 sua inper- with its whole in order to escape from its 

fettione ; imperfection. 

s L' anima desidera stare 6 col suo corpo, The spirit desires to remain with its body, 

perche sanza 7 li strumeti organici di tal because, without the organic instruments of 

8 corpo nulla puo operare ^ne setire. that body, it can neither act, nor feel anything. 

C. A. 75<z; 2iga] 

Chi vuole vedere come 1' anima abita If any one wishes to see how the soul 

nel suo 2 corpO', guardi come esso corpo dwells in its body, let him observe how this 

vsa la 3 S ua cotidiana abitatione, cioe se body uses its daily habitation; that is to say, 

quella *e sanza ordine e confusa, disor- if this is devoid of order and confused, the 

dinasto e cofuso fia il corpo tenvto dalla body will be kept in disorder and confusion 

sua anima. by its soul. 

... i 

Br. M. 278,5] I3t 44- 

Perche vede piv certa la cosa 1'ochio ne' Why does the eye see a thing more clearly 

sogni 2 che colla imaginatione, stando desto? in dreams than with the imagination being awake? 

Tr. 65] "45- 

I sensi sono terrestri, la ragione sta 2 fuor The senses are of the earth ; Reason, 

di quelli, quado cotenpla. stands apart in contemplation. 

Tr. 70] 1146. 

Ogni attione bisognia che s'esercita Every action needs to be prompted by 

2 per moto; a motive. 

3 It Cogniosciere e volere so 2 operationi To know and to will are two operations 

4 vmane;Tl of tne human mind. 

5 Discernere, givdicare, cosigliare 6 sono Discerning, judging, deliberating are acts 

atti vmani. of the human mind. 

1141. i. chorropere . . curuttio . . maffa. 2. assimilitudine . ..chavsa del sono. 3. guasstadosi . . chana. 

1142. 3. tutto [fa] per. 4. inperfectione. 6. chol. 7. orghanici. 

1143. i. vole . . chome. 2. chorpo . . chome esso chorpo. 3. chotidiana . . secquella. 4. chonfusa. 5. chofuso . . chorpo. 

1144. 2. dessto. 

1145. i. teresti. 2. for di quell . . chotempla. 

1146. i. chessesercita. 3. cogniossciere . . operatione. 5. dissciernere . . chosigliare. 

1141. Compare .No. 845. 
. 1145. Compare No. 842. 




Tr. 45) 


Ogni nostra cognitione pricipia da sen- 

All our knowledge has its origin in 
our preceptions. 

Tr. 5.1 IJ 4 8 ' 

Scietia notitia delle cose che sono pos- 


'"sibili, presetie preterite; 2 prescietia notitia 
cose che possi uenire, 3 per6 lento. 

Science is the observation of things pos- 
sible, whether present or past; prescience is 
the knowledge of things which may come 
to pass, though but slowly. 

C. A. 8s<?; 247 a] 


La sperieza, 2 interprete infra 
tiosa natu^ra e la umana specie', ne insegnia 

Experience, the interpreter between forma- 
tive nature and the human race, teaches how 

cio 6 che essa natura infra ^mortali ado- that nature acts among mortals; and being 

pera, 8 da neciessita co^strefta non altri- constrained by necessity cannot act otherwise 

I0 meti operarsi po T1 ssa che la ragio, suo than as reason, which is its helm, requires 

timone, I2 operare le asse I3 gni. her to act. 

S. K. M. III. 8o4] 

La sapietia e figliola della 2 sperietia. 


Wisdom is the daughter of experience. 


La natura e piena d' infinite ragioni 
no furo mai in isperietia. 

che Nature is full of infinite causes that have 

never occured in experience. 

M. 58**] 1152. 

TJLa verita fu sola fi 2 gliola del tenpo.Tf Truth was the only daughter of Time. 

C. A. 151 a; 4491] 


La sperieza no falla mai, ma sol fallano 
i vostri giuditi, promettendosi di quella 
2 efetti tali che ne' uostri esperimeti 
causati no sono; 

3 La sperieza no falla , ma sol fallano i 
vostri giuditi, promettedosi di lei cose, che 
no * sono in sua potesta ; s a torto si lamen- 
tano li omini della sperieza, co somme 
rampogne quella 6 accusano esser fallace, 

Experience never errs; it is only your 
judgments that err by promising themselves 
effects such as are not caused by your 

Experience does not err; only your 
judgments err by expecting from her what 
is not in her power. Men wrongly com- 
plain of Experience; with great abuse they 
accuse her of leading them astray but they set 

1147. i. prccipia. 

1148. i. notiti delle chessono possibile presente. 2. cose che pesi uine che posl uenire. 3. penvlente. 

1149. i. lassperieza. 4. ella. 5. ninsegna. 8. co. ix. chella ragio "suotiraone". 12. hoperare. 12. asegni. 

1150. i dela. 2. sperietia la quale speri. 3. eza here the text breaks off. 

1151. 2. inisperictia. 

1159. i. verita sola fu fi. 2. glola. 

1153. i. vosstri guditi. 2. (tale) effetto | "tale" che ine uosstri . . chausati. 3. essperieza . . massol . . vosstrigiuditi [i quali sa] 
prometa "desi". 5. attorto si lamenta . . della ("innocete" issperieza la quale con some ranpogne. 7. Ma lasciano. 

1 154 1 1 58.] 



7 ma lasciano stare essa sperietia, 8 voltati 
dalle lamentation i contro alia nostra igno- 
ranza, la quale ui 9 fa trascorrere con uostri 
vani e stolti desideri a inprometterui di 
quella cose che no sono I0 in sua potetia, 
"dicendo quella esser fallace; I2 a torto si 
lametan li omini della innocente sperientia , 
quella spesso accusando J 3di fallacia e di 
bugiarde ^dimostrationi. 

Experience aside , turning from it with 
complaints as to our ignorance causing 
us to be carried away by vain and foolish 
desires to promise ourselves, in her name, 
things that are not in her power; saying 
that she is fallacious. Men are unjust in 
complaining of innocent Experience, con- 
stantly accusing her of error and of false 

Mz. i a (3) 


1 La scientia strumentale over machinale 
2 e nobilissima e sopra tutte 1'altre vtilis- 
sima, 3cociosiache mediante quella tutti 

Instrumental or mechanical science is of 
all the noblest and the most useful, seeing 
that by means of this all animated bodies 

li corpi ani 4 mati, che anno moto, fanno tutte that have movement perform all their actions; 

loro operation!, i quali moti Snascono dal and these movements are based on the 

centre della lor grauita che e posto 6 in centre of gravity which is placed in the 

mezzo a parte di pesi disequali, e a questo middle deviding unequal weights, and it has 

?carestia e dovitia di muscoli, ed etia lie- dearth and wealth of muscles and also 

8 va e contralieua. If lever and counter-lever. 





2 La meccanica e il paradiso delle scie- Mechanics are the Paradise of mathe- 

tie matema3tiche , perche co quella si viene matical science , because here we come to 
al frutto matematico. the fruits of mathematics. 

Br. M. 191 al 

A ciascuno strumeto si richiede 
fatto colla sperieza. 

1 esser Every instrument requires to be made by 


W. An. III. 241 a] 


Chi biasima la sorha certezza della 
2 matematica, si pasce di confusione $e mai 
porra silentio 4 alle contraditioni delle soffi- 
Sstiche scietie, colle quali 6 s'inpara vno 
eterno gridore. 

The man who blames the supreme cer- 
tainty of mathematics feeds on confusion, 
and can never silence the contradictions of 
sophistical sciences which lead to an eternal 

G. 956] 5 8 - 

Nessuna certezza delle scietie e, do 2 ve There is no certainty in sciences where 

no si puo applicare 3 vna delle scietie mate- one of the mathematical sciences cannot be 

ma 4 tiche e che non sono vSnite con esse applied, or which are not in relation with these 

matematiche. mathematics. 

8. evoltati . . lamentatione . . ingnoranza. 9. transcorrere co uosstre "vani e" in stolti . . "di quella" chose. 10. in "sua" 
potetia. 12. attorto . . della "inocente" essperientia . . achusando. 13. bugarde. 14. dimostratione. Ma here the 
text breaks off. 

1154. i. Lasscientia. 2. essopra. 3. conco sia che. 4. mati "che annomoto" fanno . . ecquali. 5. nasscano . . possto. 6. mezo 
apparte . . acquesto. 7. charesstia e douitia di mvsscoli. 

1155. i. dela mechanicha. 2. mechanicha. 3. perchche cho . . matema"ticho". 

1156. i. ciasscuno. 2. cholla essperieza. 

1157. i. certeza delle.' 2. matematiche si passce. 3. [e mati] e mai. 

1158. i. certezza "dele scietie" e do. 2. po applichare. 

1155. Compare No. 660, 11. 19 22 (Vol. L, p. 332). 






C. A. 75<; 219 ) 


Chi disputa allegado 1'autorita, non Any one who in discussion relies upon 

adopera lo ingiegno, ma pivtosto la me- authority uses, not his understanding, but 

moria; Ue buone lettere son nate da vn rather his memory. Good culture is born of a 

bono naturale, 4 e perche si de' piv laudare good disposition; and since the cause is more 

la cagio che 1'effetto, spiv lauderai vn to be praised than the effect, I will rather 

buon naturale sanza lettere, 6 che vn bon praise a good disposition without culture, 

letterato sanza naturale. than good culture without the disposition. 

1.2 82 rt) 

La scietia e il capitano, e la pratica 
sono i soldati. 


Science is the captain, and practice the 

G. 8*1 




^Quelli che s'inamora di pratica <saza Those who fall in love with practice 

scietia so come ' 1 nocchiere che estra navi- without science are like a sailor who enters 

lio sanza timone e bussola, 6 che mai a a ship without a helm or a compass, and 

certezza dove si vada. who never can be certain whither he is going. 

1159. i. laturita. 2. longiegno. 3. senate. 4. laldare la chagio chelle fetto. 5. lalderni vn bo. 6. literato. 

1160. i. ella pratica. 

1161. i 6 R. i. erore. 2. praticha. 3. chessinnamora di praticha. 4. nochieri. 5. ebbussola. 6. cierteza. 



Br. M. 156 1>\ 


Or vedi la speraza e'l desiderio del 
ripatriarsi 2 e ritornare nel primo caso fa a 
similitudine della farfalla al lume, e I'uomo 
3 che co cotinvi desideri sepre co festa as- 
petta la nvova iprimavera, sempre la nvova 
state, sempre e nvovi mesi, 5 e nvovi anni, 
paredogli che le desiderate cose, venedo, 
6 sieno troppe tarde, E' non s'avede che 
desidera la sua disfazi?one; ma questo 
desiderio e la qultessenza, spirito degli 
ele s menti, che trovadosi rlchivsa per 1'anima 
dallo vmano corpo 9 desidera senpre ritor- 
nare al suo mandatario; IO E uo'che sap- 
pi che questo medesimo desiderio e quella 
quitesseza, "copagnia della natura, e I'u- 
omo e modello dello modo. 

Now you see that the hope and the desire What is life? 
of returning home and to one's former state *" 62 ' II63 ^' 
is like the moth to the light, and that the man 
who with constant longing awaits with joy each 
new spring time, each new summer, each 
new month and new year deeming that the 
things he longs for are ever too late in 
coming does not perceive that he is long- 
ing for his own destruction. But this desire 
is the very quintessence, the spirit of the 
elements , which finding itself imprisoned 
with the soul is ever longing to return from 
the human body to its giver. And you must 
know that this same longing is that quintes- 
sence, inseparable from nature, and that man 
is the image of the world. 

C. A. -joa ; 207 a] 


O tepo, consumatore delle cose, 2 e o 
invidiosa antichita, tu distruggi tutte le 
cose, 3 e consumi tutte le cose da duri deti 
4 della vecchiezza a poco a poco co leta 
5 morte! Elena quando si specchiaua, ve- 
dedo 6 le vizze grinze del suo viso, fatte 
per la vecchi 7 ezza, piagnie e pesa seco, 
perche fu rapita 8 due volte. 

OTime! consumer of all things; O envious 
age ! thou dost destroy all things and devour 
all things with the relentless teeth of years, 
little by little in a slow death. Helen, when 
she looked in her mirror, seeing the withered 
wrinkles made in her face by old age, wept 
and wondered why she had twice been 
carried away. 

1162. i. On tfie margin: pro, meaning probably propositione. 2. lassperaza [del suo] el desidero 2. chas"o" . . assimilitudine 
"dela farfalla alume" dell uomo. 3. cho chotinvi . . cho fessta asspetta. 5. chose. 6. dissfazi. 7. Desidero e ne i [qj la 
quite essenza. 8. peranima dello .... chorpo. 10. chessapi . . qulta eseza. n. chopagnia . . elluomo. 

1163. i. chonsumatore . . chose. 2. disstruggi . . chose. 3. chonsumate . . chose. 4. vecchieza appocho appocho cho. 5. elena 
. . sisspecchiaua. 6. leuzze grinze. 7. eppesa secho. 8. da volte. 9. chonsumatore . . chose. 10. lesono chonsumate. 




*O tepo consumatore delle cose -, e o O Time! consumer of all things, and O 

invidiosa-antichi'ta, per la quale tutte le envious age! by which all things are all 
cose sono consumate! devoured. 

H 33*1 

Ogni danno lascia dispiacere 2 nella 
ricordatione , saluo 3 C he'l sommo dano, 
cioe la morte, che uccide essa ricordatione 
Isieme scolla vita. 


Every evil leaves behind a grief in our 
memory, except the supreme evil, that is 
death, which destroys this memory together 
with life. 

C. A. 


HO dormiete checosa e sonno? jl sono 

HOW to a similitudine colla morte; O perche non 

(6s-i i%. fai adunque tale opera, che dopo la morte 

2 tu abbi similitudine di perfetto viuo, che 

uiuendo farsi col sonno simile ai tristi 


O sleepers! what a thing is slumber! 
Sleep resembles death. Ah why then dost 
thou not work in such wise as that after 
death thou mayst retain a resemblance to 
perfect life, when, during life, thou art in 
sleep so like to the hapless dead? 

G. Bga] 

L'un caccia I'al 2 tro. 
3 Per questi quadretti 4 s' in- 
tende la uita s e li studi umani. 



One pushes down the other. 

By these square-blocks are 
meant the life and the studies 
of men. 

. A. 365 ; 


ULa cognitio del tepo preterite 2 e del 
sito della terra e orna^meto e cibo delle 

The knowledge of past times and of the 
places on the earth is both an ornament and 
nutriment to the human mind. 

Mz._8fl (12) 


E di tato vilipedio la bugia, che s'ella 
dicesse bene gia 2 cose di Dio, ella toglie 
gratia a sua deita, ed e di tata eccelle^tia 
la uerita, che s'ella laudasse cose minime 
elle si fano nobili; 

Sanza dubbio tal proportione e dalla 
verita alia bugia, quat e s dalla luce alle 
tenebre, ed e essa verita in se di tanta 
eccelle 6 tia che, ancora ch'ella s'estenda 
sopra vmili e basse materie, 7 sanza compa- 
ratione ella eccede le incertezze e bugie 

To lie is so vile, that even if it were in 
speaking well of godly things it would take off 
something from God's grace; and Truth is so 
excellent, that if it praises but small things 
they become noble. 

Beyond a doubt truth bears the same 
relation to falsehood as light to darkness; 
and this truth is in itself so excellent that, 
even when it dwells on humble and lowly- 
matters, it is still infinitely above uncer- 
tainty and lies, disguised in high and 

1164. . dav lasscia disspiacere. 3. some. 4. viede. 

1165. . chosa . . assimilitudine cholla. 2. abi . . chol sono. 1166. 5. elli. 

1167. . chognitio. 3. eccibo . . vraa"ne". 

1168. . cde di . . chcssella dicessi. 2. dio ella to di gratia assua. 3. chessella laldassi. 5. verita "in se" di. 6. anchora 
astende. 7. comperatione ellaccede . . esstese. 8. pra [le altissime] li . . disscorsi. 9. nosstra anchora. 10. no resta . . 

1165. Compare No. 676, Vol. I. p. 353. 




estese so 8 pra li magni e altissimi discorsi, 
perche la me9te nostra, ancora ch'ell'abbia 

la bugia pel quito elemeto, I0 non resta pero 
, , & -4.V j 11 - - i- 

che la venta delle cose no sia di sommo 

no"trimento delli intelletti fini, ma non di 
uaga I2 bundi ingegni; 

13 Ma tu che ^viui di sogni, j sti pia- 
ciono piu le l6 ragioni soffistiche I7 e barerie 
de' l8 pallaji nelle ^cose gradi 20 e incerte, 
che 2I le certe 22 naturali e 2 3no di tata al- 
2< *tura. 

lofty discourses; because in our minds, 

even if lying should be their fifth element, 

f i- . ., . ,, ., ri ,. 

tn is does not prevent that the truth of things 


1S the chief nut nment of supenor intellects, 

though not of wandering wits. 

But you who live in dreams are better 
pleased by the sophistical reasons and frauds 
of wits in great and uncertain things, than 
by those reasons which are certain and natural 
and not so far above us. 

S. K. M. III. 36^5) 


rT; : 'Fuggi quello -studio del quale 2 la re- 
sultante opera more insie^me coll' operante 
d' essa. 

Avoid studies of which the result dies with 
the worker. 

C. A. 75,1; 2i 9 a] 


A torto si lameta li omini della fuga 
del tenpo, 2 incolpando quello di troppa 
velocita, no s'accorgiedo 3 quello essere di 
bastevole trasito, mabona me^moria-, di che 
la natura ci a dotati, ci fa che Sogni cosa 
lungamete passata ci pare essere presente. 

Men are in error when they lament the 
flight of time, accusing it of being too swift, 
and not perceiving that it is sufficient as it 
passes; but good memory, with which nature 
has endowed us, causes things long past to 
seem present. 

C. A. iiirt; 34S] 

Acquista cosa nella tua giovetu 2 arresta 
il danno della tua ve 3 cchiezza; ^esetu in- 
tedi 5 la vechiezza aver per suo cibo la sa- 
6 pietia, adoperati in tal modo in giove^tu 
che tal uecchiezza no machi il nu 8 trimeto. 

Learning acquired in youth arrests the 
evil of old age; and if you understand that 
old age has wisdom for its food, you will so 
conduct yourself in youth that your old age 
will not lack for nourishment. 

C. A. 223 ; 671,5] 


IfL'acquisto di qualuche cognitione 2 e The acquisition of any knowledge is 

sepre vtile allo intelletto , perche potra always of use to the intellect, because it may 

3 scacciare da se le cose inutili e riserva- thus drive out useless things and retain 

4 re le buone;H the good. 

5 H perche nessuna cosa si puo amare ne For nothing can be loved or hated unless 

odiare, 6 se prima no sia cognitio di quella.H it is first known. 

Tr. 32] 


TISiccome vna giornata- bene spesa da As a day well spent procures a happy 

lieto dormire, cosl vna vita bene vsata da sleep, so a life well employed procures a 
lieto morire.H happy death. 

chella . . chose . . somo. 12. ingegni ingeni. 13. mattu. 15. piace. 16. rag5 soffistice. 18. palari. 21. delle certe. 

1169. 3. choll. 

1170. 2. incholpando . . tropa . . sachorgiedo. 4. ci fa [parere] "che". 5. chosa. 

1171. i. chosa . . goventu. 2. cheresta il. 3. chieza [ovr o chettu masstulli la tu]. 4. [a vechiezzaj essettu. 6. gove. 
7. chettal vecheza. 

1178. i. chognitione. 3. schacciare dasse le chose inutile. 4. re le. 5. chosa. 6. chognitiS. 
1173. i. sicchome . . dallieto. 




Tr. 68) 


L'acqua che tochi de' fivmi, e 1' ultima 
di quella che add, e la prima J di quelle 
che viene; cosl il tepo *presete; 

s La vita bene spesa lunga e. 

The water you touch in a river is the last 
of that which has passed, and the first of that 
which is coming. Thus it is with time present. 

Life if well spent, is long. 

w. xii.j 


Siccome magiare sanza voglia si couerte 
2 1 fastidioso notrimento , cosl lo studio 
sa-Jza desiderio guasta la 4 memoria, col s no 
ritenere cosa ch'ella pigli. 

Just as food eaten without caring for it 
is turned into loathsome nourishment, so 
study without a taste for it spoils memory, 
by retaining nothing which it has taken in. 

Ash. I. 


Siccome il mangiare sanza voglia fia 
darioso alia salute , 2 cosl lo studio sanza 

desiderio guasta 
cosa ch'ella pigli. 

la memoria, e no ritie 

Just as eating against one's will is inju- 
rious to health, so study without a liking for 
it spoils the memory, and it retains nothing 
it takes in. 

C. A. 284*; 865*5) 


! efa- 

Ti ghiacciano le parole in bocca, 
resti gielatina I Mogibello; 

J Siccome il ferro s'arruginiscie sanza 
*esercitio, e 1'acqua si putrefa e nel freddo 
5 s'agghiaccia , cosl 1'ingiegnio sanza e 6 ser- 
citio si guasta; 

7 Mai fai se lodi -, e peggio se tu ripredi 
8 la cosa , quado bene tu no la intedi; 

9 Quado fortuna vie, predi 1'a ma 
salua I0 dinati, perche retro -e- calua. 

On Mount Etna the words freeze in 
your mouth and you may make ice of 
them [2]. 

Just as iron rusts unless it is used, and 
water putrifies or, in cold, turns to ice, so 
our intellect spoils unless it is kept in use. 

You do ill if you praise, and still 
worse if you reprove in a matter you do 
not understand. 

When Fortune comes, seize her in front 
with a sure hand, because behind she is bald. 

W. An. II. 203 a] (24) 


No mi ! pare che li omini grossi e di 
Hristi costumi e di poco discorso meritino 
si bello stru^meto, ne tanta varieta di ma- 
chinameti quanto li omini speculatiui e *di 
gra discorsi, ma solo vn sacco doue si ri- 

It seems to me that men of coarse and 
clumsy habits and of small knowledge do not 
deserve such fine instruments nor so great a 
variety of natural mechanism as men of spe- 
culation and of great knowledge; but merely a 

1174. i. chettochi. 2. ado ella. 3. quelli. 

1175. i. sichome . . chouerte. 2. losstudio. 3. za [disspositione] desiderio quassia. 4. memoria [chol no pigliare alchuua]. 5. e 
no ritenere chosa chclla pigli. 

1176. i. sichome . . voglia [da danno] fia. 2. chosi losstudio . . chosa. 

1177. x. diaciano . . bocha. 2. cfiaresti. 3. si chomc il fero sa . ruginissce. 4. ellacq"a" . . fredo. 5. sagiacia chosi. 7. pegio 
istu. 8. nolantecli. 10. dinatico . perche reto e chalua. 

1178. i. chelli . . grosi. 2. trissti chorstumi "e di pocho disscorso" meritino. 3. nettanta . . spechulatiui e di. 4. disscorsi. 

1177* i. 2. There is no clue to explain this strange sentence. 




ceua il cibo, e donde esso s esca, che in vero 
altro che un transito di cibo non so da 
essere giudicati, 6 perche niente mi pare che 
essi participino di spetie vmana altro, che 
la voce 7 e la figvra, e tutto il resto e as- 
sai manco che bestia. 

sack in which their food may be stowed and 
whence it may issue, since they cannot be 
judged to be any thing else than vehicles 
for food; for it seems to me they have 
nothing about them of the human species 
but the voice and the figure, and for all the 
rest are much below beasts. 

S. K. M. III. 17*] 


Ecco alcuni che non altramente che 
tra 2 sito di cibo e avmetatori di stereo e 
rienpitori di destri chiamarsi debono, per- 
che per 4 loro non altro nel modo o pure 
alcuna virtu in opera si 5 mette, perche di 
oro altro 6 che pieni destri non resta. 

Some there are who are nothing else than 
a passage for food and augmentors of excrement 
and fillers of privies, because through them 
no other things in the world, nor any good 
effects are produced, since nothing but full 
privies results from them. 

C. A. 153 6; 455*1 


II massimo ingano delli omini 2 e nelle 
loro oppinioni. 

The greatest- deception men suffer is n fo ih- 

.. . . . r ness and 

from their own opinions. ignorance 


Tr. 56] 


La stoltitia e scudo della vergognia, come 
la improtitudine 2 della poverta glorificata. 

Folly is the shield of shame, as 
readiness is that of poverty glorified. 




La ciecca ignioraza cosl ci coduce 2 co 
effetto de' lascivi sollazzi 

3 f per no conosciere la uera luce. 

4 (per no conosciere qual sia la uera luce. 
sE'l uano splendor ci toglie 1'esser 

6 ....;11vedi che per lo splendor nel fuoco 
andiamo, 8 come ciecca jgnoraza ci co- 

10 O miseri mortali aprite li occhi. 

Blind ignorance misleads us thus and 
delights with the results of lascivious joys. 

jBecause it does not know the true light. 

(Because it does not know what is the true 


Vain splendour takes from us the power 
of being .... behold! for its vain splendour 
we go into the fire, thus blind ignorance does 
mislead us. That is, blind ignorance so mis- 
leads us that . . . 

O ! wretched mortals, open your eyes. 

Ash. I. i a] 


No si dimada richezza quello che si 
puo perdere; 2 la uirtu e vero nostro bene 
ed e vero premio 3 del suo possessore ; lei 
no si puo perdere -, lei 4 no ci abandona , 

That is not riches, which may be lost;, ^ 
virtue is our true good and the true reward 
of its possessor. That cannot be lost; that 
never deserts us, but when life leaves us.^jAs 

5. sacho [da cibo] doue. 6. essca . . gudicati. 7. chella voce. 18. ella . . ettutto erresto . . mancho che besstia. 

1179. i. ecci . . che altro chettra. 3. cho [ "e rienpitori di desstri" chiamarsi. 4. loro | "altro nel modo o pure" alchuna. 

6. pieni e desstr. 

1180. 2. he nelloro oppennione. 

1181. i. esschudo . . chome. 2. grorifichato. 

n8a. i. ciccha . . chosi ci choduce. 2. e cho . . lasscivi sollazzi. 3. chonossciere. 4. chonossciere. 6. b \\\\ ^f vedi fucho an- 

diano. 7. II ciecha Ignoraza . . intal modo choduce. 8. coe chome ciecha jgnioraza ci choduce. 9. che. 
1183. i. richeza . . chessi. 4. lasscia. 5. elle esterne. 6. isspeso lassciano choniscorno. 7. essbeffato iloro. 




se prima la uita no ci lascia; Me robe e le to property and external riches, hold them 

esterne diuitie senpre le tieni 6 co timore; with trembling; they often leave their 

spesso lasciano con scorno ?e sbeffato il loro possessor in contempt, and mocked at for 

possessore perdedo lor possessione. having lost them. 

F. 96*) 


Ogni omo desidera far capitale per 
3 dare a medici destruttori di uite, aduque 
debono essere richi; 

J L' uomo a grande discorso, del quale la 

Every man wishes to make money to 
give it to the doctors, destroyers of life; 
they then ought to be rich [2]. 

Man has much power of discourse which 

piu parte 4 e vana e falsa, li animali 1'anno for the most part is vain and false; animals 
piccolo, ma e vtiMe e vero, e meglio e la have but little, but it is useful and true, 

piccola certezza che la gra 6 bugia. 

and a small truth is better than a great lie. 

C. A. I08J; 338*] "5 

Chi piv possiede piv debbe 2 temere di He who possesses most must be most 

no perdere. afraid of loss. 



Chi uuole essere ricco in v dl 2 e impic- He who wishes to be rich in a day will 

cato in vn anno. be hanged in a year. 

S. K. M. HI. 77 a] 


E questo uomo a vna somma 2 pazzia That man is of supreme folly who always 

cioe che sepre steta per 3non stetare, e la wants for fear of wanting; and his life flies 

uita a lui * fugie sotto speraza di gode s re i away while he is still hoping to enjoy the good 

beni con somma fatica ac 6 quistati. things which he has with extreme labour acquired. 



Se tu avessi il corpo secodo la virtu , If you governed your body by the rules 

of virtue you would not walk on all fours 
in this world. 

cresci I reputatione come il pane Y ou grow in reputation like bread in the 

I mano a' putti. hands of a child. 

Rules of tu . no carpesti 2 in questo modo ; 



Tr. 2] 

Saluatico e quel che si salua. 


Savage he is who saves himself 

1184. 2. medici "destruttori di iute" aduque . . esse. 4. picholo. 5. verso . . ella pichola certeza. 

1185. i. ci piv posiede. 2. no. 

1186. i. richo nvdi. 2. empichato nvn. 

1187. i. uomo . . soma. 2. pazia . . chessepre. 3. istctare ella uita seli. 5. soma faticha a. 6. quisslati 

1188. i. settn . . capresti. 3. cressci. 

1184. 2. Compare No. 856. 

n88. The first sentence is obscure. Compare Nos. 825. 826. 

1190 II94-] 



E. 31 J] "90. 

Non si debbe desiderare lo inpossibile. We ought not to desire the impossible. 

H.3 706] 


Dimada cosiglio a chi be si corregge; 

2 Givstitia vuol potetia, intellige3tia e 
volonta, e si assomi^glia al re delle api; 

s Chi no puniscie il male, co 6 mada che 
si facci; 

7 Chi piglia la biscia per la coda 8 quella 
poi lo morde; 

9 Chi cava la fossa, quella I0 gli ruina 

Ask counsel of him who rules himself well. 
"Justice requires power, insight, and will; 
and it resembles the queen-bee. 

He who does not punish evil commands 
it to be done. 

He who takes the snake by the tail will 
presently be bitten by it. 

The grave will fall in upon him who 
digs it. 



1 Chi no rafrena la uolutta , colle bestie 
2 s' acopagni ; 

3 No si puo avere maggior ne minor 
signio^ria che quella di se medesimo; 

s Chi poco pesa, molto erra; 

6 Piu facilmete si cotesta al pricipio, 
7 che al fine; 

8 Nessuno cosiglio e piv leale che 9 quello 
che si da alle navr che so I0 no in pericolo; 
"Aspetti danno quel che si regie per I2 gio- 
vane sconsigliato. 

The man who does not restrain wantonness, 
allies himself with beasts. 

Yon can have no dominion greater or less 
than that over yourself. 

He who thinks little, errs much. 

It is easier to contend with evil at the 
first than at the last. 

No counsel is more loyal than that given 
on ships which are in peril: He may expect 
loss who acts on the advice of an inex- 
perienced youth. 

r. 39) 


Dov' e piv sentimeto, 11 e piv martirio ; Where there is most feeling, there is the 

gra martire. greatest martyrdom; a great martyr. 

H.I 166] 


La memoria de' benifitj apres 2 so Pigra- The memory of benefits is a frail de- 

titudine e fragile; fence against ingratitude. 

3 Repredi 1' amico I segre^to , e laudalo Reprove your friend in secret and praise 

I paleso; him openly. 

s Non essere bugiardo del 6 preterite. Be not false about the past. 

1190. i. debba. 

1191. i-ioR. i. ach be si corege. 2. vol. 3. essi. 4. gia are delleave. 5. punisscie. 9. cicava. 10. glruina. 

1193. i 12 R. i. cholle. 3. po . . magior. 5. ci poco. 6. a pricipio. 8. nesuno chosiglio. 9. chessi da dalle. 10. pericholo. 

ii. dano. 12. giovane scosiglo. 
1193. piv ne martiri. 1194. i 6 R. i. benifiti apre. 4. ellaldalo. Two Knes between I. 4 and I. 5 are effaced. 

1190. The writing of this note, which is exceedingly minute, is reproduced in facsimile on PI. XLI 
No. 5 above the first diagram- 
VOL. U. 





C. A. 115*; 357*1 " 95> 


2 La patietia fa cotra alle ingiurie non 
altrameti che si faccino i panni 3 contra del 
freddo, jnperoche se ti mvltiplicherai li 
pahi secondo la mvbtiplicatione del fred- 
do , esso freddo nocere no potrk ; simil- 
mete alle 5 gradi ingivrie cresci la patietia, 
e esse ingiurie offendere no ti po 6 tranno 
la tua mete. 


Patience serves us against insults precisely 
as clothes do against the cold. For if you 
multiply your garments as the cold' increases, 
that cold cannot hurt you; in the same way 
increase your patience under great offences, 
and they cannot hurt your feelings. 

S. K. M. II.2 240] 


Tanto e a dire be d'u tristo, 2 quanto To speak well of a base man is much 

a dire male d'u bono. the same as speaking ill of a good man. 

H.2 12,*] 


La invidia offede colla fitta 2 infamia, Envy wounds with false accusations, that 

cioe col detrarre, 3 la qual cosa spaveta la is with detraction, a thing which scares 
virtu. virtue. 

L. o-J 


Decipimurvotisettemporefallimuretmos We are deceived by promises and time 

2 deridet curas; anxia vita nihil. disappoints us [2] . . . 



ILa pavra nascie piv tosto 2 che altra 
cosa. 1 

Fear arises sooner than any thing else. 

C. A. 75 J; 


Siccome 1'animosita e pericolo di uita 
cosl la paura-e sicurita di quella; 

2 Le minaccie sol sono 3 a rme dello 

Just as courage imperils life, fear pro- 

tects it. 

Threats alone are the weapons of the threa- 
tened man. 

* H Dov' entra la uetura, la invidia vi Wherever good fortune enters, envy lays 

pone lo assedio e lo cobatte, e dond'ella si siege to the place and attacks it; and when 
parte, vi lascia il dolore e petimeto; it departs, sorrow and repentance remain 


5 URaro cade chi ben camina; He who walks straight rarely falls. 

1195. 2. allengiurie : altremeti . . chessi. 3. fredo jnpero chessetti . . sechondo. 4. esso fredo. 5. grade . . cressci . . essa ingiuria. 

1196. . trissto. 

1197. 3 R. i. lanvidia . . cholla. 2. chol. 3. spavete. 

1198. . et mos. 2. nhil. 

1199. 2 R. i. nasscic. 2. chosa. 

1200. . sichome . . pericholo . . chosi . . sichurita. 3. iminacciato. 4. lanvidia . . essedio ello chobatte E . . lasscia il "dolore 
he" pietimcto. 5. chade . . chamina. 6. laldi e pegio . . chosa dicho . . tu nolla. 7.. laldi e pegio is tu . . tu nollatcdi. 

1198. 2. The rest of this passage may be rendered in various ways, but none of them give a satis- 
factory meaning. 

1201 1203-] 



6 U Mai' e se laudi e peggio se ripredi la 
cosa, dico se bene tu non la intedi; 

7lMal fai se laudi e peggio se tu ri- 
predi la cosa quado bene tu non la 

It is bad if you praise, and worse if you 
reprove a thing, I mean, if you do not under- 
stand the matter well. 

It is ill to praise, and worse to reprimand 
in matters that you do not understand. 



Senpre le parole che no soddisfano 
alPorechio dello , 2 auditore, li danno tedio 
over rincrescimeto, e'l segnio di 3 ci6 vedrai, 
spesse uolte tali auditori essere ^copiosi di 
sbadigli; adduque tu, che parli dinati a 
omini s di chi tu cierchi benivoletia, quado 
tu vedi tali pro 6 digi di ricrescimeto, abre- 
uia il tuo parlare, o tu mu 7 ta ragionameto, 
e se tu altrameti farai, allora in Io 8 co della 
desiderata gratia tu acquisterai odio 9e 

10 E se vuoi vedere di queFche vn si 
diletta sanza u^dirlo parlare, parla a lui 
mutado diuersi ragio I2 nameti, e quel dove 
tu lo vedi stare inteto sanza I3 sbadiglia- 
meti o storcimeti di ciglia o altre varie 
J 4azione, sia cierto che quella cosa, di che 
si parla, ^e quella di che lui si diletta, ecc. 

Words which do not satisfy the ear of 
the hearer weary him or vex him, and the 
symptoms of this you will often see in such 
hearers in their frequent yawns; you there- 
fore, who speak before men whose good will 
you desire, when you see such an excess of 
fatigue, abridge your speech, or change your 
discourse; and if you do otherwise, then 
instead of the favour you desire, you will 
get dislike and hostility. 

And if you would see in what a man 
takes pleasure, without hearing him speak, 
change the subject of your discourse in talk- 
ing to him, and when you presently se.e him 
intent, without yawning or wrinkling his 
brow or other actions of various kinds, you 
may be certain that the matter of which you 
are speaking is such as is agreeable to him &c. 

Tr. n] 


Mvouesi 1'amante per la cosa amata 
come il senso e lo sensibile, e co seco 
s'uniscie 2 e fassi vna cosa medesima; 
3 1' opera e la prima cosa che nasce dal- 
1' unione ; 4 se la cosa amata e vile , 1' amate 
si fa vile; 

s Quando la cosa " vnita e coueniete al 
suo 6 vnitore , li seguita dilettatione e pia- 
cere e soddisfatione; 

7 Quado F amate e givto all' amato, 11 si 
riposa; 8 quado il peso e posato 11 si 

The lover is moved by the beloved 
object as the senses are by sensible objects; 
and they unite and become one and the 
same thing. The work is the first thing 
born of this union; if the thing loved is 
base the lover becomes base. 

When the thing taken into union is per- 
fectly adapted to that which receives it, the 
result is delight and pleasure and satisfaction. 

When that which loves is united to the 
thing beloved it can rest there; when the 
burden is laid down it finds rest there. 

C. A. 64 ; 1971?] 


La prima fama si fa etterna insieme 
colli abitatori 2 della citta da lui edificata 
o accresciuta; 

There will be eternal fame also for the Politics 
inhabitants of that town, constructed and (l2 3 ' I2 4) ' 
enlarged by him. 

laoi. i. saddisfano. 2. alditore . . rincresscimeto. 3. uolte [alii] ttali vlditore. 4. chopiosi di sbavigli, 6. ricresscimeto . . ottu. 

7. essettu altremeti . . allora illo. 8. cho. 9. ennimicitia. 10. Esse voi . . sanza vl. n. allui. 12. ecquel . . tullo. 

13. sbadigliameti osstorcimeti. 14. azione . . di chessi. 15. ecquella . . lui si di che lui si diletta. 
H02. i. lamata per la cosamato . . senso ella sensibbile e chosecho. 2. effassi. 3. ella . . chosa . . nasscie dell. 4. sella. 

5. chosa . . choueniete . . essadisfatione. 8. li si riposato. 9. la cosasa chogni usscivta chol nostro intelletto. 
1203. 2. dallui . . acressciuta. 3. obbedisscano esso mossi . . collogano co signiori "e costringano. 4. sagvinita . . roba sang- 

1203. These notes were possibly written in preparation for a letter. The meaning is obscure. 


[I20 4 . 

JTutti i popoli obbediscono e so mossi 
da lor magniati , e essi magniati si colle- 
gano e costringono coi signori * per 2 vie : 
o per sanguinitk , o per roba : sangui- 
nita, quado i lor figlioli sono a similitudine 
sdi statichi; sicurta & pegnio della lor dubi- 
tata fede; roba, quado tu farai a ciascQ 
d'essi 6 murare vna casa o 2 dentro alia tua 
citta, della quale lui ne tragga qual7ch'en- 
trate e trarra . . . 10 citta cinque mila 
case co trenta 8 mila abitatori , e digregerai 
tanta cogregatione di popolo che a simili- 
tudine di capre Pu 'adosso all' altro stanno, 
epiedo ogni parte di fetore e si fanno se- 
meza di pestilete I0 morte; 

"E la citta si fa di bellezza copagnia 
del suo nome e a te vtile di dati e fama 
etterna del suo crescimeto. 

All communities obey and are led by their 
magnates, and these magnates ally themselves 
with the lords and subjugate them in two ways: 
either by consanguinity, or by fortune; by con- 
sanguinity, when their children are, as it were, 
hostages, and a security and pledge of their 
suspected fidelity; by property, when you make 
each of these build a house or two inside your 
city which may yield some revenue and 
he shall have . . . ; 10 towns, five thousand 
houses with thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
you will disperse this great congregation of 
people which stand like goats one behind- 
the other, filling every place with fetid smells 
and sowing seeds of pestilence and death; 

And the city will gain beauty worthy of 
its name and to you it will be useful by 
its revenues, and the eternal fame of its 

Ash. II. 130] 


Per matenere il dono pricipal 2 di natura 
cioe liberta, trovo modo 3 da offedere e 
difedere state assediati ^dali abitiosi tirani, 
e prima dir6 del sisto mvrale, e acora 
per che i popoli possino 6 matenere i loro 
boni e giusti signiori. 

To preserve Nature's chiefest boon, that 
is freedom, I can find means of offence and 
defence, when it is assailed by ambitious 
tyrants, and first I will speak of the situation of 
the walls, and also I shall show how commu- 
nities can maintain their good and just Lords. 

uinatri sanguinita . . assimilitudine. 5. tufiarai aciasscu. 6. casa [de] 02.. traga. 7. ettrrarra t br 10 citta . . mila casse. 
8. edigregierai tanto . . assimilitudine. 9. allalstano . . oni . . fetore si fano . . pessilete. n. ella . . atte . . dati effaraa 
. . cresscimeto. 
1204. t. Istado assediati. 

1204. Compare No. 1266. 



G. 47 ] 


O speculatore de! 2 le cose, no ti laudare 
^di conosciere le cose 4 che ordinariameste 
per se medesima la 6 natura 7 conduce; 8 Ma 
rallegrati di co 9 nosciere il fine I0 di quelle 
cose che "son disegniate dalla I2 mete tua. 

Oh! speculators on things, boast not of Against 
knowing the things that nature ordinarily (I 2 e 5 cul j2o6 
brings about; but rejoice if you know the 
end of those things which you yourself 

S, K. M. II.2 


O speculator! dello continvo moto, 
qua*ti vani disegni in simile cerca avete 
creati! 3 accopagniatevi colli cercatori del- 

Oh! speculators on perpetual motion how 
many vain projects of the like character you 
have created ! Go and be the companions 
of the searchers for gold. 

C. A. 75 b; 219 b\ 


J bugiardi interpret! di natura affermano 
P argieto viuo essere comvne semeza a tutti 
i metalli , no si ricordado che la 2 natura 
varia le semeze secodo la diuersita delle 
cose che essa vole produrre al modo. 

The false interpreters of nature declare Against 
that quicksilver is the common seed of every (faoyf^os 
metal , not remembering that nature varies 
the seed according to the variety of the things 
she desires to produce in the world. 

1205. i. hosspechulatori. 2. chose . . laldare. 3. conossciere. 6. per sua [natu] "[ordine]". 7. [ralmete] chonducie. 8. dicho. 

9. nossciere. 10. chose. 

I4o6. i. spechulatori. 2. ciercha ave creati. 3. acopagniatevi . . cierchator. 
1207. i. interpe'tri . . chomvne . . attutti . . richordado chella. 2. sechodo . . chose . . produre. 

I2O6. Another short passage in MS. I, referring pretl tra la natura e Porno, ma sol di quelli che non coi 

also to speculators, is given by LIBRI (Hist, des Sciences cienni della natura , ma cogli effetti delle sue esperienze 

math. Ill, 228): Sicche voi speculators non vi fidate delli anno esercitati i loro ingegni. 
autori che anno sol col immaginatione volute farsi inter- 






E molti 2 fecero bot^tega con I'ganni e 
smiraculi 6 finti, ingan?nado la sto 8 lta molti- 

And many have made a trade of de- 
lusions and false miracles, deceiving the stupid 

\. : . .,1 

Tr. 68] 

UFarisei-, frati santi vol dire.U 


Pharisees that is to say, friars. 

'* of 

W. An. III. 241] 

I abbreuiatori delle opere fanno ingiu- 
ria 2 alla cognitione e allo amore, 3 con- 
ciosiache 1' amore di qualuche cosa e figli- 
uolo 4 d'essa cognitione; 1' amore s e tanto 
piu feruete, quanto la 6 cognitione e piu 
certa, la qual 7 certezza nascie dalla cogni- 
tione 8 integrale di tutte quelle par9ti le 
quali, essendo insieme vnite, I0 conpongono 
il tutto di quelle co ir se che debbono essere 
amate; 12 che vale a quel, che per abbre- 
uiare I3 le parti di quelle cose che lui fa 
^professione di darne integral no I5 titia, 
che lui lascia indietro la l6 maggior parte 
delle cose, di che il tutto ''e coposto? 


Abbreviators do harm to knowledge 
and to love, seeing that .the love of any 
thing is the offspring of this knowledge, 
the love being the more fervent in pro- 
portion as the knowledge is more certain. 
And this certainty is born of a complete 
knowledge of all the .parts, which, when com- 
bined, compose the totality of the thing which 
ought to be loved. Of what use then is he who 
abridges the details of those matters of which he 
professes to give thorough information, while 
he leaves behind the chief part of the things 
of which the whole is composed? It is true 
that impatience, the mother of stupidity, 

egli e vero che la inpa l8 tientia, madre della praises brevity, as if such persons had not 

^.4-s-tlt4-t A /-ii i<alQl 1 a r*li IQ i irio 1 o r\r"#*i nl*a li fip 1r*r nr ATI/MI rrh fr* cot-wA fKr f s\ ormnt-o 

stoltitia, e que^lla che lauda la breuita; 
come se 20 questi tali non avessino tato di 
uita, 2I ch'elli seruisse a potere avere vna 
"intera notitia d'un sol particulare co^me 
e vn corpo vmano! e poi vogli 24 ono ab- 
bracciare la mete di dio nella 2 5quale s'in- 
clude 1' universe cara 26 tando e minuzzando 
quella in ifinite 2 7 parti, come se 1' avessino a 

28 O stoltitia vmana no 2 9favedi tu che 
tu sei stato con teco 3tutta la tua eta, e 
non ai ancora 3I notitia di quella cosa che 
tu piu possie 32 di, cioe della tua pazzia? e 
vuoi po 33 i colla moltitudine de' soffi stichi 
ingannare 3 *te e altri, sprezzando le mate- 
matiche scie^zie, nelle qual si contiene la 
uerita, no 36 titia delle cose che in lor si cote- 
gono; e vuoi 37p O i scorrere ne' miracoli e 
scrivere ch' ai 3S notitia di quelle cose, di 
che la mete vmana 39 non e capace, e non 
si possono dimostrare per ne 4 ssuno esenplo 
naturale, e ti pare avere ^fatto miraculi, 

life long enough to serve them to acquire 
a complete knowledge of one single subject, 
such as the human body; and then they want 
to comprehend the mind of God in which 
the universe is included, weighing it minutely 
and mincing it into infinite parts, as if they 
had to dissect it! 

Oh! human stupidity, do you not per- 
ceive that, though you have been with yourself 
all your life, you are not yet aware of 
the thing you possess most of, that is of 
your folly? and then, with the crowd of so- 
phists, you deceive yourselves and others, 
despising the mathematical sciences, in which 
truth dwells and the knowledge of the things 
included in them. And then you occupy 
yourself with miracles, and write that you 
possess information of those things of 
which the human mind is incapable and 
which cannot be proved by any instance from 
nature. And you fancy you have wrought 
miracles when you spoil a work of some 

laoS. 2. fece hot. 6. inga. 10. ne sasi foperia cognoscitore de loro ingani essigli poniano. 

laio. i. abreuiatori . . opre . f . fanno ingiuia. 2. cognitione [concosia che] e allo. 3. concosia chellamore . . effilol. 4. ella 
(cogni] .more. 5. ettanto. 7. feruede certeza nasscie. 8. i integrate . . pa. 9. te le. 10. conpongano . . quella. it. sa che. 
12. abreuiare. 13. parte. 15. chellui lassci indirieto. 16. magor. 17. chella. 19. chellalda . . chomesse. 21. chclli ser- 
uissi. 22. da "sol" parlicutare. 24. ano abracciare . . nelle. 26. minvzando. 27. parte . . lavessino anatomizare. 28. (e 
delle chose che] o. 29. tu [chett] chettu se. 31. chettu. 32. coe . . pazzia [vole] e volli. 33. i conila . . inganarc. 
34. splezando. 35. ze nella. 36. cotegano e voi. 39. posso. 40. naturale letti. 41. tu gnasto. 42. spcchulativo. 43. chettu. 

1209. Compare No. 837, 11. 5457, No. 1296 (p. 363 and 364), and No. 1305 (p. 370). 

1211. 1212.] 



quado tu ai quastato vna t z opera d'alcuno 
ingegnio speculative, e no t'avedi che tu 
cadi nel medesimo errore, 44 die fa quello 
che denuda la piata deH'orna45 m ento de' sua 
rami, pieni di fronde, miste co4 6 li odoriferi 
fiori o frutti, .... 4 8 come fece Giv^stino, 
abbreuiatore delle storie scritte da Trogo 
sP6peo, il quale scrisse ornatamente tutti 
S'H eccelleti fatti delli sua antichi, li quali 
e 52 ra pieni di mirabilissimi ornameti; e cos! 
53conpose vna cosa ignuda, ma sol degna 
d'ins^gegni inpatieti, li quali pare lor perder 
sstanto di tenpo, quato quello e che e ado- 
perato vtils 6 mete, cioe nelli studi delle opere 
di nature e delle 57 cose vmane; Ma stieno 
questi tali in conpa5 8 gnia delle bestie; Nelli 
lor cortigiani sieno cani e 59 i altri animali 
pie di rapina e accompagniansi 6o con loro 

correndo sempre dietro , e seguita- 

6l no 1' inoceti animali che co la fame alii 
tem 6z pi delle gra nevi ti uengono alle case, 
dimanda 6 3tori limosina come lor tutore. 

speculative mind, and do not perceive that 
you are falling into the same error as that 
of a man who strips a tree of the ornament 
of its branches covered with leaves mingled 

with the scented blossoms or fruit 

[48] as Justinus did, in abridging the histories 
written by Trogus Pompeius, who had 
written in an ornate style all the worthy 
deeds of his forefathers, full of the most 
admirable and ornamental passages; and so 
composed a bald work worthy only of 
those impatient spirits, who fancy they are 
losing as much time as that which they 
employ usefully in studying the works of 
nature and the deeds of men. But these 
may remain in company of beasts; among 
their associates should be dogs and other 
animals full of rapine and they may hunt 

with them after , and then follow helpless 

beasts, which in time of great snows come 
near to your houses 'asking! alms as from 
their master . 

C. A. 187 6; 562,?] 


O matematici fate lume a tale er 2 rore ! 

3Lo spirito non a voce, perche dov'e 
voce 4 e corpo, e dove e corpo e occupa- 
tio di lo s co, il quale inpediscie all'ochio il 
ue 6 dere delle cose poste dopo tale loco; 
?adunque tal corpo enpie di .se tutta 8 la 
circustante aria, cioe colle sua s^petie. 

O mathematicians shed light on this error. , On s P irits . 

, (12111213). 
The spirit has no voice, because where 

there is a voice there is a body, and where 
there is a body space is occupied, and this 
prevents the eye from seeing what is placed 
behind that space; hence the surrounding air 
is rilled by the body, that is by its image. 



No puo essere voce, dove non e movi- 
meto e percussione d'aria; 2 no puo essere 
percussione d'essa aria, doue non e stru- 
meto ; 3 no puo essere strumeto incorporeo ; 
esse^do cosl, vno spirito no puo avere ne 
voce ne forma ne forza, 5 e se pigliera 
corpo, non potra penetrare ne 6 entrare 
doue li usci sono serrati; 7 e se alcuno di- 
ciesse : per aria cogregata 8 e ristretta isieme 
lo spirito piglia i corpi 9 di uarie forme , e 

There can be no voice where there is no 
motion or percussion of the air; there can 
be no percussion of the air where there is 
no instrument, there can be no instrument 
without a body; and this being so, a spirit 
can have neither voice, nor form, nor strength. 
And if it were to assume a body it could 
not penetrate nor enter where the passages 
are closed. And if any one should say 
that by air, compressed and compacted 

44. cheffa. 45. misto. 46. offrutti sopra dimostra. 47. que en quella piata esser da fare [bene]. 48. di [molte] lun se 
tavole come fece givs. 49. abreuiatore . . da troc. 50. popeo il . . tuti. 51. eceletti. 53. inuda . . degnia di. 55. quel- 
loche. 56. coe . . dele. 57. questi. 58. cortigani sie. 59. a altri . . rapina e aconpagniasi. 60. senpre dirieto ach fuge. 
61. alii ten. 62. uengano . . casi. 63. lor tutore essnull here the text breaks off. 

mi. i. attale. 4. e do e corpo e ochupatio. 5. cho. 6. posste . . locho. 7. dal. 8. coe. 

1111. i. no po. 2. no po. 3. no po. 4. no po . . voce "| ne forma" ne forza. 5. esse. 6. sera "ti". 7. esse . . diciessi perr. 
8. chorpi. 9. quelo. 10. Acquesta . . dicho. n. none nerui e ossa non po. 12. operrata inessuno. 14. fugi. 15. isperieza. 

1210. 48. Givstino , Marcus Junianus Justinus, 
a Roman historian of the second century, who com- 
piled an epitome from the general history written 

by Trogus Pompeius, who lived in the time of 
Augustus. The work of the latter writer no longer 



per quello strumeto parla I0 e move co 
forza, a questa parte dico, M che doue non 
sono nerui e ossa, non pu6 esse I2 re forza- 
operata in nessuno movimeto '-Jfatto dagl' 
imaginati spiriti; 

M fuggi i precetti di quelli speculator!, 
che le loro 'Sragioni- no son confermate 
dalla spericza. 

together, a spirit may take bodies of 
various forms and by this means speak 
and move with strength to him I reply that 
when there are neither nerves nor bones 
there can be no force exercised in any kind 
of movement made by such imaginary spirits. 
Beware of the teaching of these specu- 
lators, because their reasoning is not conf 
med by experience. 

W. An. II. 242*5 (-N-)] 


Delli discorsi vmani stoltissimoeda essere 
riputato quello, il qual s'astcde a! 2 la credu- 
lita della negromatia, sorella della alchimia, 
partoritricie deWe cose senplici e naturali; 
Ma e tanto piu degnia di riprensione che 
P alchimia, quato ella non partorisce alcuna 
cosa se no simile a se, s cioe bugia; il che 
non interviene nella alchimia, la quale & 
ministra 6 tricie de' senplici prodotti della na- 
tura, il quale vfitio fatto esser no puo 1 da 
essa natura, perche in lei non sono stru- 
meti organici colli quali essa possa operare 
quel 8 che adopera Puomo mediante le 
mani, che in tale vfitio 9 a fatti i vetri 
ecc. ; ma essa negromatia, stendardo ovvero 
bandiera I0 volante, mossa dal ueto, e guida- 
tricie della stolta moltitudine, la quale "al 
continuo testimonia collo abbaiameto d'in- 
finiti effetti di tale I2 arte; e uano epiuti i 
libri, affermando che 1'incati e spiriti ado- 
perino ^e sanza lingua parlino, e sanza 
strumeti organici, saza i quali ^parlar no 
si puo, parlino, e portino gravissimi pesi, 
facino tepestare x s e piovere, e che li omini 
si covertino il gatte, lupi e altre bestie, 
I6 benche in bestia prima etra quelli che tal 
cosa afifermano; 

17 E cierto, se tale negromatia fusse in 
essere, come dalli bassi ingiegni e creduto, 
l8 nessuna cosa & sopra la terra che al 
danno e seruitio dell'orno fusse di tanta 
valitudine, perche se fus^se vero, che in tale 
arte si avesse potetia di far turbare la tra- 
quilla serenita dell' ari 20 a, convertendo quella 
in notturn aspetto, e far le corruscationi o 
venti con spa 2I vetevoli toni e folgori scorreti 
infra le tenebre, e con Ipetuosi venti ruinare 

Of all human opinions that is to 
reputed the most foolish which deals wit 
the belief in Necromancy, the sister of Al- 
chemy, which gives birth to simple and natura 
things. But it is all the more worthy of 
reprehension than alchemy, because it brinj 
forth nothing but what is like itself, 
is, lies; this does not happen in Alchemy 
which deals with simple products of natur 
and whose function cannot be exercised 
by nature itself, because it has no organic 
instruments with which it can work, 
men do by means of their hands, who have 
produced, for instance, glass &c. but this 
Necromancy the flag and flying banner, blov 
by the winds, is the guide of the stupic 
crowd which is constantly witness to the 
dazzling and endless effects of this art; and 
there are books full, declaring that enchant- 
ments and spirits can work and speak without 
tongues and without organic instruments - 
without which it is impossible to speak - 
and can carry heaviest weights and raise stor 
and rain; and that men can be turned into cats 
and wolves and other beasts, although indeed 
it is those who affirm these things who 
became beasts. 

And surely if this Necromancy did exist, 
as is believed by small wits, there 
nothing on the earth that would be of so 
much importance alike for the detriment and 
service of men, if it were true that there 
were in such an art a power to disturb the 
calm serenity of the air, converting it into 
darkness and making coruscations or winds, 
with terrific thunder and lightnings rushing 
through the darkness , and with violent 

1213. Above the text is the note: seguita quel che macha dirieto alia facia del pie. x. Ma dalli disscorsi . . essere [tenuto] "re 
putato" . . sasstede 2. archimia. 3. lie chose [naturali] senplici . . ettanto . . ripresi. 4. chellarchimia . . partorissce . . 
chosa . . asse. 5. (parole] "cioe bugia" il che none . . archimia . . e [vfit] minisstra. 6. dalla. 7. illei none . . orgha- 
nici [da potcr] "cholli quali" essa. &. lomo [il quale] mediante. 9. affatti e vetri . . stendar "do" over. 10. ueto guidatricie. 
ii. chontinuu e tesstimonia chollo. 12. epiute . . chellinchati esspiriti. 13. essanza . . essanza . . saza. 14. po . . tepesstare. . 
15. chelli . . ghattc. 16. che dattal chosa. 17. eccierto senate . . fussi . . chome. 18. chosa essopra . . al "danno e" 
seruitio . . fussi . . tanta [vtilita] "valitudine" perchesse fu. 19. si . . arte [fussi] si avessi . . turbare [laria] la. 2. chon- 
vertendo . . inotturnasspetto eflarle corrusscationi . . chon isspa. ax. effolgo"ri" . . infralle . . e chonni pctuosi. 22. dira- 




22 li alti edifiti, e diradicare le selue, e con 
quelle percuotere li eserciti, e quelli 2 3ron- 
pedo e atterrado, e oltr' a questo le dannose 
tenpeste, privando li cultori 2 ^del premio 
delle lor fatiche, o qual modo di guerra 
puo essere, che con tanto dan 2 5no possa 
offendere il suo nemico di aver potesta di 
privarlo delle sue raccolte? qual bat 26 taglia 
marittima puo essere che si assomigli a 
quella? dico lui che comada alii veti 2 ?e fa 
le fortune ruvinose e sommergitrici di qual- 
unche armata, cierto quel che 28 co mada 
a tali inpetuosi potetie sara signore delli 
popoli, e nessuno vma 2 9no ingiegnio potra 
resistere alle sue dannose forze; Li occulti 
tesori e 3giemme, riposte nel corpo della 
terra, fieno a costui tutti manifest!; nessun 
S'serrame o fortezza inespugnabili sara 
quelle che saluar possino a! 32 cuno sanza 
la voglia di tal negromate; Questo si fara 
portare per 1'aria dal^l'oriente all'occidete 
e per tutti li oppositi aspetti dell' universe ; 
Ma perche mi voglio piu oltre estendere? 
quale e quella cosa che per ta 35 le arteficie 
far no si possa? quasi nessuna, eccietto il 
levarsi la morte; ad3 6 dunque e concluso 
in parte- il danno e la vtilita che in tale 
arte si contiene, esse37do vera; e s'ella e 
vera, perche non e restata infra li omini 
che tanto la deside3 8 rano, non avedo riguardo 
a nessuna deita ? e so, che infiniti ce n'e, che 
per soddisfare 39 a vn suo appetite, ruine- 
rebbero Iddio co tutto 1' universe ; e s' ella 
non e rimasto infra 4 li omini, essendo a lui 
tanto neciessaria, essa no fu mai, ne mai 
e per dovere essere, 4I per la difinitio dello 
spirito, il quale e invisibile in corpo ; e 
dentro alii eleme 42 ti non sono cose incor- 
poree, perche doue non e corpo, e vacuo, 
e il uacuo no si da dentro alii elemeti, 
perche subito sarebbe dall'elemeto riepiuto; 
| volta carta. 

storms overthrowing high buildings and rooting 
up forests ; and thus to oppose armies, crushing 
and annihilating them; and, besides these 
frightful storms may deprive the peasants of 
the reward of their labours. Now what 
kind of warfare is there to hurt the enemy 
so much as to deprive him of the harvest? 
What naval warfare could be compared 
with this? I say, the man who has power 
to command the winds and to make ruinous 
gales by which any fleet may be sub- 
merged, surely a man who could com- 
mand such violent forces would be lord of 
the nations, and no human ingenuity could 
-resist his crushing force. The hidden trea- 
sures and gems reposing in the body of the 
earth would all be made manifest to him. 
No lock nor. fortress, though impregnable, 
would be able to save any one against 
the will of the necromancer. He would 
have himself carried through the air from 
East to West and through all the opposite 
sides of the universe. But why should I 
enlarge further upon this? What is there 
that could not be done by such a crafts- 
man? Almost nothing., except to escape 
death. Hereby I have explained in part 
the mischief and the usefulness, contained 
in this art, if it is real; and if it is real why 
has it not remained among men who desire it 
so much, having nothing to do with any deity? 
For I know that there are numberless people 
who would, to satisfy a whim, destroy God and 
all the universe; and if this necromancy, being, 
as it were, so necessary to men, has not been 
left among them, it can never have existed, 
nor will it ever exist according to the definition 
of the spirit, which is invisible in substance; 
for within the elements there are no incorpo- 
rate things, because where there is no body, 
there is a vacuum; and no vacuum can exist 
in the elements because it would be imme- 
diately filled up. Turn over. 

W. An. II. 242 a] 




2 Abiao insin qui dirieto a questa faccia We have said, on the other side of this 

detto, 3 come la difinitio dello spirito 4 e vna page, that the definition of a spirit is a 
potentia congiunta al corpo, perche per se power conjoined to a body; because it cannot 

dichare 1 piante "selue" e chon . . perchotere . . ecquelli. 23. oltradiquesto . . tenpesste . . chultori. 24. ghuerra po 
. . chon. 25. nemicho aver potessta . . richolte . . ba. 26. po . . chessi . . acquella dicho . . chomada. 27. effa . . 
essomergitrici. 28. chomada attali. 29. resisstere . . ocholti. 30. gieme . . chorpo . . achosstu . . nessu. 31. fortezza 
[chef] inepugr.abili . . chessalvar. 32. chuno. 33. lloriente . '. opositi asspetti. 34. mi voio piu oltre asslendendo . . chosa 
che pera. 36. choncluso "in parte" il ella . . chontiene. 37. essella . . none e resstata infralli . . chetta deside. 38. e'ssol 
che infiniti ciene . . saddisfare. 39. ruinerebono . . cho . . essella. 40. allui tanta (?) . . mai nemmai. 41. chorpo. 42. none 
chose inchorporee . . chorpo e vachuo . . vachuo. 

1314. 2. acquesta . . decto. 3. chome . . spirito [e vn ome noch]. 4. chongiunta. 5. alchuna . . lochale. 6. essettu . . reggha 

3 o6 


medesimo sreggiere no si pu6, ne pigliare 
alcuna sorte di moto locale, 6 e se tu dirai 
che per se si regga, questo essere non 
pud ?dentro alii elemeti, perche se lo spi- 
rito e quatita incor 8 porea, questa tal quan- 
tita e detta vacuo, e il ua^cuo non si da 
in natura; e dato che si desse, subito sa- 
I0 rebbe riempiuto dalla ruina di quello ele- 
mento nel "qual il uacuo si gienerasse; 
adunque per la difinition del pe I2 so che 
dicie, la grauita e vna potetia accidentale 
creata '3 d' alcuno elemento tirato o sospinto 
nelPaltro, seguita, che '^nessuno elemeto, 
non pesando nel medesimo elemeto, e' pe- 
'Jsa nell' elemeto superiore ch'e piu lieve- 
di lui; come si uede l6 la parte dell'acqua 
non a gravita o leuita piu che 1'altra 
'Jacqua, ma se tu la tirerai nell' aria, allora 
ella acqui :8 stera gravezza, e se tu tirerai 
Paria ^sotto 1'acqua, allora 1'acqua, che 
si trova sopra tale 20 aria, acquista gravezza, 
la qual gravezza per se sostener 2I non si 
pud, onde 11 e neciessario la ruina, e cosl 
cade infra "1'acqua in quel loco ch'e va- 
cuo d'essa acqua; tale ac^caderebbe nello 
spirito, stando infra li elemeti, che al 24 con- 
tinuo gienererebbe vacuo in quel tale elemeto, 
dove 25 lui si trovasse, per la qual cosa 11 
sarebbe neciessario la con 26 tinua fuga in- 
verso il cielo, insinche vscito fusse di tali 
2 ? elemeti. 


3Abbia provato, come lo spirito non 
puo per se stare infra li 3 'element! sanza 
corpo, ne per se si pu6 mouere per moto 
vo3 2 lontario, se non e allo in su; Ma al 
presente diremo co33me, pigliando corpo 
d'aria tale spirito, e necies 34 sario che s'in- 
fonda infra essa aria, perche, s'elli stesse 
vnito, 35 e ' sarebbe separate e caderebbe 
alia gieneratio del uacuo, 36 come di sopra 
e detto; addunque e neciessario che, a 
volere 37 r estare infra I'aria, che esso s'in- 
fonda in una quatita d'aria; e 3 8 se si mista 
coll' aria, elli seguita due inconvenienti, 
cioe 39 che elli leuifica quella quatita del- 
1'aria dove esso si mista, e 4 per la qual 
cosa I'aria leuificata per se uola in alto, 

move of its own accord, nor can it have any 
kind of motion in space; and if you were 
to say that it moves itself, this cannot be 
within the elements. For, if the spirit is an 
incorporeal quantity, this quantity is called a 
vacuum, and a vacuum does not exist in nature ; 
and granting that one were formed, it would 
be immediately filled up by the rushing in of 
the element in which the vacuum had been 
generated. Therefore, from the definition of 
weight, which is this Gravity is an accidental 
power, created by one element being drawn 
to or suspended in another it follows that 
an element, not weighing anything compared 
with itself, has weight in the element above 
it and lighter than it; as we see that the 
parts of water have no gravity or levity com- 
pared with other water, but if you draw it 
up into the air, then it would acquire weight, 
and if you were to draw the air beneath the 
water then the water which remains above 
this air would acquire weight, which weight 
could not sustain itself by itself, whence 
collapse is inevitable. And this happens in 
water; wherever the vacuum may be in this 
water it will fall in ; and this would happen with 
a spirit amid the elements, where it would con- 
tinuously generate a vacuum in whatever ele- 
ment it might find itself, whence it would be 
inevitable that it should be constantly flying to- 
wards the sky until it had quitted these elements. 


We have proved that a spirit cannot exist 
of itself amid the elements without a body, 
nor can it move of